Skip to main content

Full text of "The Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus: To which are Added Those of His Companions"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 




MEWYbiUc. n f riTKJiitMed 







G. P. PUTNAM AMD SON, 661 Broadway. 

OraogiTE Bond Sibket. 

Entennl according to Act of Congivss. in the year 1868, by 

G. P. PunfAM jctn 8oj(, 

Id the Clcrk'« Office of the Di^itrict Court for the Southern District of 

New York. 


» • 







Chai-. I. — ArTiv»l of the Ailmirol at iMbella. — Char- 

uteror BarUiolamew Columliua .... 1 
CuAF. 11. — Miscnaduct of Don Pedro MugBrite, and 

hid departiira from Ihe Island .... D 
Cbat. UL — Troubtes witli iho Kativea- — Alonio de 

Ojoda beaiegDd by Cuaibo . • . - . 16 
CHiP. IV. — McHuret ef Ccjluuiboi lo rEstors the Qniot 

of ihe Island. — Expedition of Ojeda to Bnrpriae C«- 

Cb»f. V. — Anival of Antonio Ue Torres willi four .Shipi 
ftqiD Spain. — Ilis relnm with Indian Slavn . - 3S 

Chap. TI. — Expedition of Colambiu igsinat tlie Indi- 

unaflheVetpL.— Battle 40 

Cbu. TIL — Subjugation of Ui« Nativea. — Impoiltiou 
of Tribute 4(1 

Chap. VIIL — Intrigaea agutiBt Coliunbos in the Court 
of Spain- — AguBdo Knt to investigate Ihe AffaJn of 
Hi«p*nk>ln t6 

Chap. IX. — Arrini of Agundo at Issb«lla. — Bis Uro- 
gratConilnct. — Tempest in the Harbor . , .65 
I Chat. X. — Diicovei7 of the Mines of Hajna . . 73 


Chap. I. — Rstumof Cotumbus to Spain with Aguado . 79 
Chap. II, — Decline of the Popularily of Coluuihu* in 

Spain. — Hit Reception by Ihe tiorereigni atBurgoa. 

— Be prapo«ea a Third Voyage . , . . SB 

Cbaf. hi. — Preparalinna for « Thinl Voyage, — Di 
-poLDtmflDU uid D«]avs . . . , , 

Obap. I. — Deparlora of Columbus from Spain on 

Third Vo;-«({e. — Dincovtrj' of Triniil>ci 
ChAf. II. — Voyige Ibraugh the Gulf of Parli 
Chap, III. — Continutfion of Ihe Voyage Ihrougli 

GnlforPiiria. — Return to K»piiniDU . 
Ckaf. it. — Sp?caUlioD3 of Columbu 

Coast of I'arlii .... 

Chap, I. — Administrolion of Hie AdeUnladu. — Expe- 
dition to the PrOTince of XDrsgoB . ... 11 
Chap. tl. — Ealabtisbment of m Chain of MililAr^- Posts, 

— Iniumction of GuarioneK, the Cacique of Ilie 
Veg« 1( 

Chap, til, — The Adelanlado repaira to Xangua la re- 
ceive Tribute n 

Crap. IV, — Conspiracy of Roldsn . . .11 

CnAF. V. — Tbe AdelanUdo repain 'o Ihfl VegB in relief 
of Ton Conception. —Hit Interview wilh Roldun If 

Chap. VI. — Second InsDn-ectinn of Gnarioaex, and Ilia 
Flight la Ihe Moonulna of C'gaay . . . .19 

Cbap. VII. — Campaign of the Adelanlado in the Motm- 
tuDi of Ciguiy ^ 

BOOK xn, 

CuAf. I. — ConfoHon in the Ldand — Proceedings of Ihe 

Rebels at Xaratrui 21 

Chap. II. — N'eeotiation of Ihe Admiral vith the Rebels. 

— Departure of Shipn for Spain 31 

Chap. lit. — NegotintioDs and Amngenienta with Ihe 

Rebels K 

Chap, IV. — Grants made to Boldan and his I'olloirerB,— 
Depwtnre of »ever»l of Ihe Rolwla for Sixio , Sf 

Chaf. v. — ArriTsl of Ojeda ■Bith a Sqindron at the 

Wntcrnpartoribi! Island.— Rotdun sunt to meet him 3- 
Cbap. TI. — ManieuTK9or RoldtnandOJecIa - - H 
Chap. VII. — Conipinwyof GueTan andMo^sica - -i 

CBAF. I. — ReprBseQtationa at Court against Colnm* 

boa — Bobadilla empowered to examine ialo hia 

Conduct 31 

Cbap. 11.- ArriTHl of Bobadilla at San Domingo.- 

Hii Tiolenl Agtumption of the Comiuoiid . 2) 

Cbaf. til Columbas enmmoned to appear before 

Botedilla -ii 

Chap. IV.— Colnmbna and his Biolhara arrested and 

Mot Ic Spain in ebaiuB 21 

BOOK xrv. 

Cll*t>. I. — Sensation in Spain on the Arrival of Colum- 
bus in Irons. — Bis appexrance at Coutt . . . 3( 

GKAP. II. — CoDlemponuy TOTageaof Diacovely . 31 

CaAT, HI. — Nicholas de Ovan do appointed to supersede 
BobeiliUa 31 

Chap. IV. — Propoeition of Coinmbui relnti™ to the Re- 
covery of Uie Holy Sepulchre .... Si 

Cbaf. V. — Preparations of Coiumbus for a Fourth Voy- 
■ge of OiKOVer; .... . . 3- 

Chap. L — Departure of Columbun on his Fourth Voy- 
age. — Befn«ed Admiaaion to the Harbor of Saa Do- 
mtago — Exposed to a violent Tempest . . S' 
Chap. IL — Voyage along the Coast of Honduras . . 3! 
Chap. HI. — Voyage along the Mojquilo Coast, and 

TnnMctions at Cariari 31 

Chap. IV.— Voyage along CosU It ics. ~ Speculations 

le Itthmus of Veragua . . :i; 

Cbap. T. — DlMorer}' of Paeito Betto and £1 Belnte.— 
Calnmbnii ibuidans the Saarch titer Ibe Strait . 31 

Oeap- VI. — Kfltnm lo TeragaB, -~ The AdclanWijo ex- 
plonu the Couatiy 3) 

Chap. VK. — CommvnGomeat of > Settlomeiit on the 
River Balcn. — Convpiriirr of this Katires. — Eipe- 
ditioD or Ihe AdetanCado to BnrpriK Qiuliiia . . 31 

Chaj-. VIII. — Disatere of the Settienwnt . . . il 

Chat. IX. — Dietresx uf ibe Admiral nn board of his 
Ship. — Ultimate Relief oTtha Settlement . .4] 

Obap. K. — Departure from Ibe Coast of Tersgii*- — 
Arrival ■( J unaicn — Strandiog of (he Ships . ii 


Chat. I. — Amngonieiit of Diego Hendez with the C«- 
ciqnes for Supplies of ProviBtont — Sent to Sun Do- 
mingo by ColuinbUB in qaest of Relief . . .43 

Chap. II.— Matin; uf Pomis H 

Obat. III. — Siaroilyof ProviBiam. — Stratagem ofCo- 
tumbui to obtain Suppliei from the Native! . ■ 4S 

Cbap. it. — UinioD of Diego de Eaeobar lo the Ad- 
miral 411 

Chap. V. — Voyage of Diego Uendez and Banholomew 
Fiesco m a Canoe to Hicpaniola . . .46 

COAP. VI. — Overturee of Culumbua to the Mutmevm. 
Battle of Ihe Adelanlado with Potias and his Fol- 

CttAp. I. — Adminiatralicn of Ovando in Hispaniols. — 

Oppreuion of the Natives 4t 

Craf. II. — Hauaere at Xamgiu Fate of Anaciona 4G 

CnAP.UI. — WarwilhlheNaliveaorfliguey . N 

Chap. IV. — Cloae df the Wai with Higuey. — Fale of 

Cotabanama fit 


BOOK xvm. 

Cbaf. I — DerartuTB of Colombni for 8»n Domingo. — 
His Betom to Spain 51 

CsJlT. U. — Illness of Cntumbaa at Seville. — Applica- 
tiou to the Cro«D Tor ■ RealJlutiDn of bia Hanois. — 
Deatb of lubeUa i: 

Cfip. m. — Coluinbuisrrive* St Court. — FrnillBsaAp- 
pliEation U> the Riug Ibr ReclRSn . . - - B 

Chap, ivf — Death of ColnmbuB . . . . S 

Chat. V. — Ob9«mlion« on the Chanioler of CuluinbuB b 

Tomb of rerdlnuid tutd TtFtthollm, 



[1491. Sept 4.] 

J HE sight of the little squHtlron of Co- 
lumbiLB standing once more into ihe 
hui-bor, was hailed with joy by such of 
the inhabitants of Isabella aa remained faithful to 
hint. 'Hie long lime that hud elapsed Biiice his 
depnrlur« on this advenluroua voyage, wilhout 
i arriving f] 

the most Berioua appreher 

1 for bis 

Kifely ! 

I and it begun lo he feared that he had fallen n 

I - 


A joyful and lieartfelt awaited tho 1 
ftdmiral on his arrival, iu finding nt his bedside 1 
his brother Barlholoinew, the compasioD of his 
yoDlh, his confidential coadjutor, and iii a manner 
his second self, from whom he had been separ- 
ated for several years. It will be recollected, 
that about tlie time of the admiral's deparlursc d 
from Portugal, be had commissioned Barthol- J 
ometr to repair to England, and propose his ■ 
project of discovery to King Henry VII. 
this applieatiou to the English court do precise 
particulars are ktionn. Fernando Columbus 
states tlint his uncle, iu the course of his voyage, 
was captured and plundered by a corsair, aud 
reduced to such poverty, that hu had for a long 
time to Einiggle for a mere subsistence by mak- 
ing sea-charls ; so that Mme years elapsed before 
he made his application to the English monarch. 
Las Caiias thinks that he did not immediately 
proceed to England, having found a memorandum 
in his handwriting, by which it would appear that 
he accompanied Bartholomew Diaz in 1486, iu 
bis voyage along the coast of Africa, iu the 
service of the king of Portugal, in the course of 
trhich voyage was discovered tlie Cape of Good 

1 Tbe tnemorandam cited bj Lu Cuu (HiM. tnd. lib. i. 
cap. T) a ciirioui, tbongh not conclutivs. He naye thai ha 
fbnnd it in on old book belonging In Chrislopher Columbnt, 
containing the warkn of Pedro de Alisco. It wu iTrineD in 
the margin ofi treatise on the form of the globe, in tha band- 
wriling of BarUiolumew Coliunbni, which was well known la 
Laa Casaa, as he had man]' of ha letton is ' ' 

his I 


r 1 


It ia but justice to the memorj of Henry VII. 
to t»y, that when the praposilion was eventually 

Tbe memonnduta mis in a twrbaron* mixtun or Latin sad 
Spanlih, nod Id the rollowing eft'ec). 

In tbe jtu 148S. in December, *rrived M Lisbon Bartlioto- 
mew Diu, eapuin orihreu eBrsvela, wbidi llw king or Porln- 
g>J *Rit to discoTBr GnioeA, and broagfat account! that he had 
dlMorend six hundred leagnei or territoiy, four linndred and 
flf^ to the «u1h and one handrvd and fift; north, to a cape, 
nunod by him the Cape of Good Hope; and that by the astro- 
labe he found the cape 4G dcfn'^ea beyond the equinoctial Ime. 
Thi( cape wa« 3100 league* distant from Li«tion; the which 
the mid captain ™y» he Bet down, league by league, in a chart 
of niTigalion presented by him to the Icing of Portugal; in all 
which, adda the writer, I was present (in qnibus omnibua 

Laa Caaas expreaaeii a doubt whether Bartholomew wrote 
thia note for bimaelf, or on the part oC his brotlier, but infeta 
Ihal one, or both, were in this expedition. The infercDce 
may be correcl with reipnct to Bartholomew, but Chriatopber, 
at the time specified, was at the Spanish court- 
Las Caaw accounts for a difference in date between tbe (bre- 
going memorandum and the diroDicIca of the vnyage; the 
fbnner making the return of Diaz In tbe year '88, the latter 
*ST. This he observes might be because some begin to coniti 
the year after Cliristmaii, others at the first of January: and 
tbe expedition sailed about the end of Aujpist '86, and re- 
turned in December '87, after an Bbsenre of seventeen 

NoTK. — Since publishing the first edition of thia work, the 
•Qlhor bein^ In Seville, and making remarclies in the Bibtio- 
Iheca Columbina, the library given by Fernando Columbus to 
tlie cathedral of (hat city, be came accidentally apon the 
abav»-mentkiDed copy of the work of Pedro Aliaco. Heawer- 
tained it to be the same by finding the above-cited menioran- 
dam wrjile'i on the margin, a( (he e igbth chapter of the tract 
called " Imago Mundi." It is an old volume in folio, bound 

In parchmt 

:. published sc 

n Latin of ai 

e inve; 

• la Ut«, a i i ati a t * •Acs «■ US 

1 aw of Ih* ■ 
M«MlMt RMn af bh daf. Lm Com > tl 
witling had imn r&< 
terprlM Uias iVh mf aay Mb*r * 

tMtWitI to i'olnajutt. Ib*t Ir had SDcd it* aluilc mari^ 
with L«I)n notri In tit baadmiling: diing nuui; Aisgi 
whith hfl had mil tad galbcnd elxirlKre. Thii bnok. 

»hw. 1 

-t b 

■■ TUflii 

In l^lin I17 tbi Hill tdninl Cbiiab^CT ColBmba, to laitr 
c*rt*hi pirlBlf tpportainlnK to hi* hiataTj. of whidi I befoi* 
VH In dmiM." (llbL Ind., lib. i.up. 11.) 

It wu ■ emt Mliflkctioii to Ihc lulbor, thenlon. bi db- 
rOT«r llrlii Mmtiril voluim, tliu faib Uiana of Colnmbu*. 
In ■ alnlA of kwhI prucmtian. ('' i> id the catbednl 

llbnnr, K a, Tkb. 1TB, Ko. 2t.) The natn and ciutioM 

mfnlltrnad hy I.m C»u are In I<alin. with mm/ abbreTia- 
tlonii wrJltun In ■ vciy amill, bnl neat and distinct band, and 
rail ihronshDni i]i« viiliime; ealllOK ■tiention lo (fas mon 
■trlhlnt puUKH, or rn tbOM wbkb baar mo«t upon the theo- 
rlHof Columbuii ociMlonallj' canlaltUog brief commeniior 
tllinK thi nplnloni nf olbsr authon, ancient and modem, 
tllliiir Id *ap|ion or c«nlrad1c1lan of Iba [eil. The memoran- 
dlini lianlgularlj' citail b.v La* Caua, mentioning (be vovage 
nrlUnholomiwDlutA the Cap* of flood Hope.ii lodtoprove 
M opinlsn In (h« text, that the Mrrld ions wu aninbaUlab)a. 
Thla voUinw la a inoal nurloiii and interesting docnmuit, the 
nnly iini lliat n<inaliiii nf Culumbua prior 10 hli diienTei7. It 

II uUi. Htiili' ■■ T>t bin great antarprlM emitted but in idea, 

•iiil wlillv he HI* leeklng lauint lo eanvino) the wwld «f ila 
t>i'n>'llriil<lllty. Ii will h* fbund alK to cnnlaln the gmunda 



ms uctitnlly mnile with Burllioloincw for the 
proaeculiou of the eiiterprifte, and the letter de- 
parted for SpuiD ui senrt-L of his broilitr. On 
Rac-IiiDg Paris, he first raceived the joyful intelli- 
gence that the discovery was already made ; that 
his brother hud returned lo Spain in triumph; 
■nd was actually at the Spiitnsh court, honored 
by the Bovereigus, careeaed by the nobility, atid 
idolized by the people. The glory of Columbus 
already shed its Tayn upon his family, and Bar* 
tbolomew found himaelf iuimediately a person of 
importance. He was noticed by tlie French 
monarch, Charles VIII., who, underalniiding that 
he waa low in pur^ furuialied him with one 
faundred crowns lo defray the expenses of his 
Journey to Spain. He reached Seville Just na 
fcu brother had departed on his second voyage. 
Bartholomew immediately repaired to the court, 
then at Valkdolid, taltiug with him his two 
MphewD, Diego atid Fernando, who were to 
Mne in quality of pages to Prince Juan.' He 
mu received with distinguished favor by the sov- 
ereigns; who, finding him to be an able and 
^accomplished navigator, gave him the command 
of three ship» freighted with supplies for the 
'Bolony, and sent him to aid his brother in his 
«nterpri»es. He had again arrived too late ; 
jRaching Isabella just aller the departure of the 
fdmiral for the coast of Cuba. 

The Biglit of this brother was an inexpressible 
felief to Columbus, overwfielraed as he waa by 
iSies and surrounded by strangers. Ilia chief de- 

' Uiel, del AlmiranlB, up. UO. 


e C>r sjmpaCbj sod aasi^tance tuud hitherto 
D hta brother Don IMego ; bat bb miM and 
F peaceable di^M»ilion rendered bint liul« capable 
I of DitiaBgiiig the ooocems or m fuctiou^ colony. 
Bartboloioeiv was of a different nud morv efficJent 
cfaanicter. He iras prompL sciire. decided and 
of a fearless spirit; whatever he determined, be 
carried into itatant executi-Mi, withont regnrd lo 
difficulty or danger. His person corresponded to 
his mind ; it was tall, muscular, vigorou^i. and coid- 
nianding. He had an air of great aatlioriiy, bat 
■omewhat slein, waating that sweelueas and tia- 
nignily which tempered the aniboritativo demea- 
nor of the admiral Indeed, there was a ctnain 
asperity in his temper, and a dryne^ and abrupt- 
ness in bis manoerB, which made liim many t^iie- 
miea; yet notwithstanding the^ extumal Uelecu, 
be was of a generous disposition, free from all ar- 
ragnnce or malevolence, and as placable as \\b was 

He was a thorough seaman, understanding both 
the theory and pmclice of his profession ; having 
been formed, in a great measure, under the eye 
of the admiral, and being but little inferior to 
him in science. He was superior to him in the 
exercira of ihe pen, according to Lns Casas, who 
bad letters and manuscripts of both in his pos- 
MBsiun. Fie nna acquainted with Lntio, but 
dues not appear to have been highly educatod; 
his knowledge, like that of his brother, being 
chiefly derived from a long course of varied ex- 
perience and nttenlive obflervntinn. E>iuiUly vig- 
orous and petielraiing in intellect with the ad-_ 

CBBiaTOpass columbub, 

mirel, but le^ i;nCliusia:Jtic iu epiril mid aonring 
in imaginntioQ, ami with less simplicity of heurl, 
he surpassel him iu [be subtle and adroit mao- 
agement of bndinesa, was more atlenlive to his 
interesls, uiid had more of that worldly wiadorn 
which ia so important iu llie ordinary concerns 
of life, llis genius might never have enkiiidlcti 
him to the sublime speculaCiou which ended in 
the discovery of a world, but his practical sBgnc- 
ity was calculated to Iufd that discovery lo iid- 
Tanlnge. Such is tlie descrlptiou of Dartliolomew 
ColDinbus, as furni.ihed by the venerable Las 
OuHS from personal observation ; ^ and it will be 
fbunil to accord with his actions throughout the 
remaining history of the admiral, in the events 
of which he takes a couspicuous part. 

Anxious lo relieve himself from the pressure 
of public business, which weighed heavily upon 
him during his present nmlady, Gttumbus im- 
mediately invested his broilier Bartholomew with 
the title and authority of Adehmtado, an olHce 
equivalent lo that of lieul«nnnt-goveruor. He 
considered liimself entitled to do so from the ar- 
ticles of his arrangement with the sovereigns, hot 
it was looked upon by King Ferdinand ns an 
trndue assumption of power, and guve great of- 
> lo that jealous mooareh, who whs esceeJ- 
igly tenacious of the prerogatives of the crown, 

1 considered dignities of this rank and impor- 

e as only lo be aml'erred by royal mandate,' 

blumbus, however, was not actuated in this ap- 

^■t #•■■< to ow^ •• TMli «f *■ awS IMS 



It will be recollected, ihal before depRrt- 
on his voyage, Columbus had given 

I (he cominani) of thenrmj to Don Pedro 

Margarile, wilb onlent to mnke a miliiarj tour 
of l)ie bland, nwlug ihe natives by a display of 
military fitrce, but conciliating their gooil-will by 
equitable and amicable ireatmeDt. 

The island was at this time divided into five 
donuuDS, each governed by a cacique, of absolute 
aad hereditary power, to whom a great number 
of inferior caciques yielded tributary ftllegiauce. 
The first or moat important domain comprised 
the middle part of the royal Vega. It was a rich, 
bvely country, partly cultivated after the im- 
perfect manner of the natives, partly covered 
with noble forests, studded with Indian iowds, and 
watered by numerous rivers, many of which, roll- 
ing down from the mounlaina of Cibao. on its 
>llthern frontier, had gold-dust mingled with 
sands. The name of the cacique waa 
hiarionex, whose ancestors had long ruled over 


The Beoond, called Marieii, was under tlie sway 
of GuaCBnagari, on whose cooat Coiumbiis had 
been wrei;ked iu his first voyage. It was a large 
and fertile territory, esteading along the northern 
coast from Cupe St. Nichaks at the nefleni ex- 
tremity of the island, to llie great river Tagui, 
afterwards called Monle Christi, and includiog 
the northern part of the royal Vega, Hincc celled 
the plain of Cape Fran9oia, now Cape Haytieu. 

Tlie third bore the name of Klaguana. It ex- 
tended along the southern coast from the rjver 
Oitema to Ihe lakes, and comprised the chief part 
of the ceitlre of the island lying aloog the south- 
em face of llie inonntnins of Cibao. the mineral 
district of Hayti. It was under the dominion of 
the Carib cacique Caonabo, the most fierce and 
puiaSAUl of the savage chieftains, and the inveter- 
ate eueiuy of the white men. 

The fourth look its name from Xaragua, a 
large lake, and was the most populous and exten- 
sive of all. It comprised llie whole western 
coast, includiug the long promontory of Cape 
Tiburou, and extended for a considerable distance 
along the southern side of the island. The in- 
liahitautB wore finely formed, hiid a noble air, ti 
more agi'teable elocuiiou, and more soft and grace- 
ful manners th»u the natives of the other parts 
of the island. The sovereign was named Behe- 
cbio ; his sister, AiiacaotiB, celebrnied throughout 
the island for her beauty, was the favorite wife of 
the neighboring cacique Caonabo. 

The filUi domain was Higuey, and occupied tbe 
whole eastern part of the island, being bounded 



CO tin JtarUt by the Bay of Stunnnn, nnd part of 
ibe rirer Yuna, and od ihe wmI by [lie Ozerna. 
The iubiUitUiits trere iJie most nciive nu'l warlike 
people of ilie nliuid. haring leAml the um of the 
bow and mrrow from the Caribs. who nuule fre- 
qoent descents upon ibe coasts ; they nere said 
also lo make iKe of poisooed weapons. Their 
fanvery, however, wta but comparaiire, and was 
found eveDtually of tittle avail Against tlie terror 
of Earopean arms. They were governed by a 
euiqiie named Golubanama.^ 

Such were the five territorial divisions of Ihe 
udand nt the time of its discovery. The amount 
of its popalation has tiever been clearly nacer>- 
laincd : some have staled it at a niillioti of soub, 
thoDgh this ia cotisidered an exaggeration. It 
must, howt-ver. have been very numerous, and suF- 
Gcient, in ca?e of any geiierul hostility, lo endan- 
ger the safely of a bandl'ul of Europeuiis. Co- 
limibiis trusted for safety partly lo Ihe awe io- 
■piied by the weapons and horses of the Spmiards, 
■ad the idea of iheir siiperhnmnti nature, but 

> the measures lie lind taken 


of ibe Indians by genlle and benefi- 

y Margnriie set forth on his expedllion with the 
iaier purl of ihe forces, leaving Alonso de 
'a uomiaand of the fortress of St. Thomas. 
Wt«nd, however, of coniineiicing by exploring the 
anUiins of Cibao, na he had been cora- 
uided, he descended into the fertile region of 
e Vegs. Here lie litigered among Ihe populous 

1 CblrltTaii, Ui«. St. Domingo, lib. [, p. 69. 

bvaum mcJkI mmI aeauuml rnniriw»:iiii . 

and iiMfXMTtwwt Utny ««v awalhnMUg xBMg iIm 

Will) the ooocumwoa m Um oiNUkcU. bu wruW In 

mg hiut tu pnNwwd <m> Um uulilarr low. 4CMnUH9 
U> Uw oMnauuMl* u<~ ilua MlmirmL TIm pn«l« i*f 
UMKiuile look fin ai thift. najMwit; )m £umn>1w«L 

■olfccnty bj (ke ckralien uid ■dvminrersof iNlilt<l 
bMi wbo were in ifae e^ony and vbo iMd b«M 
decfdj wanoded in the proud pnmcdlio » jeakHefy 
gowded hj a Sfutuard. Tb« j ooold not forget 
nor fctgive ibe sieni equjiv exeroaed bf die 
adminl in a dine of emergency, in making ihcm 
•ubmit U> tbe privadons aad ^hare ihe tabor? of 
ibe Tulgsr. Still less could they brook the ao- 
ihority of his brother Diego, de$tilal« of his high 
peraMiiil claims to distinction. Tbey formed, 
iberefbre. a kiad of arislocratical Action in th« 
colony; affecting lo consider Columbus and his 
&tnily as mete mercenary and upstart foreigners, 
building up ilieir own foriuiies at the expense of 
the toib and siiSerin;^ of the commuiiily, and the 
degradation of Spanish hiilalgoe a«id cBvuliers. 

In addition to these partisans, Margariie hnd a 
powerful ally in hia fellow-conntrynwn, Friw 
Boyle, Ihe head of the religious fiileruity, one 
ivf the aiembers of the council, and npostolical 

' of the New World. It is not easy to 
: original came of the boeutily of 
tbia ImIjf friar lo ilie admiral, who was never 
WMiiiug in respect to the clergy. Various alter- 
cation*, however, had taken place between theni. 
Sotne aa; that the iriar iutertered in respect to 
the strict nieaaare« deemed necessiu^ by the 
adiniral for the eecnrity of the uilony ; olbera 
that he re«enied tite fancied indignity otTered to 
himself and his household, in putting ibeui on the 
tuoe aliort allowance with the cominoQ people. 
He appenrs. however, to have been generally dis- 
appointed and diagnated with the spliere of action 
aiTorded by the colony, and to b&ve looked bnck 
with regret to the Old World. He had uone of 
that eiithiuiastic zeal and persevering sell'-^evotiou, 
which induced so many of the Spanish mission- 
aries to bruve all the hardships and privations of 
the New World, in the hope of converting itA 
pagan inhabitants. 

Encouraged and fortitied by such powerful 
partisans, JtlHrgarite really began to consider him- 
aelf above the temporary authorities of the isluud. 
Whenever he came to Isabella, he took no notice 
of Don Diego Cotumbus, nor paid any respect to 
the council, but ncted as if he had pammount 
oommand. He formed a cabal of most of those 
who were dianlTected to Columbus, and discon- 
tented will] their abode in the colony. Among 
these the leading ngiljitor was Friar Boyle. It 
wax coiioerled among them to take possesslen of 
the ships which had brought out Don Bartliolo- 
mow Columbus, nod to return in them to Spain. 


^^^Po(b Margarite nad Boyle posaesseil llic faror of 

I Ae king, nnd tliey deemed it would be an easy 

matter lo juatify iheir BbandoDmcnt of their roil- 

»l«ry and roligimis commanda bj a pretended zeal 

ior the public good ; hurrying home to represent 

the diBBStmus state of the country, through the 

[yrauny and oppression of ila rulers. Some have 

|l ascribed the abrupt departure of Margarite to his 

^^^|btr of a severe military investigation of bis con- 

^^^Hhct on the return of the admiral ; otiiers lo hia 

^^^Hkving, iu the course of his licentious amours, cod- 

^^^*lnicted a malady at that time new and unknown, 

and which he attributed lo the climate, aud 

hoped to cure by medical assistance in Spain. 

Whatever may have been the cuuse, his mtiuaures 

were taken with great prucjpilaucy, williout any 

coneallation of the proper authorities, or any 

r^ard to the consequences of his departure. 

Accompanied by a band of tnalcontenis. be aud 

Friar Boyle tooli possession of some ships iu the 

harbor, and set sail fur Spain ; the first general 

and apostle of the New World thus setting the 

example of unauthorized abaudoument 







pBglected, (lio evils lie hail tipproliendeil cniue lo 
Ttwugti llie Inilintis, unUirBlly timid, dared 
r^tDt coDtend with the Spaninrds wliile they ki-pt 
l;^ any cunibiiied atid diacipiiued toran, yi;^l tlit^y 
f look eanguliiiiry veiigeunce on iheiu whenever 
y ibey met with small pnrlies or scallertd individ- 
f uaU, roving nboiiC in quest of food. EiicouritgeJ 
B,bjr these petty iriumplis. and the impuRily wtiioli 
i to iilleiid ihem, their lioalililies grew more 
lore ularniing. GuatigumiR, cacique of a 
l^large town oit llie banks of llie Grand River, in 
E'^ dominions of Guarionex, sovereign of (he 
bVegn, put lo death ten Spaniards, who had quar- 
d themetlves in his town, and onlrnged the in- 
■"habitantB by their licentiousness, lie followed 
B by setting lire to e. hou»ie in 
which foriy-six Spaniards were lodged.' FJnslied 
by this success he threatened to attack u small 
fi>rtress called Magdaleon, wliiuh bud recently 
been built in his neighborliood in the Vega ; eu 
(hut the commander, Luis de Arriaga, liuviug but 

»a feeble garrison, was obliged to remain abut up 
within its walls until relief should arrive from 
The most formidable enemy of llie Spaniardf, 
liowever, was Caouiibo, the Carib cacique of 
Maguana. With natural talents for wnr, and intel- 
ligence superior lo Ibe ordinary range of savage 
Intellect, he had a proud and daring spirit to urge 
tiim on, three valiant brothers tu asiiist bim, ami a 
tiuineraus tribe at his command.' He had idwaya 
13 of llie intrusion of the white ineti iuio 

It jcaloi 

1 Hemn, Hilt. Ind., Aixaii. i. lib. ii 

> Ibid. 



the ialand; but pnrLicularlj exHspernted by tho 
Mtabltshment of the forlrens of St Thomns, erect- 
ed in the very centre of liia domitiians. As long 
Hs the army liiy within call in the Ve;;ii, Im was 
deterred from nny attack ; but when, on llie de- 
pHrture of MaT^orite, it became dismembered and 
Jispersi'd, the time for striking a signal blow 
seemed arrived. The fortress remained isolated, 
wilti a garrison of only fifty men. 13y a siulden 
and secret movement, he might overwhelm it with 
his forces, aud repeat the horrors which he had 
wreaked iipoii La Navidad. 

The wily cacique, however, had a different kind 
of euumy to deal with in the commander of St. 
Thomns. Alonzo de Oji^a had been schooled in 
Moorish warfare. He was versed in all kinds of 
feints, stratagems, lurking ambuscades, and wild 
assaults. No man was more fitted, therefonj, to 
oope with Indian warriors. He bad a headlong 
oountge^ arising partly from tha natural heat and 
violeooe of his disposition, and, in a great mea- 
sure, from religious superstition. He had beeo 
engaged in wars with Moors and Indians, in public 
battles and private oombats, in figbts, feuds, and 
encounters of alt kinds, to which he bad been 
prompted by a rash and fiery spirit, and a love 
of adreoturc ; yet lie had never been wounded, 
nor tost a drop of blood. He began to doubt 
wfaetber any weapon had power lo harm him, and 
to eooMder himself uitder tbe special protection 
of tbe holy Vit^n. As a kind of religions talis- 
man, be had a small Flemish paintii^ of tbe ^'ir- 
gin. gimi him by bis patron. Fonseoi, bbbop ot~ 




This he constantly carried wiih him, 
in ci^, camp, or fieli), making it the object of hie 
irequent orisons nnd invocations. In gnri'ison or 
encampment, it was suspended in his chamber or 
bis tent; in hie rough expeiiitions in the wildei*- 
ness, be carried it in his knapsack, and whenever 
leisure permitted, would take it out, fix it Hgninnt 
■ tree, and address hb prayers to this military 
patroness.' In a word, he swore by the Virgin, 
he invoked the Virgin whether in brawl or battle, 
knd under the favor of the Virgin he was ready 
for any enterprise or adventure. Such was Alonzo 
do Ojeda ; bigoted in his devotion, reckless in his 
life, fearless in his spirit, like many of the roving 
Spantsb cavaliers of those days. Though small in 
siie, he was a prodigy of strength and prowess ; 
and the chroniclers of the early discoveries relate 
loarvels of his valor and exploits. 

Having reconnoitred the fortress, Caonabo as- 
sembled ten thousand warriors, armed with war 
clubs, bows and arrows, and lances hardened in 
the fire : and making his way secretly through the 
ibre3t!>, came suddenly in the neigh Imrhood, ex- 
pecting to surprise the garrison in a state of care- 
Iwa security. He Ibund Ojedn's forces, however, 
drawn up warily within his tower, which, being 
tmilt upon an almost insulated height, with a river 
Iiearly surroutnling it, and the remaining space 
tntversed by a deep ditch, set at defiance an'at- 
tack by naked warriors. 

Foiled in bis attempt, Caonabo now ho|jed to 

, Taronese ntoitres, 

:. Ind., decRd. i. Ub. v 


Cnonitbo saw laauy of his bravest warriors slain. 
His forces were diminishiog, for the Indians, an- 
i»ed to any prolracied operatiotia of wur. grew 
wenry of ihis siege, and returned daily in nunibers 
to their homes. He gnvc ap all further attempt, 
therefore, ou the fortress, and retired, filled with 
admirotioD of the prowess aad achievements of 

The restless chieftain was not discouraged by 
the failure of this enterprise, but meditated 
Khemes of a bolder and more extensive natnre- 
Prowling in secret in the vicinity of Isabella, he 
noted the enfeebled state of the set tie men t.^ 
MsD^r of the inliabilonts were suffering under 
various maladies, and most of the men capable of 
bearing arms were distributed about the country. 
He now conceii'ed the project of a general league 
among the caciquee, to surprise and overwhelm 
tbe settlement, and massacre the Spaniards 
wherever they could be found. This handful of 
iutruders once esterminaled, he trosted tbe island 
would be delivered &om all further molestation 
of the kind ; little dreaming of [lie bopele.°s 
nature of the contest, and that where tbe civil- 
ised man once plants hia foot, tbe power of the 
savage is gone forever. 

Reports of the profligate conduct of the Span- 
iards had spread throughout the island, and in- 
spired hatred and hostility even among tribes 
who hod never beheld them, nor suffered from 
tbeir misdeeds. Caonabo found three of the sov- 

1 Ovicdo. Crooici de Ian Indioa, lib. iii. cap. 1. 
* Hist, del Alminute, cap. BO. 



eretgn mciqaes inclined to cooperate irith him, 
tbougli impressed nitli deep awe of the eiiper- 
natuml power of the Spnninrds, and of their 
terrific arms and aniniitls. The league, however, 
met with unexpi^cled opposilioD in the fifth cncique, 
GtiHcanagari, the sovereign of Marien. Hia con- 
duct in this time of danger completely mauifesied 
ihe injustice of the aoBpicions which hnd been 
entertained of him by the Spaniards. He refused 
to join the other caciques with bis torces, or to 
violate those laws of hospitality by whieh he had 
considered himself bound (o protect and aid the 
white men, ever since they had been shipwrecked 
on his coast He remained quietly iu hia domin- 
ions, enlertaioiug at bis own expense a hundred of 
the KuSering soldiery, and supplying all their 
wiiiits with his accustomed generosity. This 
conduct drew upon him (he odium and hostility 
of his fellow caciques, particularly of the fierce 
Qirib, Caonabo, and hia brother-in-law, Behecbio. 
They made irruptions into bis territories, and 
inflicted on him various injuries and indignities. 
Behecbio Itilled one of hia wives, and Caonabo 
carried another away captive.^ Nothing, how* 
ever, could shake the devotion of Guacanagari to 
the Spaniards ; and as his dominions lay imme- 
diately adjacent to the settlement, and those of 
some of the other caciques were very remote, the 
want of his cooperation impede<l for some time 
the hostile designs of hia coult^deralea.^ 

Such was the critical state lo which the a&aira 




of the colony bad bceti redui:ui1, iind such the 
bitter hostility eagemlercd ttmang iho people of 
the island, during llie absence of Columbus, and 
mBrely iu consequence of TiolntiDg nil liis regula- 
tions. lUargarite and FrJar Boyle had hastened 
to Spain to make fidae lepreseultilioiis of the 
nii»enes of the island. Had they remained faith- 
fully nt their posts, and discharged zealously the 
trust confideil to them, those miseries might have 
been easily remedied, if not entirely prevented. 



BW^M MEDIATELY nfier tlie reiurn of Co- 
ne Sm liunbii3 from Ciibii, wliilu he was yet 
{g^^ coutiued 1u liis bed by indisposition, he 
wtis gratified hy & \o\ualarj viitit I'rom GuBcan- 
agEiri, wbo muiiife^ted tlie greatest cuiieern nt his 
illness, Ibr he iippears to have alivnys etiterlniaed 
an aHeclioiiiite reverence for tlie adminil. He 
again spoke witli tears of the maBsncn: of Fort 
Nativity, dwelling on the exertions he hail made 
in defense of ibe Hpeniards. lie now informed 
Columbus of the secret league forming among the 
caciques ; of Ilia opposition to it, and the con- 
sequent peReciilioQ he had sufftrtd ; of ihe 
inunler of one of his wives, ami tbu enpture of 
another. He urged the admiral to be on his 
guard agmiiat the dcoigns of CaouHhci, and offered 
to lead his subjeclB to the 6eld, to fight by thu 
side of tlie Spiiniards, as well out of friendship 
for ibera, as in revenge of his own injuries.' 
Columbus had always retained a deep sense of 
> HemtrB, Hiat. Ind., dccsd. i. lib. ii. cap. IS. 

GuncanfigBri, and was 
rejoiced lu have all suspiclou of Lis good failli liius 
effecituiiUy dispelled. Their former amicable in- 
tercourse was renewed, wjlli lliia difiereiice, tliat 
the mitu whom GuacaiiAguri bad oucu relieved 
aud succored iid u I'liipwrtL'ked stranger, had sud- 
denly becoiue ihe ai'biter of the tatu of liim^telf 
and all his couniryintn. 

The mauner in which this peaceful island had 
been exn^^iperated and embroileil by llie licealiuus 
ooudncl of the Europeans, was a nuiKer of deep 
concern to Columbus. He saw all hi? plana of 
deriving an immediate revenue to the aovepeigns 
completely impeded. To restui-e the island to 
Uauquillity required skillful mamigemcnt. His 
forces were but small, and the awe in which the 
natives had stood of the white men, as super- 
iiatural bein^, liud been in some degree dis- 
pelled. He WU9 loo ill to take a personal share 
in any warlike enteiprise : his brother Diego waa 
not a military character, and Bartholomew was 
yet a slraiiger among the Spatiiards, and regarded 
by the leading men with jealousy. Slill Colum- 
ns considered the threaiened combinatiou of the 
ciques as but imperfectly Ibrmed ; he trusted to 
> want of skill and experience in warfare, and 
xived that by prumpt measures, by proceeding 
III delnil, punishing some, conciliating others, and 
uniting Ibrce, gentleness, and stratagem, he might 
jucceed in dispelling the threatened storm. 

d H body of armed men 

relief of Fort Alagdalciia, menaced with 

I by Guuliguana, the cacique of the 


Grnnd River, who had massacred ihe Spaniards 
quartered in hia town. Having relieved the 
fortreaa, the iroopa overraa the terriiory of Guati- 
guana, killing many of his warriors, and carrying 
OLbers off caplives: ihe cbieflaiu Uimself modu bia 
escape.^ He was tributary to Guurionex, sover- 
eign racique of ih(! lioyal Vega. As ihis Indian 
prince reigoed over a great and populous extent 
of country, hia friendship was highly important 
for the proaperily of ihe colony, while there was 
imminent risk of his hostility, from the unbridled 
excesses of the Spaniards who had been quartered 
in his dominions. Columbus sent for liitu, there- 
fore, and explained to him that these excesses had 
been in violation of his orders, and contrary to 
his good inteulioos towards the natives, whom it 
was his wish in every way to please anil beoeliU 
He explained, likewise, that the expedition ag^nst 
Guatiguana was an act of mere individual pun- 
ishment, not of hostility ogtuNSt the territories of 
Guarionex. . The cacique was of a quiet and pla- 
cable disposition, and whatever anger he might 
have felt was easily soothed. To link him in 
some degree lo the Upauish interest, Columbus 
i: his daughter iu marriage 
interpreter, Diego Colon.^ As a 
I against any hostility ou the 

prevailed o 

to the Indian i 

stronger precautioi 

1 Heiren, dccKd. 1. lib. ii. cap. IS. 

> V. MarljT, aecad- i- lib. iv. Q\o. BiltisUL Spolor 
hi! Memoir a( Culuiubut, hu been led into an etror I 
DUneof thi> ladiia.aiid ob^rvea tbat Caluini>ui had abi 
named Diego, t>( wbom lie aeemvd lo Im ashamed, and ' 
ha nuuTitd to ibe dangbter of an ladiiui cbiaC 




part of the cacique, lo insure tranquillity in the 
imporLint region of the Vega, be ordered a fort- 
ress to be erected tu tlie midst of his territories, 
vrfaidi he niimed Fort Ckfnceptiou. Ttie easy 
cacique agreed without hesitation to n raeasure 
&«Dgbt with ruin to himself and future slavery 
to his subjects. 

Tlie most (brroidable eueniy retnuiued to be 
disposed of — Caonnbo. His ten-iioriea lay in 
the central aud mountainous parts of ibe island, 
rendered ditticalt of access by rugged rocks, en- 
tangled forests, and frequent rivers. To make 
war upon this subtle ami ferocious cliieftain, in 
the depths of his wild woodland territory, and 
amoug the fastnesses of his mountain, where, at 
every step, tliere would be danger of ambush, 
would be a ivork of time, peril, and uncertain issue. 
In the meanwhile the settlements would never be 
secure from his secret sud during enterprises, and 
the working of the mines would be subject lo fre- 
quent interruption. Whilit perplexed on [his sub- 
ject, Columbus was relieved by an offer of Alonzo 
de C^eda, to take the Carib chieftain by stratagem, 
and deliver him alive into bis hands. The pro- 
'ject \tta wild, hazardoua, and romantic, clmracler- 
ietic of OJeda, who was fond of distinguishing him- 
self by extravagant exploits and feal« of desperate 

Choosing ten bold and hardy followers, well 
armed and well mounted, and invoking tlie pro- 
tection of his palroiieBS the Virgin, whose image 
as usual he bore with him as a safeguard, Ojeda 
plunged into the forest, and mode bis way above 




sail] it bad come from " Ttirey," or the skies. Cao- 
nabo had heard the bell at a dislBiice, in hia prowl- 
Ings about [ho settlement, fuicl had longed lo see 
it J bnl when it was proffered to liim as a pres- 
ent of peace, he found it impossible to resist the 
temptation. He agreed, therefore, lo set out for 
ItMibella ; but when the time came to depart, Ojedit 
beheld with surprise a powerful force of warriors 
assembled and ready to march. He naked the 
meaning of taking such an army on a mere ' 
friendly visit ; the cacique proudly replied that it 
did not belit a great prince, like himself, to go forth 
Bcantily attended. OJeda was little satisfied with 
lIiiB reply ; he knew the warlike character of Ca- 
ODabo, and his deep subtlety ; he feared some sin- 
iBler design ; a surprise of the fortress of Isabella, 
or au attempt upon the person of the admiral. 
He knew aJso that it was the wish of Columbus, 
either to make peace with the cacique, or 10 gel 
poeseeaion of his person without the nllernaUve of 
open warfare. He had recourse lo a stratagem, 
therefore, which had an air of fable and romance, 
but which is recorded by all the contemporary 
historians with trivial variations, and which. Las 
Cnsas assures us, was in current circulation in 
ihe island when he arrived there, about six years 
after the event. It accords too with the adven- 
turous and extravagant character of the man, and 
with the wUd stratagems and vaunting exploits 
incident to Indian warfare. 

In ihe course of their march, liaviug balled 
near ihe Liltle Yagui. a considerable branch of 
Ihe Neybo, Ojeda one day produced a set of 



manacles of polished slcel, so highly burnished 
Ihat they looked like silver. These Ite aasared 
Caoiiiiba were royal ornaments which had come 
from heaven, or the Turey of Biscay ; ' thai ihey 
were worn by tlie iiianHrchs of Ciistile on solemn 
dances, and otli^r high festidties, tuul were io- 
teuded as presenis lo ihe cacique. He proposed 
ihal Caonabo should pi to the river and bathe, 
after which he should he decorated wiih these 
' ornaments, mounted on the horse of Ojedit, and 
should return in the stale of a Sptuusb niooarch, 
to astonisli his subjects. The cacique was dazzled 
with the glitter of the manacles, and flattered with 
the idea of bestriding one of those ireniendoua 
aniinals so dreaded by his countrymen. He re- 
paired to the river, and baritig bathed, wus as- 
sisted to niouQt behind Ojeda, and the shackles 
were adjusted. Ojeda made several circuits to 
gain space, followed by his little band of horae~ 
men, tlie Indians ahrinking back from the pran- 
cing steeds. At length he made a wide sweep 
into the forest, until the trees concealed bim &om 
the sight of the army. His followers then closed 
around him, and drawing their swordei, threatened 
Caonabo with iimlant deatli if he made the least 
noise or resistance. Binding him with cords to 
Ojeda to prevent his falling or effecting an escape, 
they put spurs to their horses, dashed across the 
river, and made off through the woods with their 

1 The principal iron miinalactDrJes of Rpiun irc eilabtiibed 

c exploit of OJcdA la ivcordsd tl large 'by 



They hnd now fifty or sixty leagues of wilder- 
aeee to Iruverae on their way homewards, with 
here Euid there large Indian towns. They had 
borne off ilieir cnptive far beyond the pursuit of 
his subjects ; but the utmost vigilnuce wns requi- 
aite to prevent his escape during this long nnd 
toilsome journey, and to avoid exciting the hos- 
tilities of any coofedcmle caeique. They had to 
shun the populous parts of the country, therefore, 
tnd to p»si through the Indian towns at full 
gallop. They suifered greatly from fatigue, hun- 
ger, and watchfulnesa ; encountering many perils, 
fording and swimming the numerou!i rivers of 
the plains, toiling through the deep tangled forests, 
and clambering over the high and rocky mountains. 
They accomplished all in siifety, and Ojeda en- 
tered Isabella in triumph from this most during 
bad characteristic enterprise, with his wild Indian 
bound behind. 

Columbus could not refrain from expressiiiig 
his great satisfaction when Ihis dangerous foe was 
delivered into his hands. The haughty CiLrib met 
him with a lofly and unsubdued air, dtsdnining to 
conciliate him by submission, or lo deprecate his 
vengeance for ihe blood of white men which he 
boil shed. He never bowed his spirit to captivity ; 
on the contrary, though completely at the mercy 
of the Spaniards, he displayed that boasting deli- 

L«i Cwu; by hill copyiit Herrem (decail. i. lib. ii. cap. IB); 
by Fera»ndu Piairn), in his Varonea lUuntres dsl Nuovo 
Uiiadu -. and bv Chsrievoix in hia Hialoiy of St. Domidgo. 
Fcler M»rtjT and Mbtn hive given It more concisely, sUud- 
lOE to but DM inMiilng its T«mintle dauiU. 



mice which in a part of Indian heroism, and wiiicli 
the Bar^e ninintaijifl townnle his loritmntors. even 
ftinidat the Hgonics of ihe ftiggot and tlie stake. 
He vaunted his achieveineat in surprising; and 
burDiDg the fortreaa of Nniivilj', niid shiughlering 
ila gnrriBon, mid dcclnred thni lie Imd secretly 
reooniioiired Isabella, witli an irilenltoB of wreak- 
ing upon it the same desolation. 

Colojnbus, though struck with the heroism of 
the chieftain, considered him a dnogeroua enemy, 
whom, for the peace of tlie Jsliind, Jt was advis- 
uble to send to Spnto ; in the meantime he or^ 
dereU lliat he siioiild be irealed with kindness and 
respect, and lodged him in a part of his own 
dwelling, where, however, be kept him a prisoner 
in chains. This precaution must hnve been neces- 
sary, from the insecurity of his prison ; for Lus 
Casas observes ihnt the admiral's house not being 
spacious, nor having many chambers, (he passers 
by in the street could see the captive chieftain 
from tlie portal.' 

Cnonabo always maintained a haughty deport- 
ment towards Columbus, while lie never evinced 
the least animosity against Ojedn. He rather 
admired the latter as a consumninie warrior, lor 
having pounced upon him, and borne him i>IT in 
this lirtwk-like manner, from the very midst of his 

When Columbus entered the apartment where 

Caonubo was confined, all present rose, neconliiig 

to custom, and paid him reverence ; the oiciiiuu 

alune neither moved nor took any notice of him. 

1 Lu Cuu, Ui«t. Ind-, Ub. i. dp. 109. 




On the contrary, when Qjeda entered, Iliongh 
email in person and without extenml stale, C'no- 
aabo roee and saluted with him profound respecl. 
On being asked the reason of this, Culiimbus being 
Guanuquiua, or great chief over all, and QjedH 
bnt ODfl of his subjecif, the proud Cnrib replied, 
%hU the iidmiral hud itever dared to eome per- 
tonally to his Ijouse find M^ize him ; it was only 
through the valor of Ojoita he vras his prisoner ; 
to Ojeda, therefore, he owed reverence, not to the 

The captivity of Cnonnbo was deeply fell by 
bis subjects, for the natives of this island seem 
generally to have been extremely loyal, and 
strongly attached to their caciques. One of the 
brothers of Caonabo, o warrior of great courage 
and address, and very popular among the Indians, 
assembled an army of more than seven thousand 
men, and led them secretly to the neighborhood 
of St. Tliomas, where Ojeda was ngaiu in com- 
mand. His inlention was to surprise a number 
of Spaniards, in hopes of obtaining his brother in 
eichange for ihem. Ojeda, as usual, hud notice 
a( the design, but was not to be again shat up in 
his fortress. Having been reinforced by a detach- 
ment sent by the Adekntado, he left a sufficient 
tbnx in garrison, and with the remainder, and his 
little troop of horse, set off boldly to meet the 
•Bvages, Tlie brother of Caonnbo, when he saw 
the Spaniards approaching, showed some military 
■kill, disposing his army in five bnltalions. The 
impetuous attack of Ojeda, however, with his 
> Lu Cius, ubi Hup., cup. 103. 


r boreem«ii, thrwr the Indian warriors 
into ^uJilen panic. At the furious otiaet of (Lese 
J-cliul beings, wielding ibeir flaahiag weapons, 
•nd beatrklmg what appeared lo be feivdoQ^ 
beasts of pfey, thej threw down tbetr weapons 
■lul took to flight ; many were slain, more were 
token prisoners, and among the latter wa« the 
brother of Cnonabo, brnvelj fighting in a righl- 
eotu yet desperate cause-' 

ii. cap. L CharievoU, 



jHE colony waa still aiifiering graally 
from want of provisions ; lliu European 
Bt(»!k was nearly exhausted, and such 
was the idleness ond improvidence of Ihe colonists, 
or tie confiision into wliicli they hiid been thrown 
by the hoslililiea of ibe natives s or such wns their 
exdusire eagerness atYer the precious metals, that 
they seent to have neglected the true wenlth of 
Ihe Uland, its quick and-productive soil, and to 
b&YB been in constant danger of famine, though 
In Llie midst of fertility. 

At length they were relieved by the arrival of 
four ships, commanded by Antonio Torres, which 
brought an ample supply of provisions. Tlieie . 
were also a physician and an apothecary, whose 
aid was greatly needed in the sickly state of the 
colony ; but above all, there wei'c mechanica, mill- 
ers, Ushermen. gardeners, and husbandmen — the 
true kind of population for a colony. 

Torres brought letters from the sovereigns 
(dated August IG, 1404), of the most gratifying 



kind, expressing the highest saiisfaclion at the nc- 
counla aent home by the ftdmiml, nnd acknowledg- 
ing that everything in the course of his discovorieH 
had turned out as he hud predicted. They evinced 
the liveliest interest in the aflliiirs of the colony, 
and a desire of receiving frequent intelligence as 
to his situatjon, proposing that a caravel shoalil 
sail each month from Isabella and Spain. They 
informed him that all differences with Portugal 
were amicably adjusted, and acquainted him with 
the conventional agreement with that power rela- 
tive to a geograpliical line, separating llieir newly- 
discovered possessions ; requesting him to respect 
this agreement in the course of liis discoveries. 
Aa in adjusting the arrangement with Portugal, 
and in drawing tlie proposed line, it vas impor- 
tant to have the i>est advice, the sovereigns re- 
quested Columbus to return and be present at the 
convention ; or, in case that should be inconve- 
nient, to send his brother Bartholomew, or any 
other person whom he ^liould consider fully com- 
petent, furnished with such maps, charts, and de- 
signs, as might be of service in the negotiation.' 

There was another letter addressed generally to 
the inhnbitanla of the colony, and all who should 
_ proceed on voyages of discovery, commanding them 
to obey Columbus as implicitly as ihey woidd the 
Bovereigns themselves, under pain of tlieir high 
displeasure, and a line of ten thousand niarave- 
dies, fur each oSense. 

Such was the well-merited confidence reposed 

at this moment by the sovei-eigns in Columbus, 

^ Herrei*, deead. i. Ub. ii. op. IT- 


but whicli waa soon lo be blighted [>y the iiisiili- 
oua reports of wurililtsa men. He was ftlremly 
Bwui-e of tlie coiupkinta hiuI misrepresenlAtione 
wliich hitd been sent )ioiiie from the colony, and 
vrliich ivoulil be cuforceU by Mnrguritu and Friur 
Buylu. lie waa aware that bin Btniidiiig ii) Spain 
wiLs of that uncertain kind which a stmnger 
nlwnys posaesBca lu the service of a I'ui'eigu coun- 
try, where he has no friends nor connections to 
support him, and where even hia very merits in- 
crease the eagerness of euvy to cast him down. 
His efforts to promote the working of the mines, 
Biid to explore the rescoures of the island, hud 
been impeded by the misconduct of Miirgarile and 
the disorderly life of the Spaniards in general, yet 
be apprehended that ttie very evils which they 
bad produced would be alleged ngainst him, iind 
the want of prufitahle returns be cited to discredit 
and embarrass liis expeditions. 

To counteract any mia representations of the 
kind, Columbus hasleued the return of (he ships, 
and would have returned with them, not merely 
Ui comply with the wishes of tlie sovereigns iu 
beiug present at the aettlemeot of tlie geograph- 
ical line, but to vindicate himself imd his enter.. 
prises from the aspersions of hid enemies. The 
Bulady, however, which confined him to his bed 
ineyented liia departure ; and bis brother Barthol- 
omew waa reijuired to aid, with liis practical good 
Beose and his resolute spirit, in regulating the dis- 
ordered ailUirs of the island. It was determined, 
tbereEore, to send Imme his brother Diego, to nt- 
. to the wishes of the sovereigns, and to take 



care of Ma interests at court At the aume time, 
he exerted himself to tbe utmost lo send by the 
ships saiisfncloi'y pnxifs of the vnlue of his dis- 
coveries. He remiited by thetn all the gold thivt 
he could collect, with specitnetis of other tnet&ls, 
and of various fruits aiid ruluable plants, wliicli he 
had collected either in Hispaniola or \t\ the courae 
of his voynge. Id his engemess lo procure im- 
mediate profit, and to indemnify the sovereigns for 
those expenses which bore hard upon the royal 
treasury, he seni, likewise, uboiit five hundred la- 
diao prisoners, who, he suggested, might be sold 
as slaves at Seville. 

It is painful to find the brilliant renown of Co- 
lumbus sullied by so foul a slain. The customs 
of the times, however, must be pleaded in liis 
tkpology. The precedent had been given long be- 
fore, by both Spaniards and Portuguese, in their 
African discoveries, wherein the triiific in slaves 
had formed one of the greatest sources of pro6l. 
In fiict, the practice had been sanctioned by the 
Church itself, and the most learned theologians 
had pronounced all barbarous and infidel nations, 
who shut their ears to the truths of Christianity, 
fair objects of war and rapine, of captivity and 
slavery. If Columbus needed any practical ilins- 
tratiun of this doctrine, he had it in the conduct 
of Ferdinand himself, in his late wars with the 
Meal's of Granada, in which he had always been 
surrounded by a crowd of ghostly ndviaers, and 
had professed to do everythhig for the glory and 
advancement of the faith. In tliis holy war, as 
it was termed, it was a common practice to make 



inronds inio ihe Moorii^ti terriloriea iind curry 
off eavalKfodtu, not merely of flocks and herds, but 
of humsQ being:), and those not warriors taken 
with weapons id their hiknda, but quiet villagers, 
laboring peosftiitry, and helpleas women and chil- 
dren. These were carried to the mart at Seville, 
or to other populous towus, aud sold into slavery. 
The capture of Malaga was a memorable insiimce, 
where, as a punishment for an obstinale aud 
brave defense, wKicli should have excited a<1mira- 
tion rather than reveuge, eleven thousand people 
of both sexes, and of all ranks and ages, many 
of tbem highly cultivated and delicately reared, 
were suddenly torn from their homes, severed 
frotn each other, and swept into menial slavery, 
even though half of their ransoms bad been paid. 
These circumstances are not advanced to vmdi- 
Cate, but to palliate the conduct of Columbus. 
He acted but in conformity to the customs of the 
times, and was sanctioned by the example of the 
sovereign under whom he served, hua Casus, the 
xealous and enthusiastic advocate of the Indians, 
who suffers no opportunity to escape liim of 
exclaiming in vehement terms against their sla- 
very, speaks with indulgence of Columbus on this 
bead. If those pious and learned men, he ob- 
serves, whom the sovereigns look for guides and 
instructors, were so ignorant of the injustice of 
ibis practice, it is no wonder that the unlettered 
admiral should not be conscious of itH impropri- 

1 Lu Ciuaa, Ili^l. Ind,, Inm. i. up. 132, MS. 




BraaOTWITHSTANDING tbe defeat of Oie 
RkWi ^"'''"'^^ ^7 Qjeda, the^ still retained 
WwM hoslJIe intentions agaiust ibe Spaniards. 
The ides of tlieir cacique being a piisoiier, and 
in diains, enraged liie natives of Maguana; and 
tbe general synipath; manifested hj otlier tribes 
of the islanil ahows bow widely tlial intelligent 
savage bad exteoded bis influence, and bow 
greatly he was admired. He bad still active and 
powerful relatives remaining to attempt bis rescue 
or revenge hia full. One- of bis brothers, Mauica- 
olex by name, a Carib, bold and warlike as him- 
self, succeeded to tbe sway over his subjects. His 
favorite wife also, Anacnona, so famous for her 
charms, had great influence over Iter brother 
Beliechio, cacique of tlie populous province of 
Xaragua. Througli these means a violent and 
general hostility to the Spaniards was excited 
ihrougliout the bland, and the formidable league 
of the caciques, which Coonabo hod in vain at- 



tempted to iicoomplis)] wLeo al large, wua produced 
By liis caplivity. Guncnnagari, the cacique of 
Hu-ien, nlone remnined fWeiidlj to the Spaniards, 
giving tlieni liniely informatiou of the gnliieriug 
ilorm, and offiiriug to lake the field with Ihem as 
B fiuthful ally. 

The protmcled illneas of Ccilumhus, the srain- 
tineesof his military force, and the wretched stule 
of the colonists iu general, reduced by sickness 
and scarcity lo great bodily weakness, had hitljerlo 
induced him to try every incttns of eoncilaiion and 
Btrstagem to avert and dissolve the confederacy. 
He had at lenglli recovered his health, and his 
ibllowers were in some degree refreshed ami in- 
Ttgorated by the supplies brought by the ships. 
At this time, he received intelligence that the 
Killed caciques were actually assembled in great 
force in tlie Vega, within two days' march of Is- 
Abella, with an intention of making a general us- 
Nult upon the settlement, and overwhelming it by . 
numbers. Columbus resolved to take the field at 
once, and to carry the war into the territories of 
the enemy, rather than suffer it to be brought to 
lo his own door. 

The whole sound and effective force that lie 
oould muster, in the present infirm state of the 
-colony, did not exceed two hundred infantry and 
twenty howp. They were armed with cross-bows, 
Bwords, lances, and espingnrdas, or heavy arque- 
buses, which in those days were used with rests, 
moA sometimes mounted on wheels. With these 
formidable weapons, a handful of European war- 
lion, cased iu steel and covered with buaklers. 


were able to cope with ihouHands of naked sav- 
ages. They luid aid of nnollier kind, liowever. 
consisting of twenty bloodhounds, anininlB Bcarce- 
\y less terrible to the ladiaaa than tlie horsey 
and infinitely more fatal. They were fearle^ sad 
ferocious; nothing daunlcd them, nor when they 
had once seized npon their prey, could anything 
compel lliem to relinquish their bold. The uHkcd 
bodies of the Indians offered no defense against 
their attacks. They sprang on them, dragged 
them to the earth, and tore them to piecee. 

The admiral waa accompanied in the expedition 
by his brollier Bartholomew, whose counsel and 
aid he sought on all occasions, and who had not 
merely great personal force and undaunted cour- 
age, but also a decidedly military turn of mind. 
Guacanagari also brought liis people into the 
field : neither he nor his subjects, however, wer% 
of a warlike character, nor calculated to render 
much assistance. The chief advantage of his co- 
operation was, that it completely severed him from, 
the other caciques, and insured (he dependence 
of himself and his subjects upon the Spaniards. 
In the present infant state of tho colony its chief 
security depended upon jealousies and dissensions 
sown among the native powers of the island. 

On the 27ih of March, U95, Columbus issued 
forth from Isabella with his little army, and 
Taticed by marches of ten leagues a day in quest 
of the euemy. He ascended again lo the mon 
tain pass of the Cavaliers, whence he had fii 
looked down upon the Vega. With what differe 
feelings did he now contemplate it. The vile pas- 



lions of till! white men liiid alreaiiy coiiverltd 

tniling, bciiutiful. iiiiil once pcHceful anil lios- 

pitable region, into it land of wrath and hostility. 

Wherever the enioke of an Indian town rose from 

femong llie trees, it marked a horde of exaaperaled 

I enemies, and ilie deep rich forests below him 

[ Amnned with lurking warriors. In the picture 

, which hia {[naginniion had dmwn of the peaceful 

i inoffensive nature of this people, he had flal- 

i hinaself with the idea of ruling over ihera 

a patron and benefactor, but now be found him- 

I Belf compelled to assume the odious character of 

a conqueror. 

The Indians had notice, by their scouts, of hia 
approach, but though they had already had some 
fliigbt experience of the warfare of the while men, 
they were confident from the vast superiority of 
tbeir numbers, which, it is said, amounted to one 
bnndred thousiind men.' This is probably an ex- 
aggeration : as Indians never draw out into the 
open Geld in order of bailie, but lurk among the 
forests, it is difficult to ascertain tlieir force, and 
ibeir rapid moviiments and sudden sallies and re- 
treats from various parts, together with the wild 
thoulB and yells from opposite qnnrlcrs of the 
woodlands, are calculated to gire an exaggerated 
idea of their number. The army must, however, 
have been great, as it consisted of the combined 
forces of several caciques of this populous inland. 
It was commanded by Manicaolex, the brother 
of Caonabo. The Indians, who were IJttle skilled 
in nutneration, and JDcapable of reckoning beyond 
Lbi Cams, Hiat. lad., lib. i. cap. 104, MS. 


ten, hnd a simple mode of aBcertniuing nnd de- 
Bcribiog the force of aa enemj, b^ coiiuliug oat a 
gmn of maize or Indiaci corn for every warrior. 
When, therefore, (he spie«, who had wulched from 
rocks aud thickets the march of Ckiliimbii^, came 
back with a mere bandful of com ns the amount 
of his army, the caciqiiea scoffed at the idea of bo 
scanty a number makiug liead sgaiosC their count- 
less multitude.' 

Columbus drew near to the enemy about the 
place where the town of St. Jago has since been 
built. The Indian army, under Manicaot'ex, was 
posted on a plain interspersed with clusters of for- 
est-trees, now known as the Savaima of Matanza. 
Hiiving ascertained the great force of the enemy, 
Don Bartholomew adrised that tlieir little army 
should be divided iMa detachments, and should 
attack the Indians at the same moment from 
several quarters : this plan was adopted. The 
infantry, separating into difierenl bodies, advanced 
suddenly from various directions with great din 
of drums and trumpets, and a destructive dis- 
clinrge of fire-arms from the covert of the trees. 
The Indians were thrown into complete confusion. 
An army seemed pressing upon ihem from every 
quarter, their fellow- warriors to be laid low with 
thunder and lightning from the forests. While 
driven together and confounded by these attacks, 
Alonxo de Ojeda charged their main body impet- 
nously with his troop of cavalry, cutting his way 
with lance and sabre. The horses bore down the 
terrified Indians, while their riders dealt their 
■ Lu Cuu, ubi Blip. 



Uowe on all sides unopposed. Tlie bloodhoiiiidfi 
at the same lime rushed upon the naked savages, 
seizing them by the throat, dragging them to the 
earth, aud tearing out their bowels. The Indians, 
tmoGcustomed lo lai'ge and iierce qnadrupede of 
an; kind, were slruuk with horror wlien assailed by 
these ferocious aniraals. They thought the horses 
equally 6erce and devouring. The contest, if 
such it might be called, was of short duration. 

The Lidians fled in every direction, with yells 
and bowlings; some clambered to the top of 
-rocks and precipices ; whence they made piteous 
Bopplicatioiis, and offers of complete submission ; 
many were killed, many made prisoners, and the 
GODfederacy was, for the lime, complelely broken 
Dp and dispersed. 

Guscaua^ari had accompanied the Spaniai'ds 
into the field according lo his promise, but be 
WBB little more than spectator of this battle, or 
lather rout. He wns not of a martial spirit, and 
both he and his subjecls must have shrunk with 
awe at this unusual and terrific burst of war, even 
though on the part of their allies. Hia piirticipa- 
tion in the hostilities of the white men wtis never 
ibrgiven by the other caciques, and ho returned 
to bia dominions, followed by the hatred and ex- 
Borations of all the islanders. 



OLCHBCS fclkiwed ^ bk netafjr bf 
I ■aking ■ niBtuT loar ikvogli vatioM 
I fart* of tlw klud, and ndndag llNa 
Tbe nalnro node occmmmmI al- 
lenpto ai oppoMlioo, b«tt we easil; dwi^d. 
(^e^'« treop of caTalrf wa» of ^rvai efficacj' 
from [be rapidity of its moTemetiU. tbe active in- 
trepidity of ita commaader, and tbe temor insjnred 
tij the boraea. There was do serrice too wild 
and iMzardone ior Ojeda. If bbj af^)e*ranGe of 
war nroae in a diRtant pan of the ooantrj, he 
wimld penetrate with his little equndron of cav- 
alry through the depths of the forests, and fall 
like a ihunderboll upon the eneniv, disconcerting 
all thu'iT corobioQlions aud enforcing implicit sub- 

Till' RoyAl Vega was eoon brought iiiio sub- 
jection. Being nn immense pi sin, perfectly 
level, it WHS ensily overrun by tbe horsemcu, 
whofw appearance overawed the most populous 
villagM. Guarionex, its sovereign cacique, was 



of B mild and placable cbnrncter, and thougli Im 
had been rutised to war bj the instigation of the 
oughboriDg chief)niiis, he readily aulimitled to the 
domination of the SpHDiorde. Manicnotez, the 
brother of Cnonabo, whs also obliged to sue for 
peace ; and being the prime mover of the con- 
federacy, the other caciques followed his example. 
Behechio alone, the cacique of Xaragoa, and 
brother- in-law of Caonabo, made no overtures of 
submiaaion. His territories lay remote from 
Isabella, at ihe western extremity of the islnnd, 
oroand the deep bay called ihe Bight of Leogan, 
And the long peninsula called Cape Tiburon. 
Tbey were difficult of access, and bad not as jet 
Ijeeo visited by the white men, Ht: retired into 
hia domains, taking with him his sister, the 
beautiful Anncaona, wife of Caotiabo, whom he 
cherished with fraternal affection under her mis- 
ibrtunes, who soon acquired almost equal sway 
over his subjects with himself, and was destined 
Bubaequently to make some figure in the events 
of the island. 

Having been forced to take the field by the 
confederacy of the caciques, Columbus now as- 
MTted the right of a conqueror, and considered 
how he might turn his conquest lo most profit. 
His cunstant anxiety was to moke wealtliy 
Rtums to Spain, for the purpose of indemnifying 
tbe sovereigns for their great expenses ; of meet- 
tbe public expectations, so extravagantly ex- 
cited ; and above all, of silencing the ealumniea 
q( those who had gone borne determined to make 
tlie most discouragiug representations of bb dis- 



coTBriea. He endeayored, thercfure, to nlte n 
large and immediate rerenne. bj impo^iog heavy 
tributes oa the subjected proTinoes. In those of 
the Vega, Cibao, and tH the region of tlie mines, 
each individual above the age of fonrteen years 
was required to paj, every three okonths, the 
measure of a Flemish hawk's-bell of gold doBl.' 
Tlie caciques had lo pay a much htrger amount 
for their personal tribute. Sfanicaotes, the 
brother of Caonabo, was obliged individually to 
render in, every three months, half a calabash of 
gold, amounting to one hundred and Rfiy pesos. 
In those disliicls which were distant from the 
mines, and produced no gold, eucb individual was 
required to furnish an arrobn (iwenty-five pounds) 
of cotton every three months. Each Indian, on 
rendering this tribute, received a copper medal 
aa a oertiScale of payment, which he was lo wear 
suspended round his neck: those who were found 
widiout such documents were liable to arrest and 

The taxes and tributes thna imposed, bore hard 
upon (he spirit of the natives, accustomed to be 
but lightly tasked by their caciques ; and the 
caciques themselves found the exuctions intoler- 
ably grievous. Guariunex, llie Eovereign of the 
Royal Vega, represented to Columbus the difii- 

1 A hiwkVbell, ■ 

rcording lo 


'■ioilHiit. Ind.,11 

t>. i. 

cap. ins), contiiiu ■ 

bout three c 



tquil to live doUam 

and in «t< 

i; tile siiperinr vatu 


golil in IhoM da?!i, 


o m 

«n dollan of our I 

A quiiaiit)> of gold worth one b 

uudml »nd llfty ojiMJn 



rui hundred ui<l 

nlQel;-e<t^t dollar 


^^PcDlty he hail ill (Mn]|iiying with llie terms of bis 
^^ tribute. His richly fertile plain yielded no gold ; 
nnd though the mounljiius ou his borders coniaiiied 
minee, and their brooks and loirents waslieil dowu 
gold dust iuio the sauds of the rirers, yet his 
SDbjecL-< were not skilled in the art of collecting 
it. He proffered, therefore, instead of the tribule 
required, to cultivate with grain a baud of coutjiry 
stretching neroas the island from aea to sea, enough, 
says Laa Casus, to have furuished all Castile with 
bread for ten jear8.' 

His offer was rejected. Columbus knew that 
gold alone would satisfy the avaricious dreams 
excited in Spain, and insure the popularity and 
success of his enterprises. Seeing, however, the 
dit&culty that many of the Indians hud in furnish- 
ing the amount of gold dust required, lie lowered 
the demand to the measure of one half of a 
^^ hawkVbell. 

^^L^ To enforce the payment of these tributes, and 

^^^B In maintain ibe subjection of the island, Columbus 

^^^ put the fbnresfl already built in a strong state of 

defense, and erecied others. Beside tliose of 

Isabella, and of St. Thomas, in the mountains of 

Cibno, there were :iow the fortress of Magdalena, 

»in the Hoynl Vega, near the site of the old lowu 
of Santiago, on the 4-iver Jolaqtia, two leagues 
from the place where the new town was after- 
trards built ; another called Santa Calalina, the 
site of which is near the Estencia Yaqui ; another 
culled Esperanza, on the banks of the river Yaqui, 
facing the outlet of the mountain pass La Fuerla 

1 Las Casus, Hist. Ind., lib. i. cap. 105. 


de ioa Hidalgos, now the pass of Mamey ; bnt 
the most important of those receuily erecled, was 
Fort CoDccplioii, in one of the moiit Truilful and 
beautiful pnrts of the Vega, aboul lifleen leagues 
lo the east of E»peranza, coDtrulliog the extoiisife 
and populous domains of Guariones.^ 

In this wtiy was the j'oke of servitude fixed 
upon the islnnd, and its llirtiltdom efTecttiHlly in- 
sured. Deep despair now fell upon the naiires 
when they found a perpetual tesk inflicted upon 
them, enfurced at stated and frequently reeurring 
periods. Weak and indolent by nature, nnased 
to labor of any kind, and brouglit up in the un- 
tasked idleness of their sod climate and llieir 
fruitful groves, death itself seemed preferiible to 
a life of toil and auxiety. They saw no end to 
this harassing evil, which bod so suddenly fallen 
upon them ; no escape from its all-perrading 
influence ; no prospect of return to that roving 
independence and ample leisure, no dear to the 
wild inhabitants of the forest. The pleHsaiit life 
of the island was at an end ; the dream in the 
shade by day; the sUimher during the sultry 
noontide heat by the fountain or the stream, or 
under the spreading palm-tree ; and the song, the 
dance, aud the game iti the mellow evening, when 
summoned to iheir simple amusements by the rude 
Indian drum. Tiicy were now obliged to grope 
day hy day, with bending body and anxious eye 
along the borders of their rivers, sitiiug the sands 
for the grains of gold which every day grew more 
scanty; or to labor in their fields heiieath the 

> Lu Cuuu, utii lup., cap. 110, 



a tropical sun, to raise food for tlieu- 
lasktnasters. or to produce ilie vegetable tribute 
imposed upon them. They snrik to sleep wear^ 
and exhHusleit at night, with the certainty that 
the next day was but lo be a repetition of the 
same toil and Bufitiring. Or if they occasionally 
indulged in their nnrioual dances, the ballads lo 
which they kept time were of a melancholy 
and plaintive chwacler. They spoke of the 
times that were past, before the while men hod 
introduced sorrow, and slavery, and weary labor 
among ihcm ; and they rehearsed pretended 
prophecies, handed down from their ancestors, 
foretelling the invasion of the Spaniards ; thai 
Strangers should come into their island, clothed in 
apparel, with swords capable of cleaving a man 
asunder at a blow, under whose yoke their pos- 
terity elu>uld be subdued. These ballads, or 
araytos, they sang with mournful tuues and dole- 
ful voices, bewailing the loss of their liberty, snd 
Uieir painful servitude.' 

They had flattered themBelvea, for a time, th^t 
the visit of the strangers would be but temporary, 
and that, spreading their ample saib, their ships 
would once more bear them back to their home 
in iLe sky. In their simplicity, they had repeat- 
edly inquired when they intended to return to 
Turey, or the heavens. They now beheld them 
taking root, as it were, in the island. They 
beheld their vessels lying idle and rotting in the 
harbor, while the crews, scattered about the 
country, were building habitations and Ibrtresses, 
1 reler Martyr, decad. iii. lib. ix. 

Tbey ipeed i 

cnlliraiB the frwts, the nnCs and isaHe, Uteir 

dutf aitKiea of fbod, ud to desli 

pmri^; hofKD^I^ ptodncmg « 

Iha Miaaccn &wb (he iebmd. Thej linle knew, 

ohnnrtB Lm Cmss, ona of the ch«nctcriMics of 

the SfwiuM^ii. who, tlie ■»*« hoi^Ty ihef are, 

the turn inflexSde dte^ become, umI the ■■«« 

banleued to eudar« au^riog.^ Tbey ouried 

their plan gvoerally inio eSecL. abnnduoo^ Ifa^ 

httbiliitiuuis l«jiug waste their fields and groves, 

uhI Kiinng Ui the mituutaiDS. where there were 

ruots and berbe and abundance of utias for their 


This meaauiv did indeed produce much distress 
amoog the Spaniards, but they had foretga n- 
MHiTcee, And were enabled to eudure it by bii&- 

» Lm Cuu. Hist Ind., lih. i. cap. lt». 

» So HMMatihi U pnprivlul -it 1u* Ejtxiaolce. lo* caaic* 
euulo ou* hambcMDioii. Unii> mavar (smb Ii*aan t ■—- 
«u« »n i, »Mr » («« ,u,ri,. u. C«aj. Bist.lni.Bh. 


Ilanding the partial 8u|>])liee brought bj tlicir 
Bipa; the most ilisiistrous effects tell upon the 
puivei theniselvea. The Spnniartk etatioDeil in 
■a variouB fortresses, GntliDg tliat there was not 
Ibl; no hope of tribute, but a danger of famine 
ftam this wanton wuste and sudden desertion, 
pursued the uuiivea to their retreats, lo compel 
lliem to return to labor. The Indiana luok 
^^^^refage in the most sterile am! dreary heights; 
^^^E^ing from one tvild retreat to another, the 
^^^Bpomen vith their children in tlieir arms or at 
^^^nbeir backs, and all worn out with fatigue and 
boDger, and liariisaed by perpetual alarms. In 
every noise of the forest or the mountain they 
fancied they heard the sound of their pursuers ; 
they hid themselves in damp and dismal caverns, 
or iu the rocky banks and margins of the torrents, 
and iu)t daring to hunt, or fish, or even to venture 
forth in quest of nourishing roots and vegetables, 
they had lo satisfy their raging huti^r with iin- 
wholeeome food. In this way, many thousands 
of Ihem perished miserably, through famine, 
&l)gue, terror, and various contagious maladies 
engendered by llieir sufferings. All spirit of 
opposition was at length completely quelled. 
The surviving Indians returned in despair to 
their habitations, and submitted humbly to the 
yoke. So deep an awe did they conceive of their 
conquerors, that it ia said a Spaniard might go 
singly and securely all over the island, and the 
natives would even transport him &om place to 
place on tlieir shoulders.^ 

I tu Cuu, Hut. Ind., 

c. 106. Hilt dd AlmiraDli, 



Belurc i>M*ing on to other evenis, il nwy be 
BtujMr liero Ii> notice the faie of Guacaimgari, tu 
M mnke* uo furtlicr »ppeai-aiiise in the course of 
UtU liUlory. Uis friead^bi)) for the Spuiiiarde 
Itkil Mvi*ro(l him from his i»untr7nieu, but did 
not OKOUVrHlu hita from ihe geoenJ woes of the 
Ulauil. Itis ivrriiories. like those of the other 
iwdque*, wrv MitJMMd to a tribute, which his 
unu)ili), wiiti Uw cantDon repagmtnce lo labor, 
Riuuil il difficult lit |WT. Columbus, who knew 
ih WMiits tuftd cvuU IwT« ])n>tect«d hini, nns 
kui^ vAu^'mX vilW in tb« iatrrkw of llie island, 
w dulttiuoj ib Eitrwp« hr bk own wroogs. In 
Ihu iiilvrviJ, tbo Syauiwiii txgat the hoapilmlitj 
ttLul ■vi'Vtwn uf UttMaMigui, aad bia tfibuio mu 
liuttld^- vXAoWil. Uv liNWit bMulf overwhelmed 
Wilh opiAtx-twiiMtt bun his ciMmtrvtoen at large, 
i^tid LUUMilud b>- tlM <Aun»« and tnmuiUUatui of 
ttu akitt)Mu.£ lulycvei. tW ^tnagcrs wbom he 
UinX uKivVMvi) ill <)<r>irT>«a. auil takn as it were to 

ilw 'i 

idiMnJ. h«l bnniw iu 


~ CV.. ul loil, •»! 



.»J. >id te fell » if I.0 


"■■'■ .^ lu» T1MW. Vnmhie to tmr 

(1«U Wl<lllK« 

^4 hU. tallow «difuM. die wxMB of 

W. .,,li,,l., 

I\|l .U.. . ■. 



msrsTOPBEs columbub. 

tade b; ca9tiii>; ei sligmrt on bia nnrne. He ap- 
pears to bare nlways mnnifested towanls Iliem 
that Inte frientlship whic)i eliiaea briglitest in the 
dftrfc days of adversity. He migtit liave played 
a nobler part, in mnkjng a stAnd, with bis brother 
caciques, to drive these iulrudcrs from his native 
soil ; but he appears to have been fasciiiEited by 
hia admiraiion of tNe eirangera, and his personul 
ailacbment to Columbus. He was houiiliful, lios- 
pilAble. affeclionate, and kiud-lieavted ; competent 
to rule H gentle and uuivarlike people in the 
happier daya of the island, but unliltcd. ibrougfa 
9 Boldness of bis nature, for the stem turmoil 
%]uch followed the arrival of th« white tueu. 





^niLC Columbus was cndenvoriag U> 

iiKtJy the evils produced by tlie mis- 
idiict of Margarttc, IliHt recreaut coin- 
mnuder ttiid las politicitl coadjutor, Friar Boyle, 
were busily undermining his repiilalion in tbe 
court of Gitslile. They accused him of deceiving 
the sovereigns and the public by extravagaot 
descriptions of the couutries be bud digcovertxl ; 
they pronounced the island of Hi«pnuiola u source 
of expense rather than profit, and they drew a 
dismal picture of the sufferings of the colony, 
occasiuued, as tbey said, by the oppressions of 
Columbus and his brothers. Tbey charged them 
with tasking the community with excessive labor 
during a time of general sickness and debility ; 
with stopping the rationa of individuals on the 
most trifling pretext, to the great detriment of 
their health; with wantonly inflicting severe 
corporal punishments ou the common people, and 
with heaping indignities on Spanish gentlemen of 

^^_ disco' 



They said imlKitig, however, of the ex- 
ides which hod calltd Ibr uiiuaual laborj nor 
the idleaesa mid protligacy which required 
VOOerciou and cliustisemeDt ; nor or ihe seditious 
cabals of the Spanish cavaliera, who liad been 
treatetl with indnlgence rather than severity. In 
addition to tlieae coiuplaiuts, they represented the 
Itate of confusion of the island, in consequence of 
the nbsence of the admiral, and the uncerlaiiity 
wliicli prevailed conceniing hia fate, intimating 
Ihe probability of his liATing perished in his fool- 
hardy attempts to explore unknown seas, and 
discover unprofitable lands. 

Tliese prejudiced nod exnggei'aled representa- 
&ins derived much weight from the otlicial situa- 
of Margarile and Friiir Boyle. They were 
ipported by the testimony of many discooteoted 
id factious idiera, who had returned with them 
'to Spain. Some of lliese persons had connexions 
of rank, wlio were ready to resent, with Spanish 
haoghtiuess, wliat lliey cousidered tlie arrogant as- 
sumptions of an ignoble foreigner. Thus the pop- 
ularity of Columbus received a vital blow, and im- 
mediately begnii to decline. The conHdence of 
the sovereigns also was impaired, and precautions 
were adopted which savor strongly of the cautious 
and suspicious policy of Ferdinand. 

Il was determined to send some person of trust 
and confidence, who sliould lake upon liiniself the 
government of the island iu case of the continued 

■ of the admiral, ; 

, of his 


I Ihe 

jged evils tuid abuses, and remedy such as 



should appear really in exisleDCe. The peraoa 
proposed for iliis diiBcult office wea Diego Cnrillo, 
a commander of a military order; bat as he was 
not imraedintely prepared to sail will) the fleet of 
caraveb about to depart with supplies, the sov- 
ereigns wrote to Fonseca, the superluteiideut of 
Indian affairs, Co Bend some Iruaty person wilh 
the vessels, to take chai^ of the provisions with 
which they were freighted. Theae he was to 
distribute among the culomats, under the super- 
vision of the admiral, or. iu case of his absence, 
in presence of those in authority, lie was also 
to collect information concerning the manner in 
which the island had been governed, the conduct 
of persons in office, the causes and nuihors of 
existing grievance?, and the measures by which 
they were to be remedied. Having collected auch 
information, he was lo return and make report 
to the BuvereigDS ; but in cime he should find the 
admiral at the island, everything was to remain 
subject to his control . 

There was another measure adopted by tlie 
sovereigns about this time, which likewise shows 
the declining favor of Columbus. On the 10th 
of April, 1405, a proclamation was issued, giving 
general permission to native-bom subjects to 
settle in the island of Hispauiok, and lo go on 
private voyages of discovery and traffic to the 
New World. This was grim led, subject to 
certain conditions. 

All vessels were to sail exclusively from the 
port of Cadiz, and under the inspection oi* oftii-era 
appointed by the crown. Those wlio eiobiirked 



far HUpRniok wiihout paj, and Fvt their owi 
pense, were to h;ive knds nssigned lo [hera, 
to be provisioned for one year, with a rigl 
TGtiun such lands, and all houses t)>ey n 
erect upon ihem. Of all gold which X\w.y n 
collect, they were to retain one [bird for them- 
selves anil pay two ibirds in tbe crown. Of all 
Other articles of merchnndise, tbe produce of the 
island, ibey «-ere to pay merely one tenth lo tbe 
croWD. Their purchases were to be made in the 
presence of officers appointed by the sovereigns, 
Bitd the royal duties paid into the bHiids of the 
kjog's receiver. 

Eiich ship sailing on private enterprise, was to 

take one or two persons niitned by the royal 

officers at Cndiz. One tenth of the tonnage of 

the ship was to be at the service of the ciown, 

&ee of charge. One tenth of whatever such 

ships should procure in the newly-discovered 

I countries, was to be paid to the crown on their 

I return. These regulations included private ships 

[ trmding to HispanioU with provisions. 

For every vessel thus fltted out on private 
I adventure, Columbus, in consideration of his 
I privilege of an eighth of tonnage, was to have 
he right lo freight one on bis own account 

This general license lor voyages of discovery 
was made in consequence of (he earnest applica- 
tion of Vincent Yafiez Pinzon, and other able and 
intrepid navigators, moat of whom had sailed 
I irilh Columbus. They offered lo make voyages 
I M ibcir own cost aiul bazarvl. Tlie offer was 
I leanpling and weli'ttmed. The govemmeDt was 



poor, the expeditiona of ColumbuH were ex- 
pensive, yet their object n-as roo impoitsDt In be 
neglected. Here was ati opporliitiity of attaiuing 
oil the ends proposed, not merely wkhoat expeDee, 
but with s certaioty of gnin. The permission, 
therefore, was granted, without conguUing the 
opiDion or the wishes of the adniinil. It wiis 
loudly oomplnined of by him, as an in fringe men I 
of his privileges, and as disturbing the career of 
regular and well-orgitnized discovery, by the li- 
centious and sometimes predatory enterprises of 
reckless adventurers. Duubtlcss, much of (lie 
odium that has attached itself to the Spanish dis- 
uoveriea in the New World, has arisen from ibe 
grasping avidity of private individuals. 

Just at this juncture, in the early part of April, 
while the interests of Columbus were in such a 
critical situation, the ships eommnnded by Torres 
arrived in Spain. They brought intelligence of 
the safe return of the admiral to Hispaniola, from 
bis voyage along tiie southern coast of Cuba, with 
the evidence which he had collected to prove 
that it was the extremity of the Asiatic continent, 
and that he had penelr»ted to the borders of the 
wealthiest countries of the East. Specimcnii 
were likewise brought of the gold, and the 
various animal and vegetable curiosities, which 
he had procured in the course of his voyage. 
No arrival could have been more timely. It at 
once removed all doubts respeciing his safety, 
and obviated the necessity of pari of the precau- 
tionary measures then on the point of being taken. 
The supposed discovery of the rich coast of A^ia, 



61 ^ 

nbo, (brew a tempomr; spletidor about his 
pcdilion. and agnin awakened Ilie gratilude of [he 
sovereigoa. The effect wns immediately appitrent 
in iheir roeaBurea. Instead of lenviug it to the 
discretion of Juan Bodrigueis de Fonaeca to 
appoint whom lie pleased lo the commission of 
inquiry about lo be sent out, they retracted that 
|iuner, and numinated Juan Aguado. 

Be wea chosen, because, on I'eturniug from 
Hispaniola, tie had hecii eirongly recommended 
to royal favor by Columbus. It was intended, 
therefore, as a mark of consideration to the latter, 
to appoint as commissioner a person of whom he 
hnd expreescd so high an opinion, and who, it was 
to be presnmed, entertained for him a gralefnl 

Fonsecs, in virtue of his official station as 
BDpenntendeat of the affairs of the Indies, and 
probably to gratify his growing animosity for 
Columbus, had detained a quantity of gold which 
Don Diego, brother to the admiral, had brought 
on his own private account. The sovereigns 
,Wrote to him repeatedly, ordering him not to 
imaod the gold, or if he had seized it, to return 
lediately, with satisfactory explanations, and 
to Columbus in terms calculated lo 
llhe any angry feelings which he might have 
tcited. He was ordered, also, to consult the 
recently arrived from Hispaniola, in what 
he could yield satisfiiction to the admiral, 
and to act acconlingly. Fonseca thus suffered 
one of the severest hnmiliations of an arrogant 
f being obliged to make atonement 



for ils siTogatice. It quickened, howeFer, the 
malice which he had coiiceired aguinst Che ad- 
tniinl and his family. tJiifortuiialiily his official 
situation, and ihu royal conGdeiice which he en- 
joyed gave him opportunities of grutifyiug it sub- 
aeqtieutly in a tliouaniid itiaidioua tvays. 

While tlie sovereigns thus endeavored to avoid 
aay act wliich might give umbrage to Columbus, 
they took certain measures to provide for the tran- 
quillity of the colony. Iti n letter to the admiral, 
they directed that the number of persona in the 
settlement should be limited to five hundred, a 
greater number being considered unnecessary for 
the service of the island, aud b burdensome ex- 
pense to the crown. To prevent further discontents 
about provisions, they ordered that the rations of 
individuals should be dealt out in portions every 
fifteen days ; and that all punishment by short al- 
lowance, or the sloppuge of rations, should be dis- 
continued, as (ending to injure the health of the 
colonists, who required every assistance of nour- 
ishing diet, to fortify them against the maladies 
incident to a strange climate. 

An able and experienced metallurgist, named 
Pablo Belvis, was sent out in place of the wrong- 
lieadod Firmin Cedo. He was furnished with all 
the ueeessary engines and implements for mining, 
assaying, and purifying the precious metals, and 
with liberal pay and privileges. Ecclesiastics were 
also sent to supply the place of Friar Boyle, and 
of certai'B of his brethren, who desired to leave 
the island. The instruction and conversion of the 
natives awakened more aud more (he solicitude 



of the queen. Id Ilie ships of Torres, a lurgc 
nnmber of Indians arrived, who hikd been cupt- 
nred in the recent war? irilh the CHciques. Royal 
(H^ers had bceu issued, that they sIiduM be sold 
IS sIhtcs in the tnnrketa of Andalusia, as had been 
l]te cuBtom with respeut to negroes taken on the 
It of Afrini, and to Aloorish prisoners captured 
'In the war with Granada. Isabella, however, had 
been deeply inierested by the accounts given of 
the gentle and hospilahie charac^ter of these isU 
Anders, and of their great docility. The discovery 
had been made under her immedintc auspioeB; she 
looked upon these people as under her peculiar 
and she anticipated, with pious eothuaiastn, 
the glorjf of leading them from darkness into the 
'paths of light. Her compassionate spirit revolted 
At the idea of treating them as slaves, even though 
tanotioned by the cnalonis of the time. Within 
Ave days after the royal order for llie sale, a letter 
was written by the sovereigns to Bishop Fonaeca, 
suspending that order, until they could inquire in- 
to the cause for which the Indians had been made 
prisoners, and coasuU learned and pious theolo- 
gians, whether their sale would be justiSable in 
the eyes of Goii.^ Much difference of opinion 
took place among divines, on this important ques- 
tion j the queen eventually decided it according 
(o the dictates of her own pure conscience and 
Irritable heart. She ordered that the Indians 
should be sent back to their native country, and 
that the islanders should be cuncihated 

Tfa w»e« of wtftw md Tiih-iiBf. ynitwulby 
the bdpMaioMar tfe whMiB— J As "v^^ 

JUAN AGUADO set sail from Spain to- 
wards the end of August, with four 
caravels, well I'reighied with supplies of 
oil kiiiils. Don Diego Columbus retnrueil in this 
squadron to Ili^ptiniulii, and arrived at Isabella 
a the month of October, while the admiral vraa 
absent, ocoopied iii re&ttablislung the Irnnquillily 
ef the interior. Aguado, as hoa already been 
shown, was under obligations to Columbus, who 
kad dislingu ill lied him from among his companions, 
I Hiid had recommended him to the favor of the 
t sovereigns. He was, however, one of those weak 
I men, wlioae lieiids are turned by the least eleva- 
■ tion. Putfud up by a little temporary power, he 
lost sight, not merely of the respect and gralilude 
due to Columbus, but of the natui-e and extent 
of his own commission. Instead of acting as an 
agent employed to collect information, lie assumed 
a lone of authority, as though the reins of gov- 
ernment had been transferred into his hands. lie 
interfered in public atTaird ; ordered various persons 




to be arresled ; called to accooat the officers em- 
ploj^ by the adoural ; and paid no respect to 
Dcm Bartholoinew Columbia who renuiined io 
comnMuO duriug the iib»eDce of his brother. The 
Akletautado, HSionUbed at this presumpiiou, de- 
manded a sight of Ibe CDiniiussioD uuder which 
be HCled; but Aguado treated him with great 
haugfatiness, replying lliiii lie would show it only 
to llw admiral On sti-oud thoughts, howerer, 
kat there shou)<l be doubts in the public tniud of 
hii right to iuterfere in the affitirs of the colony, 
be ordered his letter of credence frocn the sover- 
eigns to be pompou^lj proctaimed by soond of 
tnunpet. Il was bri«f but comprehensive, to the 
ftiQowiiig purport: — - Caruliers, Esquires, and 
othw persons who by our orders nre in the Indies, 
we send to you Juan Aguado<. our groom of the 
ehaii)ber», who will i^eak to yon on our part. We 
cooimaitd you to give him ftuth and credit." 

The report now drcuUted, that the downfall of 
Columbus and hiii family wa.4 at baud, and thai 
an auditor hjid arrived, empowered to hear and 
Io redrew the gricvsuces of the public This ra- 
mor origiuated with Aguudo bimsel£ who threw 
out meutue^ of rigid inTeetigatiotis and sipMl 
punisbaieuis. It was a time of jubilee for cAeoJr 
ers. Every culprit started up into aB afeu^er ; 
every one who by uegligeuce or crime bad in- 
curred the Mbokaoiue peualties of the law^ w^ 
loud iu his <:lamurs agaiu^l the opprea<ioci of Cb- 
lumbus. Then; were dls enough iu the colonv, 
gome luctdeut to its silualioo. others produced br 
the misdeeds of the b-otunists, but ail ware ascribed 



to tlie tnnl-adtnuistralioa of tlie adiniraL He wss 
mule responsible alike for the evils produced \>y 
Oilier^ and for his own Sleni remedies. AH ibe 
old cuiiipkiDts irera reiterated against him and his 
broibers, and the uaual and iUiberal cause given 
for Ilieir oppressions, that they were foreiguers, 
who sought merely their own interests aiid og- 
graiiilixemenl. at the expense of the eufierings 
and the indignities of Spaniards. 

Destitute of discrimination to perceive nhat 
was true and what false id these coraplainls, and 
Anxious only to condemn, Aguado saw in every- 
thing conclusive testimony of the culpability of 
Columbus. He iutimaled, aud perhaps thought, 
that the admiral was keeping at a diiituuce from 
leabelln, through fear of encoimlering his inves- 
tigatioQs. In the fuluoss of his presnmption, he 
even set out with a body of horse to go in quest 
of him. A vain and weak man in power is 
prone to employ Gatellltes of his own description. 
The arrogant and boasting followers of Aguado, 
wherever they went, spread rumors among the 
natives of the might and importance of their 
chief, and of the punishment he intended to inflict 
upon Columbus. In a little while the report cij'- 
ealated through the island, that a new admiral 
had arrived to administer the government, and 
that the farmer one was to be put to death. 

The Dews of the arrival and of ibe insolent 
oonduct of Aguado reached Columbus in the in- 
terior of the island ; he immediately hasttued to 
Isabella to give him a meeting. Aguado, liL'iiriiig 
>ef his approach, also returned there. As every 


BDQ knew the lofly spirit of Columbus, his Iiigh 
sense of liia services, and his jealous muiiitenance 
of his officiul digitlty, a violent explosion v/ta aa- 
ttcipftted ut the ii]i[>eDiliiig interview. Aguado 
also expectmi liomettiiDg of the kiad, but, secure 
in his royal letter of credence, he looked forward 
with the ignuritiii FiudEicity of a little iniiid to the 
I'esulL Tim eeciuel showed how difficult it is ior 
petty spirits la anticipate the conduct of a man 
like Columbus in uiiextriiordiuary situation. His 
natural heat and impetuosity hod been subJuBd by 
ft lite of trinla : he had learned to bring his paa- 
sious into subjecliou to his judgment; he hod 
100 true an csiimnte of his own dignity to enter 
iulo a contest with a shivllow bonster like Aguado; 
above all, he had a profound respect for the au- 
thority of bia sovereigns ; for in bis enthusiastic 
spirit, prone to deep I'eetings of reverence, his 
loyalty whs inferior only to his religion. He 
received Aguado, ilierefbre, with grave and 
punctilious courtesy ; and retorted upon him his 
own osleutatious cereoiouiat, oi'deriug that the 
letter of credence should be again proclaimed by 
souud of trumpet in presence of the populace. He 
listeued to it with soleom deference, and assured 
Aguado of his readiness to acquiesce in whatever 
might be the plea.iure of bis sovei'eigiis. 

This uuexpeoied moderation, while it aston- 
ished the beholders, foiled and diiuippoinied 
Aguado. He liad come prepared for n scene of 
altercation, and had hoped that Columbus, in the 
heat and impatience of the moincut, would have 
said or done something that might be construed 



inlo disrespect (or the authority of tlie sovereiguH, 
He enrfeavorw!, in fuel, some nionlhs iirtern-anis, 
to procure from tlie public notaries present, h 
{trejuilit^ial statement of the interview ; hut ihe 
deference of the ndmirikl for tlie royal letter of 
credence hnd been loo marked to be disputed ; 
and oil the tesiimoninls were highly in his fuTor.' 
Aguado continued to intermeddle in public 
affairs, and tlie reepect and forbearance with 
which he waa uniformly treated by Columbus, 
Knd the mildness of the latter in all his measures 
to appease the discontents of the colony, were re- 
garded BB prools of his loss of monil courage. 
He was looked upon as a declining man, and 
Aguado hailed nfl the lord of the ascendant, 
Every dastard spirit who had any hirkitig ill-will, 
my real or imaginary cause of complaint, now 
IiBBtened to give it utterance; perceiving that, in 
gratiiying his midice, he was promoting his inter- 
est, and that in vilifying the admiral, he was 
gaining the friendship of Aguado. 

The poor Indians, loo, harassed by the domi- 
nation of the white men, rejoiced in the prospect 
of a change of rulers i vainly hoping that it 
might produce a mitigation of their sufferings. 

' Miiiiy of the caciqueo who had promised allegi- 
ance to the admiral afier their defeat in the Vega. 
now assembled at the house of Manicaotex, the 

' brother of Caonabo, near the river Yagiii, where 
they joined in ii formal comphiitil against Colum- 
bus, whom they considered the cause of all the 
evils which had sprung from the disobedience and 
the vices of his followers. 

> Uerrer*. Bi^t. Ind.. decad. i. lib. u. cap. IS. 



A^rnado now otmndered the great object of hn 
nuMion fulSIIed. He bad ooQeAed informalion 
•nfficiail. na be (houglit, to inenrc tbe rnin ot* tli^ 
admiral and bis broiben, and he prepared to re- 
tttra to Spain. Culumbua rcaolved la do (lie 
aame. He fell tluit it was time to appear at 
coart, and dispel ibe cloud of calBiniij gathering 
against him. Me bad active enemies, of standing 
aod inlluence, who were seeking every occHsion 
to throw discredit upon bimself aud his enter- 
prises ; and, stranger and foreigner as be was, he 
bad no active frienda at court to oppose their 
machinatioDS. He feared that they might erent- 
nally produce an effect apon tbe royal mind, fiital 
to tbe progress of discovery : he was aoxions to 
return, therefore, and explain tbe retit cuu^-es of 
the repeated disappoiniments with respect to 
profits anticipated from his enterprises. It is not 
one of the least singular traits in this bislory, 
that afler having been so many yeare in persuad- 
ing manliinil that there was a new world to be 
discovered, be had almost equal trouble in proving 
to them the advantage of its discovery. 

When ibe ships were reaily to depart a terri- 
ble siorin swept the island. It was oue of those 
awful whirlwinds which occasioiially rage within 
the tropics, and were called by the Indians •' furi- 
canes," or " uricans," a name they still retain with 
trifling variation. About midday a furious wind 
sprang up from the east, driving before it dense 
volumes of cbud and vapor. Bncoontering an- 
other tempest of wind from tbe west, it appeared 
as if a violent conflict ensued. The clouds were 




rent by ioce^snnt flashes, or rather stretims of 
lighloing. At one lime tliey were piled up liigh 
in ihe aky, at another they swept to llie earth, 
filling the iitr wilh a baleful darkness more dii^mnl 
than the obscuriiy of midnight. Wherever Ilie 
whirlwind passe<], whole tracts of forests were 
shivered and stripped of tlieir leaves and branch- 
es : those of gignntic size, whicli resisted tlie blast, 
were torn up by the roots, tiTid hurled to a grent 
distance. Groves were rent from the mountain 
precipices, with vast musses of enrlli and rock, 
tumbling into the valleys wilh terrific noi^ and 
choking the course of rivers. The fearful sounds 
in the air and on the earth, the pealing thunder, 
the vivid lightning, the howling of the wind, the 
crash of fptUing ti'ees aud rocks, filled every one . 
with affright ; and many thought that the end of 
tiie world WHS at hand. Some fled to caverns 
for safety, for their frail houses were blown down, 
and the air whs filled with Ihe trunks aud branches 
of trees, ami even wilh fragmeiiLi of rocks, car- 
ried abng by the fury of the tempest. When 
the hurricane reached the harbor, it whirled the 
ships round as they lay at anchor, snapped their 
cables, and sank three of them with all who were 
on board. Others were driven airont, dashed 
against each other, and tossed mere wrecks upon 
the shore by the swelling surges of the sea, which 
in some places rolled for three or four miles npon 
the land. The tempest lasted for three hours. 
When it passed away, and the sun again appeared, 
the Indians regarded each other in mule astonish- 
ment and dismay. Ne?er in their memory, nor 


in the traditions of their anceatora, haii their 
island been visited by such a storm. They be- 
lieved that the Deity had sent this fearful ruin to 
punish Ihe cruellies and crimes of the white men ; 
and declai'ed that this people hod moved the very 
■ir, Ihe wuler, nnd tlie earth, to diKtnrb their 
tranquil life, tind to deflate their island.' 
1 BaiDiuiu, lorn. iii. p. T. Peler Mart}^, deod. i. lib. ir. 



jjN llie recent hurricane, llie foiir ciiravels 
of Agiiaiio Imd been destrnyed, together 

with iwo others wliich were xu the har- 
bor. The only vessel which survived was the 
NiiU, and llmt in a very shattered condition. 
Columbna gave orders to have her immedintely 
repaired, and another canivel construcled out of 
the wreck of tiinse which hnd been destroyed. 
While waiting until they should be ready fur sea, 
be was cheered by tidings of rich minea in (he 
interior of the ishind, the disrovery of whieh is 
ftliribuled lo an incident of a soroewiiat ronmntic 
nnture.* A young Arrugoninn, named Miguel 
Diax, ill the service of the Adelantado, having a 
quarrol with another Spaniard, fought with him, 
And wounded him daiigeroiisly. Fearful of the 
CODset^uences, he fled from the setliement, accom- 
panied by five or six comrades, who had either 
been engaged in the affray, or wure personnlly 
mttnched to him. Wandci'Ing about the islnnd, 
they came to an Indiiin vilhige on the southern 

1 Oncdo, Gnniu de loa IndUs, lib. ii. cap. 13. 


coast, Dear the mouth of the river Ozema, where 
the city of Snn Domingo m at present situated. 
They were received with kindness by the natives, 
and resided for aome lime among them. The 
Tillage was governed by a feranle cacique, wlio 
soon conceived a Blrong attachment for the young 
Arragonian. Diaz waa not insensible to her len- 
derness, a connection was formed between them, 
and they lived for some time very happily together. 

The recollection of bis country and his friends 
begnn at length to steal upon the thoughia of (lie 
young SpftaiarJ, It was a melancholy lot to be 
exiled from civilized life, and an outcast from 
among his countrymen. He longed to retuni to 
the seltleiaent, but dreaded the punishment that 
awaited him, from the austere justice of the Ade- 
loiitado. His Indian bride, observing him fre- 
quently mehinchaly and lost in thought, penetmled 
the cause, with the quick intelligence of female 
affection. Fearful that he would abandon her, 
and return to his countrymen, she endeavored to 
devise some means of drawiiig tlie Spaniards to 
thai part of tlie island. Knowing that gold was 
their sovereign attraction, she intbnneJ Dias of 
certain rich mines in llie neighborhood, and urged 
him to persuade his countrymen to abandon the 
comparatively sterile and UDhealtby vicinity of 
Isabella, and settle upon llie fertile banks of the 
Ocema; promising they should be received with 
the utmost kindness and hoi>pitality by her nation. 

Struck with the suggestion, Diaz made partic- 
ular inquiries about the minea, and was con- 
vinoed that they abounded in gold. He noticed 



flie superior fniiifulncas and beauly of the coun- 
,tij, ihe escellencu of the river, an<l the security 
of the harbor al its enlrance. He flatleret] liim- 
■elf thnt Ihe communication of such vahiable in- 
telligence would nuke liia peace al Lsabellii, and 
obtain his pardon from (he AdelaiitHJo. Full of 
these hopes, he procured guides from among the 
uatives, and taking a temporary leave of hia In- 
dian bride, set out with his coiumdea through the 
wilderness for the seltlemeiil, which was ahuut 
fifty leaguts distatit. Arriving there secretly, he 
karat to his great joy that the man whom he had 
wouuded had recovered. He uoiv presented him- 
self boldly before the Adelautjido, relying that 
his tidings would earn liis forgiveness. He was 
pot mistaken. No news could have come more 
<^>portanely. The admiral had been anxious to 
reowye the settlement lo a more healthy ond ad- 
TODlageous situation. He was doHirous also of 
carrying home some conclusive proof of the rich- 
ness of the isloiid, as Ihe most etfecluiil means of 
silencing the cavils of hb enemies. If the rep- 
resentations of Miguel Diaz were correct, here 
was a means of ejecting both these purposes. 
Measured were immediately taken to oscerlain 
the Inilh. The Adclantado set fortli in person to 
visit the river Ozenia, accompiinied hy Miguel 
Uiaz, Francesco du Garay, and the Indian guides, 
UhI attended by a number of men well armed. 
Tliey proceeded trom Isabelia to Mtigdaleiin, ujid 
ibenue across the Royal Vega to the fortress of 
Conception. Continuing on to the south, they 
e to a range of mountains, which they tntv- 


fined b; n defile tno leagues in length, and de- 
scended into another beaulitul plain, which was 
called BotiBO. Pi'ooeediiig hence for nume dis- 
(Mice, they came to a great river called Hayna, 
running llirougb a tertiie country, all rlie streams 
of which abounded in gold. On the weBtern 
bonk of tliis river, and about eight leagues from 
its mouth, ihcy found gold in greater quiuitities 
and in larger {lurliclea than had yet been met 
with in any part of the island, not even except- 
ing the province of Cibao. They made exper- 
iments in various places within tlie compass of 
six miles, and always with success. The soil 
seemed to be generally impregnated with that 
metal, so that a common laborer, with little 
trouble, might find the amount of three drachms 
in the course of a day.^ In several places they 
observed <leep excitvations in the form of pius 
which looked as if the mines hud been worked in 
ancient times ; a circumstance which caused mach 
epeculation among the Spaniards, the natives 
having no idea of mining, but contenting thetn- 
selves with the particles found on the surface of 
the soil, or in the beds of the rivers. 

The Indians of the neighborhood received the 
while men witli their promised friendship, and in 
every respect the representations of Kliguel Diaz 
were fully justified. He was not only panloneil, 
but received into great favor, and was subsequently 
employed in various capacities in the island, in all 
which he acquitted himself with great Bdeliiy. He 

u. cap. IB, PBl*r»Urtyr, 



kept his fnitli witli Lis Indian bride, by whom, ac- 
(nnling to O?iedo, he had two children. Charle- 
voix Buppoees that they were reguhirly cnatried, as 
the female cacique nppeara to have been haptized, 
being always meutioiied by the Clirisiiau name uf 

When the Adelaitlado relumed wilh this favor- 
able report, and vrilh specimens of ore, the aa\- 
ioiis heart of the admiral was greatly elated. lie 
gave orders that a Ibrtresa gh.iuld be immediately 
erected on the banks of the llayua, in the vicinity 
of the mines, and that they should be diligeotly 
worked. The fanded traces of ancient excava- 
tions gave ri^e to one of Iiis usual veins of golden 
conjectures. He had already surmised that His- 
paniola might be the aucient Ophir. He now flat- 
tered himself that he had discovered the ideuiical 
tnines, whence King Solomon had prot^ured his 
gold for the building of the temple of Jerusalem. 
~ supposed that his ships must have sailed by 
the gulf of Persia, and round Trapoban to tliis 
island,' which, according to hb idea, lay opposite 
to the extreme end of Asia, for such he firmly 
I believed the island of Cuba. 

It is probable lliaD Columbus gave free license 
o hifl imagination in these conjectures, which 
tended to throw a splendor about his enterprises, 
and to revive the langui^liing interest of the pub- 
lic Grunting, however, the correctness of his 
opinion, that he was in the vicinity of Asia, an 

1 Ovicdo, Cronica de loa IniJ., lib. ii. cap. 13. Cliarlcvoix, 
Bint. St. Domingo, tib. ii. p. 14a. 
■ FMn tSutjt, ditcid. i. lib. iv. 



error br do means surprising in the imperfect 
ftlitte of ^eograpliical knowledge, all bis consequent 
suppositions were fur from enlravagant. The 
ancient Ophir was believed to lie somewhere in 
the Eust, but its siiutition was a metier of contro- 
versy among the lenmed, and remains one of those 
conjectural questioiia about which loo much has 
been wrilteu for it ever to be eatiafactorily decided. 






new carflvel, the Sniita Cniz, being 
I finbliefl, nnd tbc Kina repiiired, Colum- 

I boa maJe every arrangemeiil for inime- 

ditite deparlnrc, anxiotis to be freed from (he 
growing airogaDce of Aji^uado, aod to relieve the 
colony from a. crew of factious and discootented 
men. He appointed lua brotber, Don Bartbolo- 
Bew. lu the command of the island, wiOi the title, 
which he bad already given him, of Adelanlado ; 
in case of his death, he was to be Boccceded by 
bis brother Dou Diego. 

On the lOiJi uf March the two caravels set sail 
fcr Spain, in one of which Colmnbus embarked, 
utd in the other Aguado. In consequence of the 
orders of the sovereigns, all those who could be 
, Bpared from tbc island, and some who liad wives 
tuid relatives in S|»Lin whom they wished to visit, 
returned in these caravels, which were crowded 
with two bandred nnd twenty-five passengers, the 



eick, the idle, the profligate, and tbe faciious. 
Never did a more miserable and dianppuintud erew 
return from » land of promiae. 

There were thirty IndiHtis also oii board of 
tbe caraveU, among wliom were the once redoubt- 
able cadque Caonabo, oue of his brothers, and a 
nepbew. Tlie curate of Los Pahicios observes 
tbat Columbus liad promised the cacique and his 
brother to restore them to Iheb- country aud their 
power, after be had taken them to visit the King 
and Qucun of Castile.' It is probable that by 
kind treatment, and by a display of the wonders 
of Spain and tbe gmTideur mid might of its »<)v- 
ereigiis. he hoped to rainqiier their enmity to the 
Spaniards, aud convert iht^m into importaut in- 
BtrumentB towards obtaining a secure and peace- 
able dominiou over the island. Caonnbo, however, 
was of that proud nature, of wild but vigorous 
growth, which can never be tamed. He remained 
a mocMly and dejected captive. He had too much 
intelligence not to pci'ceive that his power was for- 
ever blasted, but he retained bis haughtiness, even 
in the midst of his di.<spair. 

Being, as yet, but little experienced in the 
navi^ration of these seas, Columbus, instead of 
working up to the northward, so as to fall in with 
the truck of westerly winds, took an CAsterly 
course ou leaving the island. The consequence 
was, that nlmoat the whole of hia voyage was a 
toilsome and tedious struggle tbe trade- 
wiuda aud citlms which prevail between tbe trop- 
ics. Ou tbe Stli of April he found himself still 
1 Cut* da Ids PiJicios, cap. 131. 



in Uie ricinitj of tbe Caribbee liilatiiJ.'', wiib bis 
crews fiitigued nnd sirkly, niid his provisions rap- 
idly dimiiiisliing- He boru aivaj lo ihc souibwnrd, 
tbereibre, lu loucb aL [lie moat impurtant uf ihoso 
tslRiidB, in Beiircli of supplies. 

Ou SatiirJay the 9Ih, he anchored at Mariga- 
Iitiite. wheiict:, on the Ibliuwiug diiy, he mndu sail 
for Guadaloupi!. It was coulrary to lliu custoin 
of ColombuB lo weigh nuchor oti Sund;ij when 
in port, but the people murmured, and observed, 
tliat when iu quest of fooJ, it was no lime to 
M4knd on Bcrupk-s as to lioiy days.' 

Anchoring oST ilie island of Guadaloupe, the 
boat wHj sent on aUore well urmed. Before it 
could rtacli llie lond, a large number of females 
issued from the wuod», armed with bows and 
arrows, and deeoraled with tuHs uf leathers, pre- 
^fuing to oppose any dest^nt upou their shores. 
As the eea whs soniewhat rough, and a surf broke 
opon the beach, the boats rentaiiied at a distance, 
and two of the Indians from Ilispaiiiola swam to 
chorci Having expliiined to those Amazons that 
the Spaniards only sought provisions, i[i eiohange 
ibr which they would give articles of gii'at value, 
tiie women referred them lu their husbands, who 
were at the northern end of the iiihtud. As the 
bottle proceeded thilher. numbers of the natives 
were seen on the beach, who manifested great fe- 
rocily, shouting, and yelling, and discharging flights 
of Rrrows, whioh, however, fell fur short in tbe 
WAMt, .Seeing the boats approach the land, they 
bid themselves in the adjacent fbrest, and rushed 

' TliiL ilal AlmiTrnDlA, «p. S9. 



forth with hideous cries as the Sp&niarda were 
landiog. A dbcliarge of fire-arm^ drove ihem lo 
the woods and mouDlaiiis. trnd the boats met with 
no further oppwiiioa. Enienng the deserted haln- 
tatioQS, the Spaniards began to plunder and de- 
stroy, contrarj lo the invarinble injunctious of the 
ndrairal. Among other articles found in these 
houses, were honej and wax. tvhiirh Uerrers sup- 
poses had lieen brought from Terra Fi^nl^ as these 
roving people eollecied the productions of distant 
regions iu the course of their expeditions. Fer- 
nando ColuraboB roeniions likewise that there were 
hatchets of iron in their houses : these, however, 
must have been mude of a species of hard and 
heavy stone, already raeolioned, which resembled 
iron : or they must have been procured from places 
wliich the Spaniards had previously visiied, as it 
is fully admitted that no iron whs in u^e among 
ihe natives prior to the discovery. The sailors 
also reported that in one of the houses ihej found 
the arm of a man roosting on a spit befbre the 
fire ; but these facts, so repugnant to humanity, 
require more solid autlioriiy lo be credited ; the 
sailors had committed wnntoQ devastations in tliese 
dwellings, and may hove sought a pretext with 
which to justify [heir maraudings to the admiral. 
While some of ihe people were getting wood 
and water, and making cassavu bread, Columbus 
dispatched forty men, well armed, to explore the 
interior of the island. They returned on the fol- 
lowing day with ten womeo and three boys. The 
women were of large and powerful form, yot of 
great agility. They were naked, and wore their 


I loDg bair flowing loose upon their flLouldere ; some 

decaraled tbeir lieads with pliiinea of various 

colors. Among liiem was the wife of a cacique, 

• woman of great strength and proud spirit. On 

Uie approach of tlic Spiinitirds, she had fled with 

aa agility which 9000 left all her pursuers far 

behind, excepting u native of the Canary Islands 

remarkable for swiftness of fixit. She would have 

^^_ neaped even from him, but, perceiving that he 

^^L ms alone, and far fi'om his companione, she 

^^H tamed suddenly upon him, seized him with astoo- 

^^^^Uiing force, and would have strangled him, had 

^^^■.XDt the Spaniards arrived and taken her entangled 

^^B'^Kke a bawk with her prey. The warlike spirit of 

^^^V these Carib women, and the circumstance of find- 

^^^Vng them in armed bands, defending their shores, 

^^^Bdnring the absence of their husbands, led Colum- 

^^^K^ns repeatedly into the erroneous idea, that certain 

^^^KOf these islaocis were inhabited entirely by women ; 

^^^Vfcr which error, as has already been observed, he 

^^^B was prepared by the stories of Marco Polo con- 

^^^P earning an island of Amuzons near the coast of 

^^* Asia. 

Having remained several days at the island, 
ftnd prepared three weeks' supply of bread, Co- 
lombas prepared to make sail. As Guadaloiipe 
was the most important of llie Caribbco Islands, 
and in a manner the portal or entrance to all the 
reat, he wished to secure the friendship of the 
iohabitaula. He dismissed, thertifore, all the 
priaODers, with many presents, to compensate for 
the spoil and injury which had been done. The 
'e cadque, however, declined going on shore, 


preferring to remain and accompany the nallves 
of Uispaniola who vrem on board, keeping witb 
her also n young daughter. She had conceived 
a passion for Cautmbo, Iiavtiig found out (hat he 
was a native of the Caribbee Islands. His 
character and story, gatht^red from the othu" 
Indians, bad won the sympathy and admiration 
of this intrepid woman.' 

Leaving Guaduloupe on the SOth of April, and 
keeping in about the Iwuiil.y-secoud degree of 
latitude, the caravels again worked their way 
against (be whole current of the trade-winds, 
insomuch, that, on the 20tb of May, aAer a 
month of great fatigue and toil, they bad yet a 
great part of their voyage to make. The pro- 
visions were alreiwly bo reduced, that Columbus 
bad to put every one on a daily allowance of six 
ounces of bread and a pint and a half of water : 
as they advanced, the scarcity grew more and 
more severe, and was rendered more appalling 
from the uncertainty which prevailed on board 
the vessels as to their situation. There were 
several pilots iu the caravels ; but being chiefly 
accustomed to the navigaiion of the Mediler- 
I'anean or the Atlantic coasts, they were utterly 
confounded, aud lost alt reckoning when travers- 
ing the broad ocean. Every one had a separate 
opinion, and none heeded that of the admiral. 
By the beginning of June iliere was an absolute 
famine on board of (he ships. In ilie extremity 
of their sufferings, while death stared them in the 
face, it was proposed by some of the Spaniards, 

> Hist, del Alnuranle, up. 03. 




H» ft desperate alleruative, that they should kill 
and eat tbcir Indian priauners ; others siiggesttid 
that tbey shoultt throw them inio the sea, 09 90 
maoy expensive mid useless mouths. Nothing 
bat the abeolule authority of Columbus prevented 
this Inst counsel from being adopted. Ho repre- 
sented that the Indiaiis were their fellow- be ing.i, 
Borne of them ChrUtiaua like ihcmselveB, and all 
entitled to similar treatment. He exhorted ibem 
to a little patience, assuring them that tbey would 
•oon make land, for thai, according to big reckon- 
ing, they were not far from Cape St. Viucent 
At Ifaia all scoffed, for they believed themselves 
jet far from their desired haven ; some affirming 
that tbey were in the English Channel, others 
that they were approaching Galticia ; when Co- 
lumbus, therefore, conBdent in his opiniou, ordered 
thtit sail should be taken in ot night, lest tbey 
should come upon the land in llie dark, there was 
a general murmur ; the men eiclaiming that it 
was better to be cast on shore, than to starve at 
aat. The next morning, however, to their great 
joy, they came in sight of the very land which 
Columbus had predicted. From this time, he 
WHS regai'ded by the seamen as deeply versed in 
the mysteries of the ocean, and alnioel oracular 
in rontlers of navigation.' 

On the 11th of June, the vessels anchored in 
the buy of Cadiz, after a weary voyage of about 
three mouths. In the course of this voyiige, the 
unfortunate Caonabo expired. It is by thi: mere 
casual mention of contemporary writers, that we 

' Hist, del Almirimte, cup. 03, 

have any notice of this circumstance, which 
appears lo have been pRssed over us a matter of 
but lillle monienl- He nmintained liis haughty 
nature to the last, for his death is principally 
ascribed lo the morbiU melancholy of a praud but 
broken xpirii.' He waa an eslraonlinnry charac- 
ter iu savage life. From being a simpie Carib, 
he liad risen, by tiis enterprise and courage, to be 
the most powerful cacique, and the dominant 
spin! of the poptiloua island of Hnyii. He was 
the only chiefiaiu that appeared to have had 
sagacity sufficient to foresee (he fatal effects of 
Spanish ascendancy, or military talent to combine 
any resistance to its inroiids. Had his warriors 
been of his own itjirepid nature, the war which 
he raised would have been formidable in the ex- 
treme. His fate furnishes, on a narrow scale, a 
lesson to humnn greatness. Wheu the Spaniards 
first arrived on the coast of llayii, iheir imagin- 
ations were inflamed with rumors of a mngnifiuent 
prince in the interior, the Lord of the Golden 
House, the sovereign of the mines of Cihao, who 
reigned in splendid state among the mountains ; 
but a short time had elapsed, and this fancied 
potentate of the East, stripped of every illusion, 
was a naked and dejected prisoner on the deck of 
one of their caravels, with none, hut one of hia 

1 Cun d« los Pa1»do^ cnij. ISl. I'elcr StartiT, decad. i. 
lib. ii. Some bave iffimied thai Caonabo periebcd ia ona of 
the caravela nhich fonndfred in Ihf barbor of Isabella during 
the hnrricans, but tbe unitgd teatimon)- of the curala of Lo9 
Palacioa. Peter Martyr, and Fernaado Calumhiw, proves that 
ha ealled witb the admint do hia iitBni TorBse. 



own wttd native tieroiaes, to aympHihize in his 
■niBfiirtuiies. Alt his importance vanished with 
his I'reeiiom ; aearce any mention is made of Iiim 
dtiring his cnplivily, and with innate qualities of 
B high aikI heroic miture, he periaiied with the 
obscurily of one of the vulgar. 


bin mi t^itxt vi ibmitt. ant cnavb. 3 mmt mi 
aJ)eulH«w jvvnjuu. tn tfaw sbovK «m^ Ac 

•rnMil ul' i,\>liimbua <«ttM tit 



When the motley crowd of mnriners and ndveu- 
turers who had einbarked wilh xitch snnguiiie 

:pectatioiis landi.'d from Ihe vessels in the port 
of Cadiz, instead of a joyous crew bounding on 
shore fliislied with sucL-eas, and Inden with the 
spoils of iha goiden Indies, a fueble train of 
wretched men crawled fortli, emaciated by the 
diseases of the colony anil the hai'd.sliips of the 
ToyagBi who carried in tlieir yellow conn re nances, 
iays an old writer, a mockery of that gold wliicli 
lud been tlie object of their search, and who had 

ithing to relate of the New World, but talcs of 
:nes9, poverty, and diaappoinlment. 
Columbus endenvored, ea miicli as possible, to 

lunteract these unfavorable appearances, and to 

ivive ihe laugiiishiug enthusiasm of the public. 
dwelt upon the importance of his recent dis- 
sries along the coast of Cuba, where, as he 
Btipposed, he hud arrived nearly lo the Aurea 
Qiersonesus of the ancients, bordering on some 
of the richest provinces of Asia. Above all, he 
boasted of his discovery of the abundiint mines on 
the south side of Hispaniola, which he persuaded 
,liinieelf were those of tlie ancient Ophir. The 
lialeued to these accounts with sneering 

icredulity; or if, for a moment, a httle cxcile- 
meot was occasioned, it was quickly destroyed 
by gloomy pictures drawn by disappointed adven- 

In the harbor of Cadiz Columbus found three 

ravels, commanded by Pedro Alouso Nifio, on 

le point of sailing with supplies for the ooluny. 

[early a year had elapsed without any relief of 


the kind ; four caravels which had sailed i 
preceding Jnuuary having been lost on iLe eoast 
of the PcDinsitk.' Havj[ig read the ro^al letters 
and dispatches of which NiSo wna the bearer, 
and being informed of the wishes of the sover- 
eigns, as well as of the state of the public mind, 
Columbus wrote by this opportunity, urging tiie 
Adelantado, to endeavor, by every means, lo bring 
the island into a peaceful aud pro<iuciive state, 
appeasing all discontents and commotions, and 
Beizing and sending to Spain all caciques, or 
their subjects, who should be concerned in the 
deaths of any of Ilie culonisU. He recommeuded 
the most unremitting diligence in exploring and 
working the mines recently discovered on the 
river Unyna, and that a place should be chosen 
in the ne>ghl)orhood, and a seaport fouDded. 
Pedro Alonzo Niilo set sail with the three cara- 
vels on the 17tli of Juno. 

Tidings of the arrival of Columbus having 
reached the sovereigns, he received a gracious 
letter from them, dated at Almazen, 12th July, 
1496, congratulating him on his safe return, and 
inviting him to court when lie should have recov- 
ered frora the fatigues of bb voyage. The kind 
terms in which this letter was conched were cal- 
culated to reassure the heart of Columbus, who, 
ever since the mission of the arrogant Agnado, had 
considered himself out of favor with the sover- 
eigns, and fallen into disgrace. As a proof of 
the dejection of bis spirits, we are told that when 
he made his appearance this time in Spain, he 

1 HuGoa, Hitt. N. Uundo, lib. vi. 




bewd t 

dency — 

i3 cIhiI in ti humble garb, resembling in form 
i color ihe liabit of a Fraiicrsoiii monk, simply 
a coi-ii, nnd that he bad eiiSbred bis 
) grow like the brethren of that order.' 
09 probably Id fulfillnient of some peniten' 
V made in n moment of danger or ilespon- 
n prevalent iu tbo^e dayx, and 
frequently observed by Columbus, It betokened, 
however, much humility and depressiou of spirit, 
and afforded a striking contrast to his appearance 
on bis former triumphant reliini. He was doomed, 
in fact, to yield repeate<l examples of the reverses 
to which those are subject who have once launched 
from the safe shores of obscurity on the fiuctuutiag 
waves of popular opinion. 

However indifferent Columbus might be to his 
own personal appearance, he was anxious to keep 
alive the interest in his discoveries, fearing con- 
liQUally that the indifference awakening towards 
him might impede their accomplishmenl. On his 
way to Burgos, ttierefore, whore the sovereigns 
were expected, he made a studious display of the 
cariosities and treasures which he hud brougiu 
from the New World. Among these were collars, 
bracelets, anklets, and coronets of gold, the spoils 
of various caciques, and which were considered as 
trophies won from barbaric princes of the rich 
coasts of Asia, or the islands of the Indian seas. 
It is n proof of the petty standard by wliich the 
eublimt) discovery of Columbus was already 
estimated, that he had to resort to T ' 
meat to dazzle the gross perceptions 
tilude by the mere glare of gold. 

' Cunt J. 

19 Pllacioe 

cap. 131. Ovii 


He carried with bitn several Indians also, 
decoraled alter their savage faabion, and glitter- 
ing witli golden omametita ; amotig nliora were 
the brother and nephew of Caoatibo, the ibrmor 
about thirty years of age, the latter only ten. 
They were brouglit merely to visit tlie Iciug and 
queen, that they might be impressed with an idea 
of the grandeur and power of tlie Spanisli sover- 
eigns, after whieh they were to be restored in 
safely to their country. Whenever they passed 
through any principal pliioe, Columbus put a 
mnasive coUsr and ehiiin of gold upon the brother 
of Csonabo, as being cacique of the gulden coun- 
try of Cibao. The curate of Los Palacios, who 
entertained the discoverer and his Indian captives 
for aevei'al days in his house, says that he had 
this chain of gold in his hands, and that it 
weighed sii hundred casteUaDos.' Tiie worthy 
curate likewise makes mention of various Indian 
masks and images of wood or cotton, ivrought 
with fHntnslic faces of animals, all of which he 
supposed were repreeeniatiorjs of the devil, who, 
he oonoludes, must be the object of aduralioa of 
these islanders.^ 

The reception of Columbus by t)ic eovereigiiH 
was different from what Ije had aniicipiiied ; for 
he was treated ivith disiinguished favor, nor was 
any mention made either of the complaints of 
Miirgarite and Boyle, or the judicial inquiries 
oonducted by Aguado. However these may have 

I Eqnivalenl lo the vilne of three thouisad onu hundred 
■ Can da loa Filicins, ciji. 1)1. 



hs<l n tmn»ii.'nt efiuct on the minds uf tlie sover- 
eigns, they were too conscious of the great deserlB 
of Columbus, the extraanliunry diflicultiea of his 
■itnntioTi, not to lolemte whut they may iiave con- 
sidered errors on his part. 

Encouraged by tlie TAt'orflble countenance he 
experienced, i<ud by tlie iutereat with which Mie 
Gorereigiia listeiied lo his accuuut of his recent 
voyage along the coast of Cuba, and the diBcovery 
of the mines of Huynn, w]iii:h he failed not to 
represent aa the Ophir of the andenta, Columbus 
now proposed n further enterprise, by which he 
promUed to meke yet more extensive disuoveries, 
and to annex Term Firnia to their dominions. 
For this purpose he asked eight ships ; two to be 
dispatched to the isl.'ind of liispnnioln with sup- 
plies, the remmuini; six to be put under his com- 
mand for fl voyage of discovery. Tlie sovereigns 
readily promised lo comply with his request, and 
were probiibly sincere in tlieir intentions lo do so, 
but in the performance of their promise Columbus 
was doomed to meet with intolerable delay ; partly 
in consequence of the operation uf [lublic events, 
partly in consequence of the intrigues of men in 
office, — the two great influences which are con- 
tinually diverting and defeating the designs of 

The resources of Spain wen;, at Ibis moment, 
tasked to the utmost by the ambition of Ferdi- 
nand, who laviflhed all his revenues in warlike ex- 
penses and in subsidies. While maintainiug a 
contest of deep and artful policy with Fmncc, with 

the ultimate aim of 

the sceptre of Maples, 



lie waa laying llie foundi 
ful coDDectioD bj ihe 
dren, who were 
time arose that faintly ullii 

of a wide and powar- 
of the royal chil- 
; iu yeitre. At ibis 
s, which afterwiirds 

consolidated such iiii imrnens« empire 
graiidaoi) and successor, Charles V. 

While u large army was maintained in Italy, 
under Gonsalvo of Cordova, to assiBf the king of 
Naples in recovering liis throne, of tvhich he had 
been suddenly dispossessed by Cliarles VIII. of 
France, other armies were required on the fron- 
tiers of Spain, which were menaced with a French 
invasion. Squadrons also had lo be employed 
for the safeguard of the Mediterranean and At- 
lantic consia of the Peninsula, while a magniticeDt 
armada of upwards of a hundred ships, huTing 
on board twenty thousand persons, mniiy of them 
of the first nubility, waa dispatched to convoy the 
Princess Jnaiia lo Flanders, to be married to 
Philip, Archduke of Austria, and to bring back 
his sister Margarita, the destined bride of Prince 

These wide (ended operations, both of war 
and amity, put all the land and naval forces into 
requisition. They drained the royal treasury, 
and engrossed the thoughts of the sovereigns, 
obliging ihem also to journey from place to place in 
tbeir dominions. With sucli carea of an immediate 
and homefelt nature pressing upon their minds, 
the distant enterprises of Columbus were easily 
neglected or postponed. They hud hitherto been 
sources of expense instead of profit ; and there 
were artful counselors ever ready lo whisper in 



the roynl ear, that lliey were likely ti 
BOi WTint, in the ambitious eyes of FerdiiiBticI, 
was the acquisition of n number of wild, uncul- 
tivated, and dlstaiil islands to tbat uf the brilliant 
domain of Naples; or the intercourse with naked 
and barbaroiia princes to that of an alliance with 
the most potent sovereigns of ChrisCendom P Co- 
lambua had the mortification, therefore, to see 
armies levied and squadrons employed in idle 
contests about n little point of territory in Europe, 
anil a vast armada of upwards of n liandred sail 
destined to the ostentatious service of convoying 
B royal bride; while he vainly solicited a few 
caravels to prosecute his discovery of a world. 

At length, in the autumn, eix millions of mar- 
aredis were ordered to be advanced lo Columbus 
for the equipment of his promised squadron.* 
Just as the sum was about to be delivered, a letter 
waa received from Pedro Alonzo Nino, who had 
arrived at Cadiz with his three caravels, on his 
retarn from the island of Hispaniok. Instead of 
proceeding to court in person, or forwarding the 
dispatches of the Adelantado, he had gone to visit 
his family at Huelva, taking the dispatches with 
bim, and merely writing ia e. vaunting style, that 
he bad a great amount of gold on boanl his ships.^ 

This was triumphant intelligence to Columbus, 
who immediately concluded that the new mines 
were in operation, and the treasures of Ophir 
about to be rea.Iized. The letter of Nino, how- 

' Equivilenl to eiglity-eb 

fix dollan of tlu present di 

> Lu CaMi, Hilt. Ind., 1 

andced and liny- 

ever, whs fated to have a most injurious effect od 
his coDccma. 

The king at that raoment was in immediate 
want of money, to repair the fortress of Salza. in 
Boussillon, which had been sacked by the French; 
the six millioutt of muravedis about to be ndranced 
lo Columbus, were forthwith appropriated to patch 
Up the shattered castle, anil an order was given 
fur the amount to be paid out of the gold bhiught 
by Nifio. It was not until the end of December, 
■when Nino arrived at court, and delivered the 
dispatched of the A-deisotado, that his boast of gold 
was discovered to be a mere figure of speecli. and 
that hia caravels were, in faot, fi-eighled with 
Indian prisoners, from the sale of wliom the 
vaunted gold was lo arise. 

It is difficult to describe the vexalious cffttcts 
of this absurd byperboio. The hopes of Cohim' 
bus, of great And immediate profit from the mines, 
were suddenly cast down ; the zeal of his lew ad- 
TOCBtes was cooled ; an air of empty exaggeration 
was given to his eniurprlses; and his enemies 
pointed with scorn and ridicule lo the wretched 
cargoes of the camvels, ns the boasted treasures 
of the New World, The report bronght by Nino 
and bis crew, represented lliu colony as In a dis- 
astrous condition, and the dispatches of the Ado- 
lantado pointed out the importance of immediate 
supplies ; but in proportion as the necessity of the 
case was urgeol, the mea'aure of relief was tardy. 
All the nn favorable representations hitherto made 
seemed corroborated aud the invidious cry of 
" great cost and little gain" was revived by those 


poIilidaDS of petty sagacity and microscopic eye, 
wboi in all grenl uiidertaicinga, can diiicern the 
iromediitte expense, without having scope of vision 
to embrace liie future profit. 



■M not until the following spring of 
I 1497, that (he eoncena of Columbus 

I and of llie New World, began to receive 

serious allenLion from tlie sovereigns. The fleet 
hnd returned from Flandera with the Princeas 
Margarita of Austrin. Her nuptials with Prince 
Jaan, the heir-appurent, had been celebrated 
Sui^os, the capital of Old Castile, with extroor- 
diuary splendor. All the grandees, the digiiit«' 
ries, and chivalry of Spain, together with ambas- 
eadora from the principal potentates of Christen- 
dom, were assembled on the occasion. Burgos 
was for some time a. scene of chivalrous pngenul 
and courtly revel, and the whole kingdom cele- 
brated, with great rejoicings, this powerful alli- 
ance, which seemed to insure to the Spwiisli sov- 
ereigns a cotiti nuance of their extraordinary 

In the midst of these festivities, laabelln, whose 
matertml heart had recently been engrossed by 
the marriages of her children, now that she was 


relieved from these concerns of a tender aod dij- 
intered into the affairs of (he New 
World with a spirit that ehowed she was detcr- 
mint^ to place them upou a subatanlial founJaliou, 
as well 09 cleiirly to dufine the powers, tiud re- 
ward the services of Columbus. To her prolecl- 
ing zeal all the provisious in favor of Coliimhiis 
must be attributed ; for the king began to look 
coldly on him, luid tlic royal counselors, who 
liad most iiiHuence in the affairs of the Indies, 
were bis enemies. 

Various royal ordinniices dated about this time 
manifest the generous and considerate dispoBition 
of the queen. The rights, privileges, and dig- 
nities granted to Coluinbus at Santa F4> were 
again confirmed j a track of land in Hispaniola, 
fifty leagues in length, and twenly-Qve in breadth, 
was oSered to him with the title of duke or 
marquess. This, however, Columbus had the 
(brbearHnce lo decline ; lie observed llmt it would 
only incrciuie the envy which was already ao vir- 
ulent against him, and would cause new misrep- 
resentations ; as he should be accused of paying 
raore attention to the settlement and improve- 
ment of his own possessions, than of aay other 
part of the inland,' 

As the expenses of the expeditions Imd hitherto 
&r exceeded the returtis, Columbus had incurred 
debt rather than reaped profit from the share he 
bad been permitteil to take in them; lie wai> re- 
lieved, therefore, fium his obligation to bear au 
oghlb part of the cost of the past enterprises, ex- 

1 1^ Cuas, HiEt. Ind., lib. i. up, 123. 


(opting the sum whicli he had advanced towards 
the first voyage ; at the same lime, however, he 
was not to claim an^ share of what hud hitherto 
been brought from the islaad. For three eosuiug 
years he wiis to be allowed an eighth of the gross 
proceeds of every voyage, and au additional tenth 
after the costs had been deducted. Afler Ihe ex- 
piration of the three years, the original terms of 
agreement were to be resumed. 

To gratify hia hoDorable ambition also, and to 
perpetuate in his family llie distinction gained by 
bis illustrious deeds, he was allowed the right of 
establishing a mayorazgo, or perpetual entnil of 
bb estates, so that they might always descend 
with his title-s of nobility. This he shortly alW 
exercised in a solemn testament executed nt Seville 
in the early part of li98, by which he devised his 
estates to Lis own male descendants, acid on their 
failure, to tlie male deaeeiidanis of his brothers, 
and in default of male heirs, to the females of bis 

The heir was always to bear the arms of the 
admiral, (o seal with them, to sign with his signa- 
ture, and in signing, never to use any other title 
than simply '* Tlie Admiral," whatever other titles 
might be given him by the king, and used by him 
on other occasions. Such was the noble pride 
with which he valued tbis title of bis real great- 

In this testament he made ample provision for 
bis brother, the Adelanlado, his son Fernando, 
and his brother Don Diego, the last of whom, he 
intimates, had a desire to enter into ecclesiastical 





life. He ordered that a tenth part of tlie-ref&- 
nues nrising from the tnayonizgo should be defV 
ted to pious nnd choritablQ purposes, and in 'r»*' ; 
lieving all poor persons of his lineage. He maiJe ' 
provisions for the giving of mnrriage portions to 
to (he poor females of his family. He ordered 
thai a married person of liis kindred who had 
been born in his native city of Genoa, should he 
maintained there in compelence and respectability, 
by way of keeping a domicile for the family 
there ; and he commandetl whoever should in- 
herit the mayomzgo, alwiiyB to do everylhing iu 
Ids power for the honor, prosperity, and increase 
of the city of Genoa, provided it should not bo 
oonirsry lo the service of the Church, and the in- 
terest of tlie Spanish crown. Among various 
other provisions in this will, he solemnly provides 
tar his favorite scheme, the recovery of (he holy 
eepolchre. He orders his son Diego, or whoever 
else may inherit his estate, to invest from time to 
time as much money as he can spare, in stock in 
the bank of St. Gtorge at Genoa, to form u per- 
manent fund, with which be is lo stand ready at 
any time to follow and serve the king in the con- 
quest of Jerusalem. Or should the king not un- 
dertake such on enterprise, then when the funds 
bnve accumulated to sufficient amount, to set on 
foot B crusade at his own charge and risk, iu 
hopes that seeing his determination, the sovereigns 
may be induced either to adopt the undertaking, 
or to authoriiie him to pursue it in their name. 

Beside this special undertaking for the Catholic 
Mlh, he charges his heir, in case there should 


iiAie 'any schism in the Church, or any viotenco 
'oAnaciDg its proaperiiy, lo throw himself ni the 
' '"fe^t of the pope, and devote his person and 
'property to defenJ the Church from all iusult and 
spoliation. Next to ihe service of God. he eiijojna 
loyally to the throne ; commanding him at all 
limes lo serve the sovereigns aud tlieir heirs, 
fHiihriilly and zealonsly, even to the lo»8 of life 
anil estate. To insure the constant rememhrance 
nf thia testament, be orders his heir thnl. before 
he confesses, he shall give it lo bis father con- 
fesfor to rend, who is to exatnine him upon his 
faithrul fui&Uraent of its conditions.^ 

As Columbus had felt aggrieved by ihe general 
licen^ granted in April, 1495, to make discoveries 
in the New World, considering it as interfering 
with his prerugH lives, a royal edict was issued On 
the 2d of June, 1497, retmcltng whatever might 
be prejudicial lo his interests, or lo the previous 
grants made him by the crown. " Ii was never 
our intention," said the sovereigns in their edict, 
" in any way lo affect the rights of the said Don 
Christopher Columbii!>, nor to allow ihe conven- 
tions, privileges, and favors which we have 
granted him (o be encroached upon or violated ; 
but ou tlie contrary, in consequence of tlte 
services which he bos rendered us, we intend to 
confer still further favors ou bim." Such, there 
is every reason lo believe, was the sincere inten- 
tion of the magniiaimous Isabella ; but the stream 
of her royal bounty was poisoned or diverted by 
the hose channels through which it flowed. 

t This teiliDieat i> inserled M lit^e in tlie Appendix. 



Thi; fiivor sliowti to CoIumbuB viim ejctended 
likewise to his ramily. The titles aiid prcrog- 
Klivos of Aileluiitiido, with which lie hiid invested 
his brother Dou Btirlholomew, ii«d u[ Hrst Hwak- 
«iied the displeasure of the king, irho jenloualy 
icserved all hi^h digiiittea of the kind to be 
gnmted excliisiveiy by (he crown. By a royal 
letter, the office was now couferred upon Don 
BKfthoIoQiew, aa if through spontaneous favor of 
the sovereigus, no Kllnsion being miule to his 
Laving previously enjoyed it. 

While all these measures were taken for ihe 
immediate gratjficalion of ColuoiLus, others were 
'Bdopted for ihe intereals of the colony. Per- 
iimission was granted htm to take out three 
hundred ajid thirty persons in royal pay, of whom 
ferty were to be escuderos or servants, one hun- 
dred foot-Buldiers, thirty sailors, thirty ship-boys, 
twenty minors, fifty husbandmen, ten gardeners, 
twenty mechanics of various kinds, and thirty 
feninles. Ho was subsequently permitted to in- 
crease the number, if he thought proper, to five 
Iinndred ; but the additional individuals were to 
be paid out of [he produce and merchandbe of 
the colony. He was likewise authorized to grant 
lands to nil such as were disposed to cultivate vine- 
yards, orchards, sugar plantations, or to form any 
other rural establishments, on condition that they 
should reside as householders on the island for 
lour years after Buch grant; and that all the 
brazil-wood and precious melals, found on iheir 
lands, should be reserved to the crown. 

Nor were the interests of the unhappy natives 



forgotlea by the compassioiiHle heurl of Isabella. 
Notwithstnadiug the sophisms by which their aub- 
jectioD and servitude were made matters of civil 
uud divine right, and sanctioned by the political 
prelates of the day, Isabella always consented 
with the greslest reluctanci; lo the siHvery even 
of those who were taken in open warfare ; while 
her utmost solicitude was exerted to protect the 
nnolTending part of this helpless and devoted 
race. She ordered that the greatest care shoald 
be taken of their religious instruclion, and the 
greatest leniency shown in collecting the tributes 
imposed upon them, with all possible indulgence 
to defalcators. In fact, the injunctions given with 
respect to the treatment both of Indians and 
Spaniards, are the otdy indications, in the royal 
edicts, of any impression having been made by 
the complaints against Columbus of severity in 
his government. It was generally recommended 
by the sovereigns, that, whenever the public 
safety did not require steru measures, there 
should be manifested a disposition to lenity and 
easy rule. 

When every intention wea thus shown on the 
part of the crown to dispatch the expedition to 
the colony, unexpected difficulties arose on the 
part of the public The charm was dispelled 
which, in the precedin<! voyage, liad made every 
adventurer crowd into the service of Gilumbus. 
An odium had been industriously thrown upon 
his enterprises ; and his new-found world, instead 
of a region of wealth and delight, was considered 
a land of poverty and disaster. There was a 


difficnUy in procaring eitlier ships or ni«n Tor the 
Towage. To remedy the first of these duficiencies, 
one of those arbitrftry orders was issued, so oppo- 
site to our present ideas of commei-cial policy, 
empowering the officers of tlie c 
the service whatever ships ihey might judge 
Boi table for the proposed expeilition, together 
with their msslers and pilots ; and to fix such 
price for their remuneration, as the ofiieers 
ehould deem just and reasonable. To supply the 
want of voluntary recruits, a measure was adopted 
at the «ug^;eslion of Columbus,^ whicli shows the 
desperate alternatives to which he was reduced 
by the great reaction of public sentiment. This 
was, to commute Ihe sentences of criminals con- 
demned to banishment, to the galleys, or Co the 
mines, into Iransporlalion to the new settlements, 
e they were to labor in the public service 
without pay. Those whose sentence was banish- 
meut for life, to he transported for ten years ; 
! banished for a specific term, lo be trans- 
ported for hnlf IJmt time. A geijei-ttl pardon was 
pablished for all malefactors at liii^e, who williin 
a certain time should surrender themselves to the 
admiral, and embark for the anionics; those who 
had committed oSenses meriting death, to serve 
for two years, those whose misdeeds were of a 
' l^liter nature, to serve for one year.* Those 
only were excepted from this indulgence who had 
eommilled heresy, treason, coining, murder, and 
certain other specific crimes. This pernicious 
d., lib. i. «ap. 112, MS. 



measure, cnlculaled to poison the populullon of 
an infant cominuiiity fit its very »)urce, was a 
frgitfiil cauac of tronble to Coluinbuj:^, luid of 
misery nnd <lt:lrimeii( to the colony. It ha-i been 
frequently adopted by various na lions, whose 
superior esperionce abould have (aught them 
belter, and lias prored the bane of many a rising 
settlemeiU. It is assuredly as unualuntl for a 
inetropolia to cnst forth its crimes and vices upon 
ita colonies, as it would be for a parent wilfully 
to ingraft disease upon hi.i children. In both 
insiaticea the obligation of nature ia vitiated ; nor 
should it be matter of surprise, if the seeds of 
evil thus sown should bring fnrth bitter retribu- 

Not withstanding all these violent expedients, 
there was still a ruinous delny in fitting out the 
expedition. This is partly accounted for by 
changes which took place in the persons appointed 
to superintend the afiaira of the Indies. These 
concerns had for a time been consigned to Antonio 
de Torres, in whose name, conjointly with that of 
Columbus, many of the official documents had been 
made out. In consequence of high and unreason- 
able demands on the part of Torres, he was re- 
moved from oilice. and Juan Rodriguex de Fon- 
seca, Bishop of liadajoE, reinstated. The papers 
had, therefore, to be made out anew, and fresh 
contracts formed. While these concerns were 
tardily attended to, the queen was suddenly over- 
whelmed with affliction by the death of her only 
son Frin(« Juan, whose nuptials had been cele- 
brated with such splendor in the epring. It was 



the first of a series of ilome^tlc calamities which 
assailed her affeclionnte heart, and overwlielmed 
her with Hffliciion for [lie remainder of lier days. 
In tlie midst of tier distress, however, she still 
ihouglit of Columbus. In consequence of his 
ni^ui represenlatioiis of the misery to which the 
colony must be reduced, twu ships weru dis- 
patched in the beginning of 1498, under llie com- 
mand of Pedro FernandcK Coi-onel, freighted with 
•applies. The necessary funds were advanced by 
the queen herself, out of ihe moneys intended to 
fcirtn the endowment of her daughter laabella, then 
betrothed to Emanuel, King of Portugal. An in- 
stance (if her kind feeling tawnrd Columbus, was 
also evinc«d in ihe lime of her affliction ; his two 
SODB, Diego nnd Feniando, had been pages to the 

ceased prince ; the queen now look tLem, in the 

ne capacity, into her own service. 

Wkh all this zealous disposition on ihe part of 
the queen, Columbus still met with the most in- 
jnrioua and discouraging delays in preparing the 
six remaining vessels for his voyage. His cold- 
blooded enemy Foiiseca, having the superintend- 
enoe of Indian affairs, was enabled to impede and 
retard all his plans. The various petty nlBcers 
and agents employed in the concerns of the ar- 
mamenl, were many of tbem the minions of the 
bishop, and knew that they were gratifying him 
ht annoying Columbus. They looked upon the 
latter as a man declining in popularity, who might 
1m offended with impunity; they scrupled not, 
therefore, to throw all kinds of difficulties in his 
^ih, and to treat him occasionally with that ar- 


rogance which peltj aud igtioble o 

It seems almost incredible, at tlie present da;, 
that such important aad glorious liuterpriaes should 
have been subject to such despicable niDlestations. 
Columbus bore them all with eilent indignation. 
He was a stranger in the land he was benefiting ; 
he felt that the popular tide was setting against 
him, and that it was necessary to tolerate many 
present grievances for tiie sake of effecting hts 
great purposes. So wearied and diaheartened, 
however, did he become by the impediments art- 
fully thrown in his way, aud so dtagusled by the 
prejudices of the fickle public, that he at one time 
thought of abaadouiug bis discoveries altogether. 
He was chiefly induced to perserere by his grate- 
ful alttichment to the queea, and hia desire to 
achieve something that might cheer and animate 
her under her afflictions.^ 

At length, after all kinds of irritating delays, 
the six vesaeb were filtod for aea, though it was im- 
possible to conquer the popular repugnance to the 
service sufficiently to enlist the allotted number 
of men. In addition to the persons in employ al- 
ready enumerated, a pbysiciaD, surgeon, and apoth- 
ecary were sent out for the relief of the colony, 
and several priests to replace Friar Boyle and 
certain of his discontented brethren; while a 
nuniber of musiraans were embarked by the ad- 
miral, to cheer aud enliven the colonists. 

The insolence which Columbus had suffered 

from the minioDS of Fouseca throughout this long 

1 Letter of Columbus lo the aurao oi Fimce Juaa. 


^^^BToLrRcted time of preparation, harassed lii'm to 
^^Ube last moment of his fojoum in Spain, and fol- 
I lowed him to the very water's edge- Among the 

worthless hirelings who had annojod hiin, the 
most noisy and presuming was one Ximeno Bre- 
viesca, treasurer or accountant of Fooseca. He 
was not an old Christian, observes the vcnenible 
Las Cosas ; by which it is to be nndt^rsiood that 
he was either a Jew or a Moor converted to (be 
Catholic faith. He bad an impudent front and 
an unbridled tongiic, and echoing the sentiments 
of his patron the bishop, bad been loud in his 
abase of the admiral and his enterpriser. The 
very day when the squadron was on the point of 
weighing anchor, Columbus was assailed by the 
insolcuce of this Ximeno, either on the shore when 
aboDt to embark, or on hoard of bis ship where 
he had just entered. In the hurry of the moment, 
he forgot his usual self-command ; his iodignation, 
hitberlo repressed, suddenly burst forth ; he struck 
the despicable minion to the ground, and kicked 
him repeatedly, venting in this unguarded par- 
osysm, the accumulated griefs and vexations 
which had long rankled in his mind.^ 

Nothing could demonstrate more strongly what 
Columbus had previously suffered from the mach- 
inations of unworthy men, tban this transport of 
passion, so unusual in bis well-governed temper. 
He deeply regretted it, and in a. letter written 
_Mme time afterwards to the sovereigns, heeodeaV' 
. to obviate the injury it might do him in 
r opinion, through the exaggeration aud false 
Lu Cuu, Bial. Ind., lib. i. cip. 13S, HS. 



coloriog at his enemies. Hia apprehensions were 
uot ilUruunded, for Las Cnsaa rI tributes tlie humil- 
iating measures aliortly after adopted hy the sov- 
ereigns toward ColuinbuB to the uiiiavonible im- 
pressioti produced by this afikir. It had happened 
near at home, as it were, under tlie very eyu of 
ihe sovereigns ; it spoke, therefore, more quickly 
to their feelings than more imporiaJit allegations 
from a distance. The personal casligation of a 
pnblic officer wob represented as a llagrant instance 
of the vindictive temper of Columbus, and a cor- 
robiiration of the charges of cruelty and oppression 
Bent fi'om the colony. As Simeno was a creature 
of the i[ividiou3 Fonseca, the affair was represen- 
ted lo the sovereigns in the most odious point of 
view. Thus ihu generous inltutioDS of princes, 
and the exalled services of their subjecls, are Kpi 
to be defeated by the inlerveniion of cold and 
craAy men in place. By his implacable hostility 
to Columbus, aiid the secret obstructions which 
he threw in the way of the must illustrious of 
human enterprisua, Fonseca has insured peipetuity 
to his uame, coupled with the coutempt of eveiy 
generous mind. 


[N the 30l!i of May. 1498, diimbus set 
ea!l from llie port of Sh,[i Llkmi' iIc Bnr- 
rameda, with his sqiindrou of fix vessels, 
ird voyage of discovery. The route he 
propo«e'l to lake was ditTerent from lliat pursued 
in his iVjrmer voyages. He intemk-rt to depart 
from the Cnpe de Verde Islmids, sailing tq tlie 
Boath'West, until he should couie iindtir llie equi- 
noclia] line, ihen to steer directly westward wiili 
the favor of the trade-winds, until he should 
arrive at land, or Snd liimself id the longitude of 
Hiflpnnioln. Various cODsideratiotis induced liim 
to adopt this course. In his preceding voyage, 
when he coH»ted the southern side of Cuba, under 
the belief that it was the continent of Asia, he 
had observed that it swept off toward the south. 
Prom this circumstance, and from information 
gathered among the natives of the Caribbee 
Itknda, ho was induced to believe iliut a great 


tract of the raainland Iny lo tlie south of the 
countries he had ulreatly discovered. King John 
U. of Portugal, appears to have enteruined a 
similar idea ; as Herrera records an opinion ex- 
pressed by that monarch, that there was a con- 
tinent in the southern ocean.' If this were the 
case, it was supposed hy Columbus, that, iu pro- 
portion as be approached the equator, and ex- 
tended hie discoveries to climates more and more 
under the torrid influence of the sun, he should 
find the productions of nature sublimated by its 
rays to more perfect and precious qualities. He 
v/as strengthened in this belief by a letter written 
to him at the command of the queen, by one 
Jayme Ferrer, an eminent and learned lapidary, 
who, in the course of his trading for predous 
stones and metals, bad been in the Levant and 
in various parts of the East ; had conversed with 
the merchants of the remote parts of Asia and 
Africa, and the natives of India, Arabia, and 
Ethiopia, and was considered deeply versed in 
geography genemlly, but especially in the natural 
histories of those countries whence the valuable 
merchandise in which he dealt wms procured. 
In this letter Ferrer assured Coltirabus, that, 
aceordinii to his experience, the rarest objects of 
commerce, such ns gold, precious atones, drugs 
end spices, were obiefly to be found in the 
regions about the equinoctial line, where the in- 
habitants were black, or darkly coloi«d ; and that 
until the admiral should arrive among people of 

■ Herren, Hist. lad., dead. i. lib. iii. cap. D. 





auch complexions, he did not tfaink be would 
6iid thode luiii^les in grenC abundance.^ 

CoIambiiB expecied to tiud such people mora 
to tbe south, lie recollected that ibe natives of 
Hlspauiola hud spoken of black men who had 
once come to liieir isltind froro (be Routh and 
Amth-oaet, llie lieada of wlioae javelins were of a 
tan of melal which they called Guanin. They 
had given the admiral ^pecimetts of tins nietol, 
which on beiii^ ueaayed iu Spain, proved to be 
a mixture of eighteen parts gold, six silver, and 
eight copper, a proof of valuable mines in th« 
oouiiiry whence thej aitne. Charlevoix con- 
jecture'' that these blnck people may have come 
&om Uie Canaries, or Ihe woslem coast of Africa, 
and been driven by tem]>esl to the shores of Hi»- 
poniolB.^ It is probable, however, that Columbus 
had been in iitin formed as to their color, or had 
mieunderstood bis informants. It is difficult to 
believe tliat the natives of Africa, or the Cana- 
ries, could have performed a voyage of such 
magnitude, in the frail and scantily provided 
barks they were accustomed to use. 

It was lo ascertain the tniih of alt these sup- 
positions, and, if correct, to arrive lit tlic favored 
Uid opulent countries about ibe cquntor, inhabited 
by people of similar complexions with those of the 
Africflns ander the line, that Columbus iu his 
present voyage to the New World, took a course 
much further to the south than that which he had 
liitfaerto pnmned. 

> NiTuTtle, Co1«c., Inui. il 

t, Hist 



TSaina^ heard tkat a Fn 
cnfa^ at OqK Sl Tbm^ ke stood to tfte 
aoDlb-veM after iMTBig St. Lmht, toadnng al 
tfcs MuMb of Fofto Sulo and Madeira, when 
be Rnained a few daja iakiag in wood and 
waler and other rappfiaa, aad ChcD oooliaiKd iua 
eonne to Uk C^bu; Uands. On the 19tfa of 
June, he arrived ai Gomara. where there lay at 
■achor s FiCDch cnii^er with two SfHuti»h priiee. 
Od seeing the sqaadroD of Colambns staodiag into 
the harixir. l)ie captain of the prirateer pni to Ma 
ia all hasie, foUowed by hia.priics ; ooe of wfajeii, 
ia the barry of the mnment, left part of her sew 
on shore, makiog sail with only fbar of her armft- 
ment, and six Spanish prisoners. The admiral 
at first mistook Ifaem for oterchant ships alarawd 
by hia warlike appearance ; when informed of the 
truth, however, he sent ihree of his vessels in 
pursuit, hut they were too distant to be over- 
taken. The six Spaniards however, on board 
of one of the prizes, seeing assistance at liand, 
rose on their captor?, and the admiral's vessels 
coming Dp. the prize was retaken, and brought 
back in trinmph to the port. The admiral relin- 
qoi^hed the ship to the captain, and gave up the 
prisoners to the governor of ibe island, to be ex- 
dumged for six Spaniards carried off by the 

LeaTing Gomara on the 2Ist of June, Colnro- 

bos divided liis squadron off the island of Ferro : 

^ three of his ships he dispatched direct for His- 

paniola, to carry supplies to the colony. 0»e of 




Aew Bhips was commaiided liy Alouzo Sanchet 
de CnrnvRJal, Titilive of fiiteza, a man of much 
worth luiJ iiitfgri[y; the Beconi) by Pudro de 
Amna of Cordova, brother of DoiJa Beatrix 
HenriqneE, the mother of [he admiral'e BHcond 
■ou Fernando. He wa£ couHiii also of the un- 
EbrlDQale officer who commiimled the fortress of 
Ia Navidad at the time of the mnssikcre. The 
third WB8 commaDded by Junn Antonio Coluin- 
Ihu (or Colombo), a Genoese, related to (he 
Admiral, and a msTi of much juilgmeiit and 
CBtwcity. Thfse captaina were alternately to 
have Ihe oommand, and bear the signal liglit a 
week at a time. The admiml carefully poiuted 
ont their course. When they came in sight of 
Hiapaniola, they were to steer for the south aide, 
for the new port and town, which he supposed to 
be by this time established in the mouth of the 
Oiema, according to royal orders sent out by 
Coronel. With the three remaining vessels, the 
admiral prowenied his voyage toward.i the Cape 
de Vcnle IdIkdiIs. The ship in which he sailed 
was decked, the other two were merchant cara- 
vels,^ As he advanced within the tropics, the 
change of climate, and the close and sultry 
weather, brought on a severe attack of the gout, 
followed by a violent fever. Notwithstanding his 
painful illness, he enjoyed the full posaessioii of 
his faculties, and continued to keep his reckoning, 
and make his observations, with his usual vigilance 
and minuteness. 

On the 27lh of June, he cinived among the 

1 P. Martyr, dec»d. I lib. vi. 


Cape de Verde IslaDda, which, insteaii of the 
freshness and verdure which their name would 
betoken, preiienlpd an aspect of the most cheer- 
less slerililj. He remniued among these islands 
but a rery few days, beicig disappointed in Uis 
expectations of obtaining goats' flesh for ships' 
provisions, and cattle for stock fur the Lihuid of 
Hispaniola. To procure them would require 
some delay; in tlie mean time the heakli of him- 
self aud of his people suffered under the influence 
of the neather. The atmosphere was loaded with 
clouds and vapors ; neither sun nor 9tar was to 
bu seen ; a sultry, depressing terapeniture pre- 
vailed i und the livid looks of tlie iuhabiiante 
bore witness to the insalubrity of the climate.^ 

Leaving the island of Buena Vista ou the 3th 
of July, Columbuii stood to the south-west, iuteitd- 
ing to continue ou until ho found himself under 
the equiuKtial line. The curreiits, however, 
which ran to the north aiid uorlh-west among 
these islands impeded his progress, and kept him 
for two days in tight of the Island del Fnego. 
The volciiuic summit of this island, which, seen 
at a dbtance, resembled a church with a lofty 
steeple, and which was said at times to emit 
smoke and flames, was the last point discerned 
of the Old World. 

Continuing to the south-west, about one hundred 
and twenty leagues, he found himself, on the 13th 
of July, according to his observations, in the fillh 
degree of north latitude. He had entered that 
region which extends for eight or ten degrees on 
1 Hilt, dijl AJmintnte, op. 65. 




Mdi nde of the line, and is kuown aoioiig seitineii 
b; the name of ihe calm laiitudcs. Tlie tratle- 
wiuds, from tlie south-ittst nnd norlh-eaal. cneeliiig 
ID the ueigliborhood of the equaii>r. oeulralize 
each other, and a steady calmness of the elenienlE 
is produced. The whole sea is like a mirror. 
and veMcls remain almost motioulesa, with tliip- 
ping Mib ; Ihe crews panting under the heat of 
a Tertical sun, unmitigated by any refreshing; 
braeze. Weeks are someliraes employed lu cross- 
ing thid torpid track of the oeean. 

The weAther for some time past had been 
dondy and oppressive; but on the 13th there 
was a bright aiid burning eun. The wind sud- 
denly fell, Hud a. dead sultry calm commenoeii, 
which lasted for eight days. The air wa? like a 
IhriiHce ; tlie tar melted, the seams of the s)iip 
yawned ; ihe salt meat became putrid ; the wheat 
was parched as if with fire ; the hoops shrank 
&om the wine and waler-casks, some of wliich 
leaked, and others burst ; while the heat in the 
holds of the vessels was so suffocaiinj;, that no 
one could remain below a sufficient lime to 
{trevent the damage that was taking place. Tht^ 
mariners lost all strength and spirits, and sank 
ander the oppressive heat. It seemed as if llie 
old fable of the torrid eone was about lo l>e real- 
iied ; and that they were approncfiiiig a liery 
region, where it would be impos.sible to exi^I. 
It is true the heavens were, (or a great part of 
Ihe time, overcast, and there were drizzling 
abowers ; but the atmosphere was close and 
Btifling, and there was that combination of heat 



and nidisture wlui;li relaxes all ihe energies of 
the humau frHiiie. 

During this time, the admiral safiered ex- 
tremely from llie gout, but, as usual, the activity 
of hie mind, heiglilened by Iiis anxiety, allowed 
hira no indulgence nor repose. He was in au 
unknown part of the ocean, where everything 
depended upon his vigilance and sngaciiy ; and 
was continunlly watching Ihe phenomena of ibe 
elements, and looking out for signs of land. 
Finding the heat so intolerable, ho altered his 
course, and steered to the south-west, hoping to 
find a milder temperature farther on, even tinder 
the same parallel. He had observed, in his pre- 
vious voyages, that after sailing westward a hun- 
dred leagues from the Azores, a wonderful change 
took place in the sea and sky, both becoming se- 
rene and blnnd, and the air temperate aud re- 
freshmg. He imagined that a peculiar mildness 
and suavity prevailed over a great tract of ocean 
extending from north to south, into which the 
navigator, sailing from east to west, would sud- 
denly enter, as if crossing a line. The event 
seemed to justify his theoi'j, tor al\er making 
their way slowly for some time lo the westward, 
through «ri ordeal of heals and («!ms, with a 
murky, stifling atmosphere, the ships all at once 
emerged into a geuial region, a pleasant cooling 
breeze played over the surface of the sea, and 
gently filled their sails, the dose and drizzling 
clouds broke away, the sky became serene and 
clear, and the sun shone forth with nil its splendor, 
but no longer wirh a burning heui. 

cBusTwacB cw-rjucnft. 


pcnte not. Id haw mni «m« hmm* Iu tbA 
goaU^ and iheo wemnnl : tat iIm kt* ^T\'4tiM|| 
weather bad opened tb« anunt of kb *ki|M, Mt<l 
caused tliem to leak tixoeMiveljr, mi thai il wa* 
necessary to seek a harbur lui MNin a* |HiiH>ililih 
where tite; might be rafiilod. Miioli i>r lliu pru- 
yisions bLm nns spoiled, ninl the wnlur iiKiirt/ CS- 
bausW. He kept od, lliertiniro, illmcily ■■• iliii 
west, tnisliug, from the lliglibt uf binU niitl ulliui' 
JBTcirable mdicalioni, ha should fHum hi'I'Ivu at 
land. Day aAi:r day f»MW»l awuy wiilimil hli 
ezjNJCtatiotui being nadizod. Thu dirlitMui uf 
his men became wutiuually luure uigmil ; wlutm- 
fare suf^K»iug himndi' iu tW l'^Ji);ilU'l« ■/!' iha 
Ctaribbee Ishuids, he bun awuy Ujvruide liui 
■onltward ill iearch of' them,' 

On the SlKi v! July, tlitsre wiu iiul abvvc oiu: 
«aA of wHittr reuiaiuiiig iu eaiili aliip, wlitui, 
tkuni gnid-da>',a nmriuor at the luaoi-kwad IwUiUd 
^■auHBiIe or three nmuiitaiua riuiig abute tho 
hanHm. and fv<^ Ihe joyful cry uf laud. A* tW 

ttVM «im nacknl ai Ihtr Uune. Culuiubu- luiti 
i If giv< tia: linil laud la.' *Uuui'l U;LuU 
-aane of ti«L* Trutiij'. IW HiniiMimitV- v( 

1 atHgniat oniiw.-aipiM*' : awl. wiiii u kulauiu 

OE of dnM)6uti. Ik gavt thu ialwud thi. tiauai 

r i« ^Innidad, wlwcti i: Ittaiis u< the fiVMBt 



I^^SlHAPING h\f course for ll>e island, Co- 
Ub^rQ luiiibiis iipproiiched itaenslero estremity, 
fg5«jfi| to nhich lie gave ihe name of Punla de 
la Gnlera, from a rock in the sea, wliich resembled 
a gsUej under »ail. He wae obliged to cosat for 
fire leagoes aloog the Boutheni sliore, before he 
coald find safe anchorage. On Ihe followiug 
day, (All gnat I.) he contiiiiied constiug westward, 
in search of water, and a couvenient harbor where 
the vessels might be careened. He was surprised 
at the verdure and fertility of the country, having 
expected to litid it more parched and sterile as lie 
approached the equator; whereas he belield 
groves of palm-trees, and luxuriant forests, sweep- 
ing down lo the sen-side, with fountains and run- 
ning streams. The shores were low and uninbab- 
it«d ; but the coiintry rooe in the interior, was culti- 
vated in nianj places, and enliveiieil by hamlets 
and scattered habitations. In a word, the eofineaa 
and purity of the climate, and the venture, fresh- 
ness, and sweetness of the country, appeared to 



Liin lo equal the delights of earlj spring in [lie 
beauliftil province of Valencia.' 

Anchoring at a point lo which be gave the 
name of Punta de In Ftaya, he sent the boats on 
shore for water. They iound au abundant and 
l)ni)>i(l brook, at which they filled their tuiaks, but 
there was no safe harbor for the vessels, nor could 
tbey meet with nny of the iBlnoders, tliough they 
found prints of footsteps, and pariuus fishing im- 
pletnenis leftbehiml in the hurry of flight. Tiiere 
were tracks al&o of animals, which they supposed 
lo be goats, but which must have been deer, with 
I which, as it was afterwards ascertained, the island 

While coasting the island, Columbus beheld land 
_ D the Boulli, stretching to the distance of more 
titan twenty lei^ues. It was that low tract of 
coast interGecIcd by the numerous bnincbes of the 
Oronoco, but the admiral, supposing it to be an 
islnud, gave it the name of La lala Sani»; little 
unagining that he now, for the first time, beheld 
tliat continent, that Terra Firma, which bad been 
the object of his earnest search. 

On the 2d of August he continued on to the 
h-west point of Trinidad, which he called 
it Arenal. Il stretched towards a corre- 
^nding point of Terra Firma, making a narrow 
, with a high rock in the centre, to which he 
: the name r>f El Galle. Near this pass the 
1 cast anchor. As they were approaching 
a place, a large canoe, with five-and-twenty In- 

1 Lattsi of Cotumbua to Iha Sovenigan iiom HispuiSoU, 



dinns, put off from tbe shore, but paused on com- 
mg within bow-ehot, and imiled the ships id a 
luiguage which no one on board understood. 
Columbus tried to allure the snvfiges on board, 
by friendly signs, by iIib display of looking- 
glasses, basins uf polished metal, and rarious 
glittering trinkets, but all hi vain. They re- 
mained gazing iu mule wonder for above two 
hours, with their paddles in their hands, ready to 
take flight on the least attempt to approncli them. 
They were all young men. well-formed, and nSr 
kcd, excepting bands and fillets of cotton about 
iheir heads, and colored cloths of liie same about 
their loins. They were armed with bows and 
arrows, the latter fealhered and lipped with bone, 
and they bad bucklers, an article of armor seen 
for the first time among the hihabitants of the 
New World. 

Finding all other means to attract them ineffec- 
tual, Columbus DOW tried the power uf music. 
He knew the fondness of the Indians for dances 
performed to the sound of their rude drums and 
the chant of their traditional ballads. He ordered 
something similar la be executed on the deck, of 
his ship, where, while one man sang to the beat 
of the tftbor, and the sound of other musical in- 
strumenlB, the ship-boys danced, after ihe popular 
Spanish fashion. No sooner, however, did this 
symphony strike up. than the Indians, mistaking 
it for a signal of hostilities, put their bucklers ou 
their arms, seized their bows, and let fly a shower 
of arrows. This rude salutation was immediaiely 
answered by the dischai^e of a couple of cron- 


*^ws, which put the auililora to flight, and con- 
dnded this lingular cntertaintnent. 
Thongh ilius shy of the iidmirarB vessel, Ihey 
Hpproachei] oue of the caravels without hesitation, 
and, runuing uuder the stem, had a parity with 
the pilot, who gave a cap and a mantle to the one 
who appeared to be the chieftain. He received 
the presbiits with great delight, iDviling the pilot 
by signs to come to land, where he should be well 
entertained, aud receive great presents in return. 
On his appeiiring to consent, they went to shore 
to wait for him. The pilot put off in the boat 
of the caravet to a^k permissjoii of the admiral ; 
but the Indians, seeing him go on boaril of the 
liostile ship, suspected some treachery, and spring- 
I im into their canoe, darted away, nor waa any- 

^^^■^NDg more seen of tliem.^ 

^^Hf The complexion and otlier pliysical character- 
^^^Hltica of these savages caused much surprise and 
^^^UpcculatioQ in the mind of Columbus. Supposing 
himeelf in the seventh degree of latitude, though 
acttiaUy in ihe tenth, he expected to find the in- 
habitants similar to the natives of Africa under the 
ssone parallel, who were bkck and ill-shaped, with 
crisped hair, or rather wool ; whereas, these were 
well formed, had long hair, and were even fairer 
than tliose more distant from the equator. The 
climate, also, instead of being hotter as he ap- 
proached the equinoctial, appeared more temperate. 
He was now in Ihe dog-days, yet the nights and 

1 Hilt, del AlminmU, op. 8^. V. Slirtyr, decul- i. lib. vL 
lu Cuu. Bi>t. lad., lib. i. cop. 13S. MS, Letter of Columboi 
tottai CutiUan SoTcnigni, NavBmtc, Coltec., loia. i. 



momitig* were to cool UuU it waa necessarf to use 
covering as in winter- Tbis is ibe ck-^e in maaj 
p«ns o>' the lorrid tone, espet^ally in culm weadier, 
when tbero h- vta wiud : fbr nature, \>j heavjr dewa, 
m the long QJghts of tba«« latitudes, cools Bnd re- 
freshes tiie eartl) after tbe grtal heat of tbe days. 
Columbiis was at flret gmalj perplexed by iheae 
ODD trad ictioiis lo the ootirse ot' aature. as observed 
ia the Oltl World ; tliej were in opposition abo to 
the expectatiooB be bad fouuded on tbe theory of 
Ferrer the lapidary, but ibey gradually oontributeil 
to tbe formation of a theory irhicb was springing 
up ill his aclire imagination, and which will be 
preaeuily ^own. 

After anchoriog at Foiul Aretud, the crews 
were pennilled to kud and refresh themselves. 
There were ito runs of water, but fay sinking pits 
in the sand they soon obtained sufficient (o fill the 
caslca. Tbe aDcborage at this pluce, however, was 
extremely iuseclu^ A rapid cniTeDt set from the 
eaetwurd through ibe simit formeil by the main- 
land and tbe island of Trinidad, flowing, as Go- 
lumbus observed, niirbt and day, wiiii as much fury 
aa the Guadatqiiiver, when swollen by OixmIs. In 
tbe puss belWL'en Point Areoal and its correspon- 
dent point, the confined currvnt boiled and raged 
to finch a degree that be thought it was crossed 
by a reef of rncks and shoals, preventing all en- 
trance, with oiliers eJciendJng bevotid, over which 
the waters roared like breakerH on a rodty shore. 
To this pase, from its angry and dangerous appear* 
ance, he gave the name of Boca del Sierpe (the 
Month of the Serpent), He thus fouitd I 


placed between two difficulties. The coiititiual 
carrent fiwD the enst seemed to prereot all return, 
while the rocks which appenrcit Id be.'«t the pasa 
ihretiteiieil destruction if he should proceed. Be- 
ing oQ board of his ship, late at night, kept awake 
bj pniDful illness and an unxions and watchful 
spirit, he heard a terrible roarhig from the south, 
and beheld the sea heaped up, as it were, inlo a 
great ridge or hill, the height of the ship, covered 
with foam, and rolling towards him with a tre- 
mendous uproar. As this furious aurge approached, 
rendered more terrible in appearance by the ob- 
seority of night, he trembled for the safely of hia 
vessels. His own ship wa^ suddenly lifted up to 
sndi a height that he dreaded le»t it should be 
overturned or cost upon the rocks, while another 
of the ships was torn violeuily froq) her anchor- 
age. The crews were for a time in great consler- 
naiion. fearing they should be swallowed up ; but 
the ni<iuiiIainouB surge passed on, and gradually 
Bubsided, aftei' a violent contest with the counler- 
current of the strait.' This sudden rush of water, 
^t is supposed, was caused by the swelling of one 
mm the riven which How inlo the Gulf of Paria, 
^bd which were ad yet unknown to Columbus. 
If Anxious to extricate himself from this danger- 
ous neighborhood, he sent the boats on the follow- 
ing moniiiijj to sound the deplh of water at the 
Boca del Sierpe, and to ascertain whether it was 
possible for ships to pass through to the northward. 
> Ciulilian Snvenigni, Nftvarrcle 

Hlft-del AliDiruiU,ci 

Til hid great joj, thej returned with a report thai 
there were sereral fuihoms of water, aud cuireots 
and eddies fettiog both ways, either to enter or 
return. A favorable breete prevailing, he im- 
mediately made sail, and passing throngh the fbr^ 
midikUe atrait in safetj. found himself in a tran- 
quil expanse beyond. 

He wns now on the inner ride of Trinidad. 
To hb lefl spread the broad gulf since known b; 
the name of Paria, which he eoppoeed to be the 
open sea, but was surprised, on tastiDg it, to find 
the water fresh. He continued northward, towards 
a mountain at the north'West point of the isbnd, 
about fourleco leagnes from Point Arenal. Here 
he beheld two lodj capes opposite each other, one 
on the island of Trinidad, the other to the west, 
on the long promontory of Paria, which strelcfaes 
from the inain-land and forms the northern side 
of the gulf, but which Columbus mistook for aii 
island, and named Isla de Gracia. 

Between these capes there was another pasa, 
which appeared even more dangerous than the 
Boca del Sierpe, being beset with rocks, among 
which the current forced ita way mth roaring 
larbulence. To this pass Columbus gave the 
name of Bocn del Dragon. Kot choosing to 
encounter its apparent dangers, he turned north- 
ward, on Siniday, the 5th of August, and steered 
along the inner side of the supposed island of 
Gracia, intending to keep on until he came to the 
end of it, and then to strike northward into the 
free and open ocean, and shape his course for 



a fair mid beautiful coast, iDdented with 1 
fine harbors tying close lo each other ; the country 
cultivated iu ninny places, in otbers covered with 
fruit-treea and atatelj foreats, and watered by 
freqaeiit strciiTn». What greatly ostouisiied Co- 
lumbus, was atill to find the water fresh, and that 
it grew more and more so the farther he pro- 
ceeded; it being that season of the year when 
the various rivers whiob empty themselves into 
tliis gulf are swollen by rains, and pour forth 
such quantities of fresh water as to conquer the 
sallnesa of the ocean. He was also surprised at 
the pkoidity of the sea, which appeared as tranquil 
and safe as one vast harbor, ao that there was no 
need of seeking a port to anchor in. 

As yet he had not been able lo hold any com- 
municalioo with the people of this part of the New 
World. The shores which he had visited, though 
oocaaionally cultivated, were silent and deserted, 
and, excepting (he fugitive party in the canoe at 
Point Arena], he had seen nothing of the natives. 
After sailing several leagues along the coast, he 
anchored on Monday, the 6th of August, at a 
place where there appeared signs of cultivation, 
and sent ilie boats on shore. They found recent 
traces of people, but not an individual was to be 
seen. The coast was hilly, covered with beautiful 
and fruitful groves, and abounding with monkeys. 
Continuing furtlier westward, to where Ihe coun- 
try was more level, Columbus anchored in a 

Immediately a canoe, with three or four 
le off to the caravel nearest to the 



shore, the captain of wUcb, pretending a <les!re 
to accompBDj them to land, sprang into tbeir 
canoe. overUimed it autl, irith tbe aasbtance of 
bis seiUDeD, secured the Indiaita a tliey were 
Buinnning. When brought to tbe admiral, be 
gave them beads, hawka'-bells, and sugar, and 
seal them highly graiilied on shore, where mtuiy 
of their counlryniea were assembled. Ths kind 
trealmeiil bad tiie nsual efTect. Sucb of tbe , 
natives as had canoes, came off to the ships with 
the rulle»t confidence. The; were tall of statiire, 
finely formed, aod free awl graceful in their move- 
ments. Tbeir hair was long and straight ; some 
wore ii cut short, but none of ibem braided it. as 
was the caslom among the natives of Mlspaniola. 
Tbey were armed with bows, arrows, and targets ; 
the men wore cotton cloths about their lieads and 
loins, beautifully wrought with various colors, so 
as at a distance to look like silk ; but the wmnen 
were entirely naked. They brought bread, muze, 
and other eatables, wiih different kinds of beverage, 
some while, made from maize, and resembling beer, 
and others green, <>( a vinous flavor, and exprewed 
from various fruits. They appeared to judge r^ 
everything by the sense of smell, as others 
examine objects by the sight or touch. When 
they approached a boat, they smelt to it, and 
ilien to tbe people. Id like iniumer everything 
that was given them was tried. Tbey set but 
liute value upon beads, but were extravagantly 
delighted with hawks'-bells. Brass was also held 
in high estimation ; they appeared to tiiid some- 
thing extremely gralefol in the smell of it, and 

RlleJ il Turey, flignifying that it was from the 

these Indians Columbus understood that 
5 of tlieir country waa Paria, and that 
i the west lie would find it more popu- 
lous. Taking several of them to serve as guides 
and mediators, he proceeded eighl IcHguea west- 
wHrd to a point ivliicli he called Aguja, or the 
Needle- Htre he arrived at three o'clock in the 
morning. When the day dawned he was delighted 
willi the beauiy of the country. Il was cultivated 
ui many places, highly populous, and adorned 
wilh magnificent vegetation ; habitations were 
intersperaed among groves laden with fruits 
and flowers; grape-vines entwined themselves 
BtnoDg the trees, and birds of brilliant plumage 
Buttered from branch to branch. The air was 
lemperalc and bland, nud sweetened by the fra- 
grance of fluit'erii and blossoms ; and numerous 
tountaius and limpid streams kept up a universal 
verdure and freshness. Columbus was so mueh 
charmed with the beauty and amenity of this 
of the ooasl, that he gave it the name of The 

• The natives came off in great numbers, in 
of superior construciion to those hitherto 
being very large and light, with a cabin in 
'.Ftt for the accommodation of the owner 
family. They invited Columbus, in the 
ttne of their king, to come to land. Many of 
them had collars and burnished plates about 
llieir necka, of that inferior kind of gold called by 

Herrcra, Hist. Inii., decail. i. lib. ill. cap. 11. 


iDtrepid and martidl i 

Ciibo and HispHniola. Tiiey were 

fiiirer, ColnmliLis observes, than * 

1, though SI 

o the equinociinl liii 

he hod enpecied lo find them of the color of 


of gold V 


Among tliein, but all of nn inferior quality ; 

Indian hnd a piece of the size of nn apple, Thi'y 

had various kinds of domesticated parrots, one of 

B light-green color, with a yellow neck, and the 

tips of the wings of a bright red ; others of the 

size of domestic fowls, and of a vivid swirlct, 

excepting some azure fentbers in the wings. 

These they readily gave to ihe Spaniards; but 

what the latler most coveted were l)ie pearls, of 

which they saw many necklaces and bracelets 

.WDong the Indian women. The latter gladly 

I gave them in exchange fur hawks'-bells or any 

I ■nicle of bras", and several specimens of fine 

, pearls were procured for the admiral to send to 

I Ihe sovereigns.' 

The kindness and amity of this people were 
\ heightened by an intelligent demeanor and a 
tiiil frankness. They seemed worthy of the 
benutifiil country liiey inhabited. It was a cause 
[ of great concern both lo them and the Spaniards, 
1 they could not understand eaeb other's lan- 
I gOBge. They conversed, however, by signs ; mu- 
I taal good-will made their intercourse easy and 
.' pleasant ; and at the hour of vespers the Span- 
I isrdA returned on board of their ships, highly 
gratilied with their entertainment. 

< Letter of (kilumbiu. Herrer*. HUl. Ind., decad. i- lib. lii. 
f. 11. Hist, del Almiran(«, cap. 70. 

IHB quantity of line pearls found Btnong 
Datives of Faria wiis sufficient to 

use (lie sanguine nnticipations of 

Columbus. It Hppcared to corrobomte the theory 
of Ferrer, the learned jeweller, thai, as he ap- 
prouclieil the equator, he would find the most 
rare' uiid precious productions of nature. His 
active imagination, with iia intuitive rapidity, 
seized upon every circumstnuce ia unisoa with 
his wbhes, and, combining them, drew thence the 
most brilliant inferences. He had read in Pliny 
that pearls are generated from drops of dew 
which CiU into the mouttis of oysters ; if so, 
what place could be more propitious to their 
growth and multiplication than the coast of 
pHvia ? The dew in those parts was heavy and 
fibuiidunt, and the oysters were so plentiful that 
they clustered about the ixwls and pendent 
hranclies of the mangrove trees, which grew 
within the margin of the tranquil sea. When a 
bronuli which had drooped for a time in the water 



WH8 drawn forth, il was found coverec! witli oys- 
lera. Lna Casus, noticing tliis sanguine conclu- 
sion of Columbiiii, observea, that tlie shiiU-fixli 
here spoken of are not tlie kind which produce 
pearK for ihcit those by r natural instinct, a^ if 
conscious of their precious charge, hiiie tliem- 
selves in the deepest water,' 

Still imagining the eoast of Pnria to be an 
island, and anxious to circumnavigale it, ntid nr- 
rivo at the place where these pearls were said by 
the Indians to abound, Columbus leiV the Gar- 
dens on the 10th of August, and continued 
coasting westward within the gulf, in search of an 
outlet to the north. He observed portions of 
Terra Firma [ippearing towards the bottom of 
the gulf, which he supposed to be inlands, and 
called them Isabella and Tramonlann, nml fun- 
ded that the desired outlet lo (he sea must lie 
between them. As he advanced, however, he 
found the water contiuually growing shallower 
and fresher until he did not dare to venture any 
farther with his ship, which, he observed, wh3 of 
too great a si»i for expeditions of this kiiid. 1)e- 
in^ of an hnndred Ions burden, and ri^quirin^' 
three fathoms of water. He came lo anclior, 
tlierefure, and sent a light caravel called the 
Correo to ascertain whether there was an out- 
let to the ocean between the supposed ishiuds. 
The caravel returned on the following day, re- 
porting that at the western end of the gulf llitre 
was an opening of two leagnes, which led into 
an inner and circular gulf, surrounded "by four 

I Li9 CtsBn, Hist. Ind., up. 138. 



openiDgs, apparently smaller gulfs, or ruther 
moullis of rivei-a. from which flowed ilie greul 
quantity of fresh water that sweetened the 
tieighboriug sen. In fact, from one of these 
niDutba isBuud the gj'eiit river — the Cupiiriparj, 
i)r, as it is now called, the Puria. To Liiis inner 
and circular gulf Columbus gave the name of 
the Gulf of Pearls, through a miataken iden that 
they abounded iu its waters, ttiuugh iioue, tii fact, 
are found there. He stUl iituigiued thai tiie fonr 
openings of which the mariners spoke, might be 
iuiei'vaU between islands, Uiough they alfirmed 
that all the land he saw waa connected.' As it 
was impossible to proceed further westwartl with 
hi^ ships, he had no alternalivo hut to retrace his 
course, and seek on exit lo the north by the 
Bixa del Dragon. He would gladly have con- 
tinued for some time to explura this coast, for be 
conridtred hiinaclf in one of those opulent re- 
gions described as the most favored upon earth. 
Had wtuch increase in riches towards the equator. 
Imperious oonsideralions, liowever, compelled him 
lo shorten his voyage, and hasten to San Do- 
mingo. The sea-storea of his ships were almost 
exhausted, and the various supplies fur the col- 
ony, with which they were freighted, were in 
danger of spoiling. He was suflering, also, ex- 
tremely in his health. Besides the gout, which 
hail rendered hint a cripple for the greater part 
of the voyage, he was afflicted by a complaint iu 
his eyes, caused by fatigue and over-watchiiig, 
which almost deprived him uf »ight. Even the 
1 Uiat. del Almiraiito, cap. TS. 




vcytige along the coast of Cuba, he observes, in 
which he was Ihree-iiud-tliii'ty dtiys almost with- 
out sleep, had not so injured his eyes and disor- 
dered his fraine, or caused him bo much ptuaful 
suffering as the present.' 

Oo the 11th of August, therefore, he set sail 
eastward for the Boca del Dragon, and was 
borne along with great velocity by tlie currents. 
which, however. prevoDled hhn from landing 
again at Lis favorite spot, the Gardens. On 
Sunday the 13th, he anchored near to the Boca, 
in a fine harbor, lo which he gave the uaine of 
Puerto de Gatos, ii-oni a species of monkey called 
galo paulo, with which the neighborhood abounded. 
On the margin of the sea he perceived many 
trees which, aa he thought, produced tlie mirabo- 
laoG, a fnitt only found in the uouniries of the 
EasL There were great numbers also of man- 
groves gi-owing within Ihti water, with oysters 
dinging to their branches, their mouths open, 
as he supposed, to receive the dew, which was 
afterwards to he traustbrmcd to pearls.^ 

On the following morning, the 14ih of August, 
towards noon the ships approached the Boca del 
Dragon, and prepared to venture Uirough that 
formidable pass. The distance from Ca[te Botn 
at the end of Paria, and Cape Lapa the extremity 
of Trinidad, is about Gve leagues: but in the iii- 
lervai there were two islands, which Columbus 
named Caracol and Delphin. The impetuous body 

1 Letter ol Coliuubus to the Suvvraigns, .S'uvarreLu, torn. i. 

* Uimn, Bui. tnd., decad. i. lib. ii. cap. ID. 



of li«sfa water which flows tlirough ihe gulf, par- 
tioalsrly in liie rainy moollis of July and Augos^ 
ie conliDed nt the uarrow outleis betweei) ttieae 
islands, wlieris it causes u tiirbuleut sen, foaming 
and roaring as if breakiiig over rocks, and render- 
ing ihe eulritnce and exit of tlie ^If extremely 
dangerous. The horrors aad purib of sucli places 
are always tenfold to discoverers, who have iio 
chart, nor pilot, nor advice of previous voyager, 
to guide (hem. Columbus, at til's!, apprcheaded 
sunken rocks and shoals ; but on attentively con- 
Bideriug the comtnotion of the strait, he attributed 
ii to Ihe conflict between (he prodigious body of 
fresh water setting through the gulf and struggling 
for an outlet, and llie tide of salt water struggling 
to enter. The sliips had scarcely ventured into 
the fearful diannet when the wiiid dietl away, and 
they were in danger every moment of being thrown 
upon the rucks or sands. The current of fresh 
water, however, gained the victory, and carried 
them safely through. The admiral, when once 
more safe in the open sea, congratulated himself 
iipou his escape fi-om this perilous sirail. which, he 
observer, might well he oilled the Month of the 

He now stood to the westward, running along 
the outer const of PnrJa, aliU supposing it an isl- 
and, and intending lo visit the Gulf of FeaHs, 
which he imagined to be at the end of it, open- 
ing lo the sea. He wished to ascertain whether 
this great body of fresh water proceeded from 
rivers, as the crew of the caravel Corroo had af- 
< Ilemsn. Rinl. IiiJ,, ilecad. i. lib. iii. oip. IL 




finned; for it appeareiJ lo him impuiisilfle that tlic 
streams of inure islands, as lie supposed liie sur- 
rounding lands, could products such a prodigious 
volume of water. 

On leaving the Boca del Dragoji, he snw lo 
the norlh-CBSt, many leagues distant, two isliuids, 
which he called Assumption and Conception ; 
probably those now known as Tobugo atid Gi*en- 
ada. In liis course along ihe norihern coast ol' 
Parin, lie sa^ several other small islands, and 
man; fine harbor;', to some of which he gave 
names, but ihey have ceased to be known by 
tbem. On the l^tli he discovered the islands of 
Usrgarila and Cubagua, afierwards famous for 
their pearl fishery. The island of Margarita, 
about fifteen leagues in length, and six in breadth, 
was well peopled. The little island of Cubaguu, 
lying between it and the main-land, and only 
about four leagues Irom the latter, was dry and 
Sterile, without either wood or fresh water, but 
possessing a good harbor. On approaching this 
isl&ud, the admiral beheld a number of Indians 
Sshing for pearls, who made for liie land. A boat 
being sent to communicate with them, one of 
the sailors noticed many strings of pearls round 
the neck of a female. Having a plate of Valencia 
ware, a kind of porcelain painted and vartiished 
with gaudy colors, he broke it, and presented the 
pieces lo Ihe Indian woman, who gave him in ex- 
change H considerable number of her pearls. 
These he carried to ilie admiral, who immediately 
sent persons on shore, well provided with Valen- 
cift plates and hawks'-bella, for which, in a little 




time, he procured about three pounds' weight of 
pearls, socue of which were of a very large aize, 
am] were sent by him afierworde to the soverpigns 

There was great temptation to visit other spots, 
which the ludlaos meuttoned as abouruliog ia 
pearb. Tlie coast of Faria also couliiiued extend- 
ing Ui the ivestward as fur as the eye could reach, 
rising into a range of mountains, and provoking 
examiuutiou to aficerCaiu whether, as he begau to 
think, it wus a part of the Astatic continent. Co- 
lumbus WB3 compelled, however, though with the 
greatest reluctance, to forego this most intcresliug 

The malady of his eyes had now grown so 
virulent, that he could no longer take obdervalioDS 
or keep a look-out, but bad to trust to the reporU 
of the pilots and mariners. He bore away, there- 
fore, for UispauiolcL, intending to repose there from 
the (oils of liis voyage, and to recruit his health, 
while he should send his brother, the Adelaotado, 
to complete the discovery of this important coun- 
try. After sailiug for live days to the north-west, 
he made the island of Uispaniola on the 19lb of 
August, &1iy leagues to the westward of the river 
Ozeiiia, the place of his destination ; and anchored 
ou the foUowiug moruiug under the little island 
of Beata. 

Ue was aslooistied to find himself so mistaken 

in his calculntioQs, and so far below his destined 

port ; but he attributed it correctly to the force 

of the current setting out of the Boca del Dragon, 

1 Clurievoix, Bin. St. Doinlngo, lib. ill. p. IBS. 


which, irhilt: lie lind laiu 1o ai iiighis, to aroiil 
moiling DD roL-ks and slionb, had borne his ship 
iOBensibly to llie west. Tbis currenl, which sets 
across the Caribbena Sea, and the cnutinuation of 
which now hcara the name of the Gulf StreHin, 
^as so rapid that, on the 15th, though the wind 
wad but tnoUerate, the ships had mwie seventy- 
live leBgut;s Li four-atid- twenty hours, Columbus 
allribuled lo tlie violence of this current the for- 
nintion of tliiil fans called the liocii del Dragou, 
where he supposed it had forced its way through 
a nairaw isthmus thiit fornierlj connected Trinidad 
with the extreioity of Paria. Ho imagined, also, 
that its constant operatiou had worn away and iu- 
uiulaled the borders of the maiii-luud, gradually 
producing that fringe of islands which slretchea 
Ironi Trinidad lo the Lucayos or Bahamas, and 
whicli, aooording lo his idea, had originally been 
part of the solid continent. In uorroboration of 
this opinion, be uotices llie form of those islands ; 
narrow from north to south, and eslonding in 
length from east to west, iu the direction of the 

The island of Beata, where he had anchored, 
is about thirty leagues to the wust of the river 
Oxouui, wliere he expected to find the new sen- 
port which his brother had been instructed to 
establish. The strong and steady current from 
the east, however, and the prevalence of winds 
from that quarter, might detitin him for a long time 
at the island, tuid render tlie renminder of his 
voyage slow and precarious. Ho sent a boat on 
■ Leltci to th« King aiiil Qiihu, NavarreUc, CoUw., torn. i. 


shore, tbererore, to procure an lodi&n mewen^ 
to lake A Icller lo bis brother, the Adelanliulih 
Six of ili« natives cnme oB* to the slups, one of 
whom was armed wilJi a Spanish crossbow. The 
adtuira] was alarmed at «eing a weapon of tlic 
tiud in the possession of an ludiaii. Tl was not 
an article of traffic, and he feared could onlj liave 
fallen iulo Ilia hands hy the death of some Span- 
iard.' He apprehended that further evils had be- 
fiilten the setllement during big long absence, and 
thai there had again been troubles witli the ■ui' 

Having dispatched bis messenger, he made 
sail, and arrived off the mouth of the river on 
the 30th of August. He was met on the way 
by a caravel, on board of whieli was the Adclan- 
lodo, who, having received his letter, had has- 
tened forth with affectionate ardor lo weloome 
hie arrival. The meeting of the brothers was a 
lal joy : they were strongly al- 
tacheil to each other, each had had hia trials and 
sufferings during their long separation, and each 
looked with eonlideiice lo the other for comfort 
and relief. Don Bartholomew appears to have 
always had great deference for the brilliant 
genius, the enlarged mind, and the commanding 
reputation of his brother ; while the latter placed 
great reliance, ic times of ditBculty, on the 
worldly knowledge, the indefatigable activity, aJid 
the lion-hearted courage of the AdeUntado. 

Columbus arrived almost the wreck of him- 
self. His voyages were always of a nature to 
>, Hill, lad., lit), i. up. 118. 

caaisTOPUER coLUiiBua. 



Wear out the humnu frame, having to uavigHte 
amidst unknown dangers, nnd to keep anxious 
wiitch at all hours and iu all weuthi:r4. As age 
and infirtnitf iucreused upon him, these trials be- 
eimu the more severe. His couslilulioti must 
originally have been wonderfully vigorous j but 
constitutions of this powerful kind, if exposed to 
severe hardshipa at an advanced period of life, 
wbea the frame has become somewhat rigid and 
BnaccMnmodaliiig. are apt to be suddenly broken 
op, and to be a prey to violent aches and malu- 
die«. In this last voyage Columbus had been 
parched and consumed by fever, racked by gout, 
■nd hia whole system disordered by inceaaaul 
watchfulness ; he came into port haggard, emaci- 
ated. And almost blind. His spirit, however, was, 
U usual, superioi- (o all bodily offliclioa or decay, 
KoA he looked Ibrward with magnificent anticipa- 
tions to the result of his recent discoveries, which 
be intendiMl should be immediately prosecuted by 
hia hardy and enterprising brother. 


■ HE naiiiral phenomena of n grefiE and 
Blriking nature preaenled to the ardenl; 
I mind of Columbus in the course of this 
voyage, led to certain sound dednclious and ira- 
sginatire specnlalions The imnreuae bodj of 
Hreah WHler flowing into t!ie Gu!f of Paria, aud 
thence rushing into the o<«aii, was [oo vast to be 
produced by an island or by islands. It muat be 
the congregated streams of a great extent of 
country pouring forlh in one miglity river, and 
the land Deci^siLi'y to funiisli eiicli a river must 
be a continent. He now Biippoeed that most of 
the traclB of land which he had seen about the 
Gulf were conuecied : that liie coast of PorJa ex- 
tended westward lar beyond a chain of raountaius 
which he had behold afiirofffrom Margarila; and 
that ibe land opposite to Trinidad, inslead of being 
an island, continued to Ilie suuili, far beyond the 
ei^imlor, into that hemi^pheiH; hitherto unknown la 
civilized man. He umsiilereil ail this an ext«nsioa 
of the Asiatic continent ; thus presuming thai the 


greater part of the snrface of tUe globe was firm 
latid. In tliis last opinion he found himeeir sup- 
ported by Huthora of the higbeat iiRme, both ancient 
&nd modern ; among whom he citen Aristotle and 
Senecn, St. Augustine and Cardinal Pedro de 
Aliaco. He lajs particular stress, also, on the 
assertion of the apocryphal Eadras, that of seven 
parts of the world, six are dry land, and one part 
only is eovei-eil with water. 

The land, theretbre, surrounding the Gulf of 
Faria, was but the border of an almost bouud- 
lesa contiueut, stretching far to the west and to 
the south, including the most pivcious regions of 
the eartli, lying ntider the most auspicious stars 
and beuignuni skies, but as yet unknown and un- 
ravilized, Free to be discovered and appropriated 
by Any Christian mition. "May it please our 
Lord," he exclaims in hie letter to tlie sovereigns, 
** lo give long life and health to your .Highnesses, 
that you may prosecute this noble enterprise, in 
which, raethinks, God will receive great service, 
Spttin vast increase of graudeur, and al! Cliris- 
lions much consolation and dcligiii, since the 
name of our Saviour will be divulged throughout 
these lands." 

Thus far the deductions of Columbus, though 
Murine, admit of little cuvil ; but ho carried 
them still further, until they ended in what may 
appear U> some mere chimerical reveries. In his 
letter to llie sovereigns, he elated that, on his 
former voyages, when he steered westward from 
the Azores, he had observed, after sailing about 
a hundred leagues, n sudden and great chongt! in 

ure. Asa tqtjxes of 

Ike ^^ Ik sH9>,tk 

Om U> (KMtf voy^e he ^ nried bit V 
and had m Ji^h.arf fioa tte <V« da Tid 
kkiAi far tke cqMMMl b ~ 

«IU gf Sicm Lmm ■ G^mb, Far 

A^ to had hem^trnm. mnmtl hj a 
maA (liAHg heat awler a silbj jt*. denied likj, 
waA B a Atsalbg anu^han^ mmdI he amnd at 
tbaiikd Km aknify BaabaMBl. axtnO^ &«n 
MnktoaoiMk Bm<IiiII tj . H hit p^ml trfdC 
ha lad flBMcyad wte seraM vcalhar, wiikacfear 
bl«ee^ md a sweat aad MHpmte aMnpfaccs. 
!%■ fiuther be had praoaedad woM, Iha Ha« p«R 
aad geaial hehadlaiind ifcacfiaMB^ the tea tiaB- 
qnil. the bncMa soft ini hala^ AO tfam |te- 




nomenai coincided wiLh tliose he liaJ remarked iit 
the same line, though further north, in liia fonner 
voyages ; escepting that here there was no her- 
bnge in the sen, and the inoveincnts of stars 
were different The polar star appeared lo him 
here to describe a diurnal circle of ten degrees Jn- 
stetid of five ; an augmentation which struck him 
with aatonishment, but which, he says, he ascer- 
tained by observations taken in different nights, 
trilb his quadrant. Its greatest altitude at the 
former plate, in the parallel of the Azores, he had 
found to be ten degrees, and in the present place 

From these and other circumstances, he was 
■ocliaed to doubt the received theory wiili respect 
to the form of the earth. FhilosopherH had de- 
scribed it as spherical ; hut they kuew nothing of 
the part of llie world which he had discovered. 
The ancient part, known to them, he bad no doubt 
was spherical, but he now supposed the real form 
of the earth to be that of a pear, one part much 
more elevated than the rest, and tapering upward 
toward the shies. This part he supposed to be 
in the interior of this newly-found continent, and 
immediately under the equator. All the phenom- 
ena which he had previously noticed appeared to 
corroborate this theory. The variations which he 
bad observed in passing the imaginary line run- 
Ding from north to south, he concluded to be 
caused by the ships having arrived at this sup- 
posed swelling of the earth, where they began 
gently to mount towards the skies into a purer 



The TBiiation 

iiud more celestial atmosphere.^ 
of the needle he ascribed \o the same caoBC, 
being affected by the cooluesa and mildnesa of the 
climate ; varying to the Dorth-west in proportiou 
as tlie ships continued onward in their ascent' 
So also the altitude of the north star, and the 
circle it described in the heavens, appeared to be 
greater, in cotiseqnence of being regained from n 
greater elevation, less obliquely, and tiirough a 
purer medium of almoepbere ; and these pheoom- 
eoa would be found to increase the more the nav- 
igator approaciied the equator, from the still 
increasiag eminence of this part of the earth. 

He noticed, also, the difference of climate, 
vegetatiou, and people, of this part of the New 
World, from those under the same purnllel in 
Africa. There the heat was insupportable, tlie 
land parched and sterile, the inhabitants were 
black, with crisped wool, ill-shapen in their &rms, 
and dull and Lrutnl in iheir natures. Here, on 
the contrary, although t!ie sun was in Leo, he 
found the nooutide heat moderate, the mornings 

> Pbmt Hutrr mentions thai Uia admiral latd liio iJul. 
flom lite ctimale of great heat and uawboleiiniDe wr, bi luul 
amaded the back i( the raa, as it were aacending « high 
moDQlain towardfl heaven. Decad. i. lib. vi- 

1 Colnmbiu, in bii attempl* to acconnt for tbe variatioa of 
the needle, tappOMd that the north star poaseued the qiiality 
of the four cardinat potota, a^ did likewise the loadatune- 
That ir the needle were touched with one pan of the loadMooe 
it would point east, with another w«t, and ao on. Wh*refi>n, 
ha adde, those who prepare or magnetize tho needles, covof Iba 
loadstone with a cloth, so that the north part only remains otU; 
that ia lo sa.v. the part which poeaessus the virtue of causing 
the needle to point to the north. Ui<I. del Aluiiranle, cap. 66. 





and evenings fresh and cool, the country green 
and fruitful, hdiI corered with beautiful furej^ta, 
the people fairer even than those in the lands he 
had discovered further Dorth, haviug long hair, 
with well-proportioned and graceM forms, livuly 
minds, and courngeous dispoaitiona. All (his, in 
a latitude so near to the equator, he attributed to 
the superior altitude of this port of the world, by 
wbich it was raised into a more celestial region 
of the air. On turning uorthward, through the 
Gulf of Parla, he had found the circle described 
by the north star again to diminish. The current 
of the sea also increased in velocity, wearing 
awny, as has ali'eady beeu remarked, the liarbora 
of the couliuent, and producing by its iiicensant 
operation the adjacent islands. This was a. 
further coufirmafion of the idea that he ascended 
in going southward, and descended in returning 

Arit>totle had imagined that the highest part 
of the earth, and nearest to the skies, was under 
the antarctic pole. Other sages had maintained 
ihat it waa under the arctic. Hence it was ap- 
parent that both conceived one part of tlie earth 
to be more elevated, and noble, and nearer to the 
lieaveus tbau the rest. They did not think of this 
eminence beiug under the equinoctial line, oh.'^erved 
Columbus, because they hail no certain knowledge 
of this hemisphere, hut only spoke of it theo- 
retically and from conjecture. 

Ak usual, he assisted his theory by Holy WriL 
"The sun, when God created il," he observes, 
" was in the first point of the Orient, or the Gret 



light was ibere." That place, according to his 
idea, must be here, in the remotest part of the 
East, where the ocean ond the extreme pari of 
India meet under the equinooliai line, aud where 
the highest poiat of the earth is situAti^. 

He siippoHMl this apes of the world, (hough of 
iramenge height, to be neither rugged nor pi«> 
cipItouB, but that the laud rose to it b^ geolle 
and imperceptible degrees. The beautiful and 
fertile shores of Faria were situated ou its ic- 
mote borders, abounding of course with tboM 
precious articles which are uougenial witli the 
most favored and excellent climates. As oda 
penetrated ilie iciterior aud gradually ascended 
the lund would be found to increase in beantf 
and luxuriance, and iu the exquisite nature of ib 
productions, uuLii one arrived at the summit \ta&vc 
the equator. This he imagined to be the noblest 
and most perfect place on earth, enjoying, from 
its position, an equality of niglits aud days, and a 
uniformity of seasons ; and being elevated into a 
sereue aud heavenly temperature, above the heats 
and colds, the clouds and vapors, the storms and 
tempests which deform and disturb the lovrer 
regions. In a word, here he supposed to be 
situated the original abode of oar first pnr^its, 
the primitive seal of bunuin innocence aiid bliss, 
the (5arden of Men, or terrestrial paradise ! 

He imagined this place, according to the opinion 
of the must eminent fathers of the Church, to be 
still flourishing, possessed of all ita blissful delights, 
but inaccessible to mortal feet, excepting by divins 
permission. From this height he presumed, ttiough 



of course from a great dislaDce, proceeded thu 
mighty stream of fresh water which filled the 
Gulf of PnriH, and eweeteaed the salt ocean in 
its vicinity, being supplied by the fountain meti- 
tioned in Genesis, oa springing &atn the tree of 
life in the Garden of Eden. 

Such was the alnguinr speculation of Columbus, 
which he details at full length in a letter \o the 
Castilian sovereigns,^ citing various aulhorilies 
tor his opinions, among which were St. Augus- 
tine, Sl laidor, and St. Ambrosius, and fortifying 
his theory with much of that curious and spec- 
ulative erudition in which he viaa deeply versed.^ 
It shows how his ardent mind was heated by the 
magnificence of his discoveries. Shi-ewd men, in 
the coolness and quietude of ordinary life, and in 
these modem days of cautious and sober fact, may 
BtDite at such a revery, but it was oounlenanced 
by the speculations of the most sage and teamed 
tf those times ; and if this had not been the case, 
ooutd we wonder at any eally of the imagination 
in n man placed in the situation of Columbus ? 

Note. — A great ptrt of' thcH epecuUtioru appear to have 
been ruanded on Ibe tnatine nf (be Cardinal Ptiiro di; A]iii«i. 
in wbicb Columbus found a compendium or Ilie opuiious •}( 
wiout emioeot authon on Ibe subjact; tliough it is very 
prababte be conaulled miiny of their works likewise, lo the 
volume of Ptdro da Aliaco, exi«tinKin the librarj- oftlie Ca- 
Iheiiral at Seville, I have traced the geTrm of ib'eu ideas in 
variDui poasBgea of lbs lext. apposite to wKich marginul notes 
luva baen made in tbe handwrltiag of Columbus. 



He beheld & vast world, rising, as it were^ into 
existence berore hiiQ, iXi oatare bqU extent ud- 
known and nndeGned, as vet a mere region for 
coDJecture. Every duy disiJayed $ome new 
fealnre of beanty and sublimity ; island tifter 
uland, where the rocks, he wits told, were veined 
with gold, the groves teemed witli ^iccs, or the 
chores abounded witli pearb. lulermionble 
ranges of coast, protnoniory beyond pTomou- 
tory, stretching as far aa the eye could read) ; 
luxuriant volle}^ sweeping awny tolo a vksi to- 
tenor, whose distant monutains, he wns told, con- 
nealed still happier lands, Hiid realms of greater 
opulence. When he looked upon all this r^ion 
of golden promise, it was with the glorious con- 
vic^on that his genius hud called it into exisleuoe : 
he regarded it with the triumphant eye of a di»- 
coverer. Had not Columbus beeu capable of 
ihuse enthusiastic soarings of the imagination, he 
might, with other sages, have reasoned culmly 
and coldly in his closet about tlie probability of a 
contineut existing in the west ; but he would 
never have had the daring enterprise to adven- 
ture in search of it into the nnknown realms of 

Still, in the midst of his fanciful speculations, 
we find ihut sagacity which formed the basis of 
hia character. The conduBion which he drew 
from the great flow of the Oronoco. that it must 
be tiie outpouring of a coutin<^ul, was acute nnd 
striking. A kamed Spanish bbiorian has also 
iugeniously excused other parts of hia theory. 
" He suspected," observeB he, " a certain elevution 


t^ the globe at ooe part of the equator ; pbiloiK>- 
phets have since determined ttic world to be a 
spheroid, slightly elevated id its equatoriii! circum- 
ference. He suapecteJ that tLe diversity of 
tempera tares inlluenced the oeedle, not being 
able to penetrate the cause of its inconstant 
TariatloDS ; the successive series of voyages aud 
experiments have made this iDconstiuicy more 
manifest, and have shown that extreme cold 
somelimes divests the needle of all its virtue. 
Perhaps new observations may justify the 
surmi»e of Columbus. Even his error coneem- 
ing the circle described by liie polar star, which 
be thought augmented by an optical illusion in pro- 
portion as the observer approached the equinos, 
menifesta him a philosopher superior to the time 
in whidi he lived." ' 

1 Uddoi, Hisl. N. Mundo, lib. n. J 32. 



HOLUMBUS had anticipated repose from 
n^ his loils on arriving at HispiiuJola, but 

new scene of trouble and anxiety 

opened upon him, destined to impede the prose- 
cntion of his enterprises, and to nSect all his fu- 
ture fortunes. To explain this, it is necessary to 
relate the occurreneea of the island during his 
long detention in Spain. 

Wten ho sailed for Europe in March, 1496, 
bis brother, Don BartholomeTr, who remained as 
Adelanlado, took the earliest measures to execute 
bis directions with respect to the mines recently 
discovered by Miguel Diaz on the south side of the 
island. Leaving Don Diego Columbus in command 
at Isabella, he repaired wiih a large force to the 
neighborhood of the minus, nnd choosing a favora- 
ble situation in a place must abounding iu ore, 
bnilt a fortress, to which he gave the name of 
San Christoval. The workmen, however, finding 


grains of gold among the eurth and stone em- 
ployed in its construciiou, gave it the name of the 
Golden Tower.' 

The Adeknlado remaiued here three months, 
enperin tending the building of the fortress, nnd 
making the necessary preparations for working 
the mines and purifying the ore. The progress 
of the work, however, was greatly impeded by 
scarcity of provisions, having frequently to de- 
tach a part of the mco ubuut the country in 
quest of supplies. The former hospitality of the 
island was at uu end. The Indians no longer 
gave their provisions freely ; they had learned 
from the white men to prolit by the necessities of 
the stranger, and to exact u price for bread. 
Their scanty stores, also, were soon exhausted, 
for their frugal habits, and their natural iudolence 
and improvidence seldom permitted tbem to have 
more provisions on hand than whs requisite for 
present supporL^ The Adelantodo found it diffi- 
cult, thereibre, to msinlttiri so large a force in the 
neighborhood, until they should have time to cul- 
tivate liie earth, nud raise live-stock, or should 
receive supplies from Spain, Leaving ten men 
to guard llie fortress, with a dog lo tissist them 
in catching utias, he marched with the rest of bis 
men, about four hundred in number, to Fort 
Conception, in the abundant country of the Vega. 
He piig.wd the whole month of June coUecling 
the quarterly tribute, being supplied with food by 
Gnarionex and hia subordinate caciques. In the 

' Peter Marlyr, deaad. i. lib. iv. 
3 Peler Martyr, decad. i. lib. v. 



following montli (July. 1496,) the three camvela 
commanded hj Ni5o arrived from Spnin, bring- 
ing a reinlorcement of men, and, what was stiil 
more needed, a supply of provisions. The latter 
was quickly distributed among the hungry colo- 
nials, but uafortuDately a greal part had been 
injured durmg the voyage. This was a serious 
iiiisfortuiie in a community where the least 
scarcity produced murmur and sedition. 

By these ships the Adelontado receiveJ leltero 
from his brother directing him lo found n town 
and aea-port at the mouth of the Ozema, near to 
the new mioes. He requested him, also, to send 
prisouers to Spain Buch of the caciques and their 
subjects as had been concerned in ibe death of 
any of the colonists, thai being considered aa 
sufficient ground, by many of the ablest jurlsla 
and theologians of Spain, for selling them as 
slaves. On tiie return of the caravels, the Ade- 
lautado dispatched three hundred Indian prisouera, 
and three caciques. These formed the ill-elarred 
cargoes about which Nino had made such absurd 
vaunting, aa though the ships wera laden with 
treasui-e; and which had caused such mortifi- 
cation, disappointment, and delay to Columbus. 

Having obtained by tliis arrival a supply of 
provisions, the Adelanlado returned to the for- 
treas of San Chriatoval, and thence proceeded to 
the Ozema, to choose a site for the proposed sea- 
port After a careful examination, he chose the 
eastern bank of a natural haven at the mouth 
of the river. It was easy of access, of sufficient 
depth, and good anchorage. The liver ran through 




a beautiful and fertile country ; its waters were 
pore and sal ii brio us, and well stocked with Qsli : 
its bauks were covered with trees bearing the 
fine fruits of the island, so that in Bailing along, 
tlic fruits and (lowers might be plucked with the 
band from the branches which overhung the 
stream.^ This delightful vicinity was the dwell- 
ing-place of the female cacique who hud conceived 
AD affection for the yonng Spaniard, Migoel Diaz, 
and bad induced hira to entice his couDtrymen to 
that part of the island. The pramiac she hod 
giveu of a friendly reception on the part of her 
tribe was faithfally performed. 

On a commanding bauk of the harbor, Don 
Bartholomew erected a fortress, which at first 
was called Isabella, but afterwanls Saii Domingo, 
and was the origin of the city which still bears 
that name. The Adelantada was of an active 
and indefatigable spirit. No sooner was the for- 
tress completed than he left in it a garrison of 
twenty men, and with the rest of his forces set 
out to visit the dominions of Behechio, one of 
the principal cliietWins of the island. This ca- 
cique, es has already been mentioned, reigned 
over Xaragua, a province comprising almost the 
whole coast at the west end of the island, includ- 
ing Cape Tihnron, and extending along the south 
Bide as far as Point Aguida, or the small island 
of Beata. It was one of the most populous and 
fertile districts, with a delightful climate : and 
its inhabitants were softer and more graceful in 
dieir manners than the rest of the islanders. 
' Pder MurljT, doc«d, i. lib. v. 


Being so remote from all the fortresses, the ca- 
ctqoe, although he had tiikeu a pnrt in the com- 
bination of the chieftains, had hitherto remained 
free from the incursions and exHciions of the 
white men. 

With this cacique resided Auacaona, widow of 
the late fomiidable CaoiiRbo. She was staler to 
Behechio, and htul taken refuge witli lier brother 
after the Capture of her husband. She was one 
of the most beautiful females of the island ; her 
name in the Indian language, signified '' The 
Golden Flower." She possessed a genios supe- 
rior to the generality of her race, and was said 
to excel in composing those little legendary bal- 
lads, or areytos, which the natives chanted as they 
performed their national dances. All the Span- 
ish wnlers agree in describing her as pos.scssiug 
a natural dignity and grace hardly to be credited 
in her ignorant and savage condition. Notwith- 
standing the ruin with which her husband bad 
been overwhelmed by the hoetitiiy of the white 
men, she appears to have entertained no vindic- 
tive feelings towards them, knowing that he had 
provoked their veugeanc* by his own voluntary 
warfare. She regarded the Spaniards with ad- 
miration as almost superhuman beings, and her 
intelligent mind perceived the futility and im- 
potity of any attempt to resist their superiority 
in arts and arms. Having great influence over 
her brother Behechio, slic counseled hii 
warning by tlie fate of her husband, and to con- 
ciliate the Iricndship of ihe Spaniards ; and it is 
supposed that a knowledge of the friendly senti- 




meiiis and Ilie powerful iiifluencea of this prin- 
cess in B great measure prompted the Adelantado 
to his present expeditiou.' 

Id passing Ihroagh those parts of the island 
which bad hitherto been unvisited by Europeans, 
tfae Adelontado adopted the same imposing meas- 
ures wbicl) the Hdtniml bad used on a former 
occasion ; he put his cavalry in the advance, and 
entered all the ludian towns in martial array, witb 
Btaudards displayed, and the sound of drum and 


After proceeding about thirty leagues, he canie 
to the river Neyva, which, issuing from the 
moaataius of Cibao, divides the soulheru side of 
tiie island. Crossing this stream, he dispatched 
two parties of ten men each along the sea-coast, 
in search of brazil-wood. They found great 
quantities, and felled many trees, wbicb they stored 
in the Indian cabins, until they could be taken 
•away by sea. 

Inclining with his main force to the right, the 
Adelantado met, not far from the river, the cacique 
Bebecbio, with a great army of his subjects, armed 
vilh bows and arrows and lances. If he had come 
come forib witb the intention of opposing the in- 
road into his forest domains, he was probably 
daunted by the formidable appearance of the 
Spaniards. Laying aside bis weapons, he nd- 
ranced and accosted the Adelantado very amicahly, 
professing that he was thus in arras for the pur- 
pose of subjecting certain villages along the river, 

t Chulevoix, nist St. DomL 
N. Uuiilo, lib. vi. 1 6. 

p. 147. Mii£o£, 



and incjuiriDg, at iLe some timu, [he objti.-l or ihii: 
iucursioD of tlie Spauiards. Tlie Adi;lHnUul(> uh- 
suretl him ihat lie cnmc od n peaceful visit to pass 
a little liiTiL' iu frieudly intercourse at Xaragua. 
He Buooeedod »o well m allajing the apprebenBioua 
of the cHuique, ihat [he Iatl«r disniis&ed bis army, 
and seut awift messengera to order preparatioae 
for the suitable reception of so distiugtiished a 
guest. As the Spaniards advaoccd iiilo ilie ler- 
ritories of the chieAain, aud passed through die 
dislrii:ls of his inferior caciquee, the laiier brought 
forth cassava bread, hemp, cotton, and various 
other productions of the land. At length (hey 
drew near to [he residence of Behechio, which 
was a large town situated in a beautiful part of 
the cDuatry near the coast, at the botlom of ihal 
deep buy, called at present the Bight of Leogau. 
The Spaniards bad heard trinity accounts of the 
soft and delightful region of Xaragua, in one part 
of wliich Indian traditions placed their Elydaii'- 
fields. They had heard mnGti, also, of the beauty 
and urbanity of the inhabiluiiU '■ the mode of tbeir 
rccepiion was calculated Id confir.m their favorable 
preposse-ssiona. Aa they approached the place 
ihirty females of the eaciquo'a hoirpehoid came 
forth lo meet them, singing their ar^tos, or int- 
ditionury ballads, and dancing and Waving palm 
branches. The married females worft aprons of 
embroidered cotton, reaching h(df way Ici Ihe knee ; 
the young women were entirely uakeil, with merely 
a fillet round the forehead, their hair ftd|i"g "pon 
their shoulders. They were bcauiiruU}\ propor- 
tioued; their akin emooth and delicate, aAd their 




oompleiuou of a dear agreeable brown. Accord- 
ing to old Peter Martjr, the Spauiarda, wheu they 
beheld them issuing fortb from their green woods, 
almost imngioed they beheld the fabled dryads, 
or native nymphs and fairies of the founlaiiis, sung 
by the ancient poets.' When they came before 
Don Bartholomew, they knelt and gracefully pre- 
■ented him tbu green branches. After these came 
the female cacique Asacaona, reclining on a kind 
of light litter borne by six Indians. Like the 
other females, she had no other covering than an 
t^Toa of various-colored cotton. She wore round 
her head a fmgrant garland of red and white 
flowers, ;ind wreaths of the same rountl her neck 
and arms. Slic received the Adeluutailo and his 
followers with that natural grace and coiiriesy for 
which she was celebrated ; manifesting n() Jioslility 
towards them for the fate her husband had es- 


to the house of Behechio, where a banquet was 
•erved up of utias, a great variety of sea and river 
fish, with roota and fruits of excellent quality. 
Here first the Spaniards conquered their repug- 
nance to the guana, the favorite delicacy of the 
Indians, but which the former had regarded with 
disgust, as a species of serpent. TJie Adelantado, 
iriUiog to accustom himself to the usages of the 
oonntry, was the first to taste this animal, being 
kindly pressed therelo by Anacoona. His followers 
imitated his example ; they found it to be highly 
palatable and delicate ; and from that time forward 

1 PHtar Martyr, deod. i lib. t. 

The bnuquet being over, Don Barlholotnew 
with six of his principal cavoliera were lodged in 
the dwelling of Behechio ; the rent were disiribuied 
in the houses of the inferior caciques, where they 
slept in hammocks of matted cotton, the usual 
beds of the natives. 

For two days they remained with Ihe hospii- 
able Behechio, entertained with v-nrious Indian 
gamea and feativitiee, amung which the moat re- 
markable was the representatioQ of a battle. Two 
squadrons of naked Indians, armed wilh bows and 
arrows, sallied suddeuly inio the public square and 
began to skirinisb in a manner similar to the 
Moorish play of canes, or tilting reeds. By degreea 
they became escited. and fought with such earnest- 
ness, that four were slain, and many wounded, 
which seemed to increase the interest and pleaSDre 
of the spectators. The contest would have con- 
tinued longer, and might have been atill more 

1 " Then* »erpentes are lyke unio orocodilBS, taving in bvg- 
iteui tbej call them guaniu. Unia that daj noaa of owtr 
men dursle adTBuIore lo UBte of tbem, by reawn of theyre 
horrible deforTnitie and lotluoinneg. Yet Ihe AdeliQlBda 
bdng entyied by the pleataDlncs or the king'i UBlor, ijiUft- 
ODB, delermliiod to tute the aerpeiitei. But when be telle the 
flesh thereof lo he so delyote lo hia tongue, he fel lo »m»yno 
withool »1 feare. The whidi thyng hiB eompinionB permlr- 
ine. were not behynde hym In preedynesBe : inBomuFhe Ihmt 
they had now none other laike than of the sweetuesH 
of thcsa aerpeDtcji, which Ihe.y tMna to be of more pleasant 
tute, than eythei our pliesanteB or putrichei." Peter MarQr, 
decad, i. book v. Edeo'i Eng. Truu. 



bloody, had not the Adelantado and Ihe otlicr 
cavslicrs interfered and begged that the game 
might cease.' 

When the festivities were over, and familiar 
intercoursti liud promoted mutual confidence, the 
Adelantodo addresacd tlie cacique aiid Anacaoua 
on the real object of his viait. He informed him 
tbat bia brotber, the admiral, bad been sent to 
this island by ihe sovereigns of Castile, who were 
grent and mighty poteutntes, with many kingdoms 
under their sway. That the admiral had returned 
to apprise bia Bovereigoa how many tributary 
caciquos there were in the island, leaving him in 
■ command, and that he had eome to receive 
Bcliechio under the protection of these mighty 
sovereigns, and to iirrange a. tribute to be paid 
by him, in Buch a manner as should he most cou- 
venieut and sntiafaclory to himaelf,^ 

The cacique was greatly embarrassed by this 
demand, knowing the suiferings inflicted on the 
other parts of tlie island by the avidity of the 
Spuninrds for gold. He replied that he had been 
apprised that gold was the greut object for which 
the white men bad come to their island, and that 
a tribnte waa paid in it by Home of his fellow 
caciques ; but that in no part of his territories 
was gold to be found ; and his subjects hardly 
knew what it was. To thin the Adelsntado re- 
plied with great adroitness, that nothing was 
ftirther from the int^^ntion or wish of his sorur- 
eigna than to require a tribute in. things not pro- 

. lib L up. IIL 


duced m his doiniuious, but that it might be paid 
in ootlon. Iieinp, nnd cassava brcud, irith tvhicli 
the surround iug country appeared to abonnd. 
The countenance of ilie cacique briglittned at 
this intimation ; he promised cheerful compliaDet;, 
and iustikDily sent orders to all his subordinate 
caciques to sow abnndiitice of cotton for the first 
payment of the stipulated tribute. Having miule 
all the requisite arrange me uts, the Adolantado 
took H most friendly leave of Behechio and bis 
sister, and set oui for Isabella. 

Thus, by amicable and sagadoua management, 
one of the most extensive provinces of the island 
was brought into cheerful subjectiou, and had not 
the wise policy of the Adelontado been defeated 
by the excesses of worlhleBs and turbulent men. 
n large revenue might have been coUecicJ, with- 
out any recourse to violence or oppression. In 
all iuRtauces, these simple people appear lu have 
been extremely tractable, and meekly and even 
cheerfully to have resigned their rigiits to the 
white men, when treated with gentleuess and 


It Tsabellu. Don Barlbolomew 

Iluurul il, as usiinl, & scetie of misery and 
repining. Iilauy bud died during his 
abseiic-e ; most were ill. Those who were healthy 
complained of the scarcity of food, nnd thoae who 
were ill) of the waot of medicinea. The pro- 
visions distributed among them, fi'om the supply 
brought out a few moulha before by Pedro Aluiizo 
Nino, had been consumed. Partly from sicknesa, 
and partly from a repugnnnce to Inbor, they bud 
neglected to cultivate the surrounding country, 
nnd the Iniliau?, on wbom tbey chiefly depecidcd, 
outraged by their oppresaiona, had abandoned the 
viciuity, nnd fled to the mountains ; choosing 
rather to subsist on roots und herbs, in their 
rugged retreats, than remain in the luxuriant 
pl)iin.>, flubjcct to the wrongs and cruelties of the 
white men. The hialory of this island presents 
continual pictures of ihe miseries, the actual want 
and poverty produced by the grasping avidity of 


onisTOPBtM coLumaua. 

gold. It bad reodered cbe Sfwii«nii heedless oT 
■D llie leM obrkms, but more certain uvl SBlnbrioas 
■mrecs of we»Itb. Alt kbor B««iiied lost tboi wa» 
toprodnee profit bf a drcaiiooa pro«e«e. Thm^hiJ 
of cBltJTatiug the loxoriaaE ^oil arDund lfaeiii,slid 
deriving re&l treafQres Iram its snr&ce, tbejr 
nxsled their (tme in £«elii^ lor mines and 
^M^i streams. ukI were ttarni^ in the raidst 
of fertility. 

Xo soooer were tbe prariijions exhausted which 
hiul been brought out by NtSo. Ibati the cokmLst^ 
began U> brenk iorth in liieir kccustomed mDrmurs. 
They repreecnted ibemselres as n^lected by Co- 
liunbus, who, amid the bUndiahtnentd axA ddig^ts 
of A court, Iboughl little of ibeir sofierings. Hiey 
emsidered themwlres equnlly forgolleu by gorem- 
tnent ; while, having do res^I in the harbor, they 
were desliiuie of all mean^ of Mending home ioiel- 
ligeDce of their di^asirQus situation, Bnd imploring 

To remove thU li^t catise of disconlenl. tuid 
Iwiiiib some object tor their hopes and thoughts 
to rally round, the Adelautado ordered that two 
caraveb »boald be built at Isabella, for the use 
of the island. To relieve the ^ttlemeiit, also, 
from all luelesa and repining jtulividoal^ duriog 
this time of searcilj, he distributed such ha weru 
loo ill to labor or to bear anas, into the interior, 
where they would have the benefit of a better 
dimate, and more abuiHlaiit supply of Indiao 
provisions. He at the same lime completed and 
garrisoned tbe chain of military posts established 
by his brother in the precedtug year, coosidling 


of five fortified houses, ench surrouuded by its 
depeodcDt humlet The first of ttiese van nbuiit 
nine leagues from iBiibella, mid whb called Ls 
Eeperanza. Six ietigues beyond was Santa Ciii- 
dlina. Four leagues and a half further was 5Ing- 
daleua, where the first town of Saiitiugo was 
afterwards founded : and five leagues further, 
Fort Concepfion — which was fortified with great 
care, being iu the vast and populous Vega, and 
within half b league from the residence of its 
cacique, Guarionex.' Having thus relieved Isa- 
bella of all \\M useless population, and lefl none 
but such as were too ill to be removed, or were 
required for the service and protection of the 
place, and the conslruclion of the caravels, Ihe 
Adelaulado returned with a lai^e hody of the 
moat effective men, to the fortress of San Do- 

The military posts thus estabUshed succeeded 
for a lime in overawing the natives ; but fresh 
hostilities were soon manifested, excited by a 
different cause from the preceding. Among llie 
missiouaries who had accompanied Friar Boyle 
to the island, were two of far greater zeitl tluiri 
their superior, ■ When he relumed to Spiiiii, 
they remained, earnestly bent upon the fulfill- 
ment of their mission. Oue was called lioinan 
Paue, a poor hermit, as he styled himself, of 
the order of Si. Geronimo : ihe other was Juan 

Borgoiion, a Franciscan. They r 

sided for a. 

IM ijrs AJta roTAsss or 

Itoa w^m^ lie UbK «( Ik Ttpt, i 

•TJ^Mmm. Tk (mi««- of Ac e 
GMraan.kweTCK.vH Am- ^MalgML n> 

Am. ifcwiwi rf *> OmA. Fw« 

Ab A«t »«». aail A» Gm< »I i ^ 

whA fifafcr HniiuM Awa AJp. Tte ■Ab'^^ 
<iii|aaBaf A»Ti|f»mCirfA«f 

"M »t ifitt Br miiiiwflr — iiffiwMg fc 

mt» WghiiiMit A«li.n MBPiigwm af Acs 





diaos entered ihe chnpel, broke the images in 
pieces, tTHmpled thetn under foot, and buried Ibem 
in a neighboring lield- This, il was said, was 
done by order of Guarionex, in contempt of the 
religion from which he had apostatized. A com- 
plaint of this enormity was carried lo the Ade- 
lanlado, who ordered a suit to be immediately 
institnied, and those who were found crilpRble, lo 
be punished according to law. It was a period 
of great rigor in eccleaiaatieal law, especially among 
the Spaniards. In Spain, all heresies in religion, 
all recantations from the faith, and all acts of 
sacrilege, either by Moor or Jew, were punished 
with fire and fagol. Such was the fate of tbe 
poor ignorant Indians convicted of this outrage 
on the Church. It is questionable whether Gua- 
rionex had any hand in this offense, and it is 
probable that tbe whole affair was exaggerated. 
A proof of the credit due to tbe evidence brought 
forward, may be judged by one of the facts re- 
corded by Roman Pane, " the poor hermit." Tbe 
Geld in which the holy images were buried, was 
planted, he says, with certain roots shaped like a 
turnip, or radish, several of which coming up in 
the neighborhood of tlie images were found mo^t 
niiracoloui>ly in the form of a cross.^ 

The cruel punishment inflicted on tliese Indi- 
ans, instead of daunting their counlrymeu, filled 
tbem with horror and indignation. Unaccu^ 
tomed lo such stern rule and rindiclive justice, 
and liaving no clear ideas nor powerful seuti- 
mencs with respect to religion of any kind, ihey 



coiilil not cotnpreheud the nature nor extent of 
the crime coruniitied. Even Guarionex. a man 
Iiktunilly inod«r«le and pnmfic, was liiglily in- 
CWMd with ttie assumpttoD or power witbin hia 
larritorws, and the inhuman death inflicted on hie 
ntyiMts. The other caciques perceived hi« irri- 
Mmw. Mkd eixleHTMO) to iaduc-e him to unite in 
m mMaa insamctioB, that b^ ooe Tigorous and 
flBH«l dObrt tiomj ought faavak the yoke of their 
~ Bred for some 


VU kiww th« M«nt«l doil and prowess of the 
~ B «ra of lfa«^ cavalry, and 
diw«KTWil &W of Caonabo ; 
I boU by dee^, and he be- 
UU ik tU diwWMlfciw of Acne atraDgen the 
MMm4 nh of hB iMft. Thtt oariy vrilen 
IfwJk «f • IwJMb^ cwnal wmam^ the iahabi- 
«M» tt <im iibad. wwywa g tlos Goariooex. 
H* WW «f MR laCMt liw rfhawditarr c«ciqaee. 
IH» AAnt. b liMt bi« fmaJii;^ ihe'discorery. 
tetM* fcM»l br Cv> 4^D^ i MJ ^ to thor w- 
IKWl W w Bfcw m iwfc iftlM to Imb nn, or 




liooex to hostilities ia uncerlein. Some have as- 
aerled that he waa compelled lo lake up arms by 
his sabjecU. wbo Ibrealeneil, in case of his re- 
fiual, to cliooee nome oUier chiellain ; olhera bave 
alleged the outrage oommitted upon his fnvorite 
wife, 83 ihe principal cause of his irritation.' It 
was probabl)' Ihe8e ihings combined, nhicli at 
length induced bim to enter into the conspiracy, 
A secret consullaliou was held among ibe ca- 
dqnes, wherein it was concerted, that on the day 
of payment of their quarterly tribute, wheu a great 
number could assemble without caosiog suspicion, 
ihey should suddenly ri^e upon the Spaniards and 
massacre tbem.^ 

By florae means the garrii^on at Fort Concep- 
tion received intimation of this conspiracy. Be- 
ing bat a handful of men, and surrounded by 
hoetile tribes, ihey wrote a letter to the Adelnn- 
tado, at San Domingo, imploring immediate aid. 
As this letter might be taken from their Indian 
messenger, the nativeH having discovered that 
these letters hnd a wonderful power of communi- 
cating intelligence, and fancying they could talk, 
it was inclosed in a reed, to be used as a statf. 
The messenger was, in fact, intercepted ; but, 
affecting to be dumb end lame, and intimating by 
signs that he wus returning home, was permitted 
to limp forward on his journey. When out of 
Bight he resumed his speed, and bore the letter 
sttfely and expeditiously to San Domingo.^ 

1 Lm Cuu, HUt Ind., lib. i. ciip. 131. 
> Heiren, decad, i. lib. JiL cip. 6S. PeWr Uiirtvr, decaiL 
Ti. lib. Y. 

■ Ilerren, Uibt. Ind., decad. i. lib. iii. cap. T. 






defense or rescua. The Indians, struck with 
terror, made do resistance, nor any show of hos- 
tility; suTTOTiDding the fortress in great multi- 
Indea, but witkout weapous, ibe/ filled the air 
with dolefiil bowlings and lamentaliuus, implor- 
ing the release of their chiefiaiQH. The Adelaii- 
tado completed his enterprise with the iipirit, 
Mgacity, and iDoderulioo with which he had 
faithtaio conducted it. He obtained iiifonnatioii 
of the causes of this conspiracy, and the indi- 
vidtuls most culpable. Two caciques, the prin- 
cipKl movers of tlie iiisurrectjoti, and who bad 
lliMt vrought upon the ensy nature of Giur- 
ItWnY. were put to death. As lo that unfortuaate 
laei^ae, the Addaulado considering the deep 
wroogs he hod sufTered, aud the slowness with 
which he had been provoked to rerenge, magnan- 
nnonsly pardoned him ; nay, according to Las 
Caaas, he proceeded with stem justice against the 
Spaniard whose outrage on hLs wife had sunk so 
deeply iu his heart. He extended his lenity also 
lo the remaining chiefbains of the conspiracy ; 
promising great favors and rewards, if they 
should coniiiiue firm iu iheir loyalty ; but terrible 
pnoiEhmenis should they again be found in re- 
bellion. The heart of Guarionex was subdued 
by ibis unexpected clemency. He made a speech 
to bis people, settiug forth the irresistible might 
lUtd valor of the Spaniards ; iheir great lenity to 
uSenders, and their generosity to such as were 
faithful ; and he earnesily exhorted them hence- 
forth to cultivate their friendship. The Indians 
listened to him with attention ; his praises of the 


S7f MMK .aK» tmr^aa cr cmjuiMVB. 

Wi vdBB te imi imwJBJtia. iIk; took him 
«f«» Anr -*"t''*'—. horn km ta Us habitatioii 
•lA iH^P wi ^km^t «f jc^-. aad far M>me time 



3mi all his energy and discretion, the 
j Adeliiiitado fouod it difficult to manage 
I tlie proad aod turbulent spirit of tiid 
oglonists. Tlicy could ill brook itie Bway of a 
ibreigner, wlio, wlien tbey were restive, curbed 
tfaem with an iron band. Don Bortlioloinew bad 
not the Bnme legitimate authority in their eyes 
■8 his brolliur. The admiral was the discoverer 
of the country, and the authorized repreBeutalive 
of the sovereigns ; yet eren him they with diffi- 
culty brought themselves to obey. The Adelan- 
indo, on the contrary, was regarded by many as 
Ik mere intruder, asaumiug liigh command without 
nulbority from the crown, and shouldering him- 
self into power on the merits and services of his 
brother. They ppokc with impatience and indig- 
nation, also, of the long absence of the admii'al, 
and bis fancied innttcnliou lo their want? ; little 
aware of the incessant anxieties he was suffering 
on their account, during his detention in Spmn. 
The sagacious meoBure of the Adelanlado in 



bniUmg thp qukvcIb, far Bome time diverted 
iheir BiUQiioD. They watched their prt^rces 
with 9olicitiide, looking apou them as a mean? 
i-ither of obUuniog relief or of ubAndoniug the 
ttlaod. Atmnt (hftt repinjog and discontenltid 
mm thuuld nevier be left in iJleueis, Doti Beit- 
Aoloinew kept tbem eotutnunltj in movi-iueni ; 
■ad indeed a state of constaDi activity was oon- 
geakl la his own vigorous spirit About this 
time mwwiigrn arrived from Behechio, mdque 
of Xanigii^ informing him that he had large 
quantiticB of cotton, and other articles, in which 
hia IribvM wh lo be paid, retidy for delivery. 
Tbs fliliihntiiln tmnKdiaiely set Ibnh with n 
MWWiM tmk^ lo revisit thb fruitftil and happy 
n^oB. He WM agaan received with »ongs aud 
1. «ad aD ihe aaiioiial demon^t rations of 

i aaity by Behecfaio and hb sister 
TW kiter ai^xared to be highly 

nng Uw iMtivee, and to have almost as 
I K«N9 n Xangna as ber brother. Her 
Mimal aas*, a>d Ae graoe6d dignity of her 
HMMMn, awn aad mora wn tbe admirauon of 

The AMantado fcond dunj-lwo inferior cad- 
qnes aivMnbM ia tlM ho—e it Bebediio, awail- 
ieg Us anival willi Aair f«ti|McliT« tributeti. The 
«Mh)n ttiey had bimq^ wai «w>tigfa to till one 
if ih«r boanes. Bavng <kfoet«d this, thej 
gratnitonsly oA*«d tbe Adetntado as much cas- 
Mtra Vmd as ke denred. Tbe ofler was most ac- 
Mpiable in the preaeni m-oesalms stale of the 
eoionyi and Don Banliateaiew eent to Isabella 

CaSlSTOPBER coLuuacs. 


Tor one of tlie carnvels, wiiich wii8 ne»rty Biiiflhed, 
lo be dispiilcheii as soon as possible to Xanigua, 
lo be TrcigbUid wilb bread uiiil cotion. 

In the meantime, the niLtivea brought from all 
quarters Lirge BupplJes of provisions, itnd enter- 
tained their giiesls wilh conlinual feslivilj and 
banqueting. The early Spanish writers, whose 
imagiDalions, heated by ihe accounta of the voy- 
agers, could not form an idea of the aimplicily of 
savage life, especially in these newly discovered 
countries, which were aapposed to border upon 
Asia, oflen speak in terms of Orieiiiat niHgnificence 
of the entertain men ts of the nalires, the palaces 
of the caciques, nnd the lordn and Indies of their 
courts, as if they were describing the abodes of 
A«atic potenldles. The accounts given of Xara- 
gno, however, have a different character ; and give 
a picture of savage life, in its perfection of idle 
BOd ignorant enjoyment. The troubles which dis- 
tracted the other parts of devoted Huyii, had not 
reached the inhabitants of this pleasant region. 
Living among beautifid and fruilful groves, on the 
borders of a sea, apparently forever tranquil and 
uuvesed by storms; having few wants, and tho^e 
readily supplied, they appeared emnneipated from 
the comiDoii lot of labor, and to pass their lives 
in one uninlernipled liotiday. When the Spiin- 
iards regarded the fertility and sweetness of this 
oonntry, the gentleness of its people, aud the 
beauty of its women, they pronounced it a per- 
fect paradise. 

At length the caravel arrived which i 

freighted with the articles of tribute. It anchored 


rorAGEs OF 

Kbout fix milea from the residence of Behcchio, 
lUlJ Aiutcftona proposed lo her brother thnt thej 
•bouU go togetluu- to behold what she called the 
grmt caitou of the white men. Ou their w&y to 
th« const, the Adeleotado was lodged one night 
iu a vklUge, ia a hou»e where Admoioiia treasured 
up tbiiw aKicles which she esteemed most rare 
kttd prvricHia. Tbej consisted od' rarious maim- 
fiMHumt i>f I'uiiuii. iogtmnusljr wrought: ofresaels 
ol' rUy. mouMed into dtffiereni furms ; of chairs, 
>hU«s. nod Sk» kKtclu of fumiiure, fbrnrad of 
«tit>W,v «kd o rt wr kia^ of wood, and carred with 
vorigiw iknawt — aBsviMMg gnM »ktU and in- 
yiw* y M k paoft* «)w had no ma locj-i to "kvA 
«Mk S«ch ««« Am aiHple tNuoras of this 
b»l«»« |«aeaMt of wkioh she nwle Domerous 

At fim beheld 



drew nearer to ihe veasel, several instrumeiils ol' 
martial music struck up, with wliicli they were 
greail; deiigbted. Their admiration increased oti 
entering on board. Accuatomed only lo their 
simple Hod slight canues, everything here tippeored 
wouderfully vost utid complicated. But when ihe 
anchor nas iveighed, the sails were spread, and, 
aided by a gentle breeze, tliey beheld Ihia vast 
msae, nwviug apparently by iu awa volition, veur- 
ing from side to side, and playing like a huge 
monster in the deep, the brother and sister re- 
muned gazing at each other in mute astonish- 
ment.' Nothing seems to hHve tilled the mind of 
the most stoical savage with more wonder, than 
that Boblime and beautiful triumph of genius, a 
ttip under sail. 

Baring freighted nnd dispatched the caravel, 
the Adelaiilado made many presents to Behechio, 
bis sister, and their attendants, and took leave of 
tbem, to return by land with bis troops to Isiihella. 
Auacaona showed great affliction at their parting, 
entreating him to I'emain some time longer with 
(hem, and appearing fearRil that they had failed 
in tbeir humble aiiempt to please him. She even 
offered to Ibllow biin to the settlement, nor \vould 
she be consoled nulil he had promised to return 
again to Xaragoa.' 

We cauuot but remark the ability shown by tlie 
Adelantado in the course of his transient govern- 
meiii of the island. Wonderfully alert and activu, 

I Pstet Martyr, decid. i. lib, v. Herrera, dticad. L lib, iii. 


W aait T^^e»A —■— *— of greu exteut, from 
mtm n^HB inriuB to anoUier, and was Blnays 
« the ftac «r iImijiii Jl. the critical moment. % 
Ainfal iMM^Miwi with * haudful of men he 
JBlLmlei ■ farawkUe innirrevtiou without an; 
ttmaa of blood. He conciliated the most invet- 
erate enemies ■mong (be natives by grmt moder- 
atioo, while be delemJ all wantoD hostilities by 
ibe infliulion of signal puDiebnieiits. He liad made 
firm friuiKls of the moHt imporlaat chieftaitis, 
bruiight tlieir doraiuions under cheerful tribute, 
opened uew sources of supplies for the colony, and 
procured relief from its immediate wants. Had 
ilia jndiuious measures beeo seconded hj iboee 
uijilur his oonmiand, the whole country wouU have 
Umii n scene of tranquil prosperity, and would 
havtt [iroijttwd greul niveaues lo ibe cn>wn a^lb- 
itul enioliy to Ibe tuuivas; bot like Ida brotlwr 
the iidniiral, kb good iBteniieM aad jadicMW ar- 
en coMMBllf Ibwartad bj Uis rife 
pamtM eoadHMef iilbi^ WUe 
Altam UMk ■rw ■J-ihiift bad 



IHE prime mover of (he present mischief 
IS one Francisco Roldan,Q 

3 deepest obligulions to the admirnl. 

Baised by him froni poverty and obscurity, lie 
had been employed at lirst in menial cnpai;t1ies ; 
but showing strong natural talents, and great as- 
siduity, be bad been made ordinary alcalde, equiv- 
alent to justice of the pence. The able manner 
in which be acquitted himself in this situation, 
and the persiiasiou of his great fidelity and grnt- 
hode, inducei] Columbus, ou departing for Spain, 
to sppoiut hira alcalde mayor, or chief judge of 
the island. It is true he was an uneducated man. 
but, lis there were as yet no intricacies of law in 
the colony, the office reqnired little else than 
ehrewil good sense and upright principles fur its 

Boldaa was one of those base spirits which 
grow venomous in the sunshine of prosperity. 
His benefactor had returned to Spain, apparently 

1 Rcmri, decsd. 1. lib. iii. cup. 1. 


Dtulor n cUiiid of disgrace ; a long interval had 
eInjHwd wilbuul lidliip from Lira; he considered 
hini (I fulleii man, and begun lo devise how lie 
might prciHt by hia dowufijl. He wto I'ntrusti.'d 
witli nil (ifllm itiftsrior only to that of the Adelaa- 
titdiM llic liiHithors of Ciiiiinibiis were liighly un- 
[Hi)>uliii' ; he hntiginoil il possible to ruin thetn. 
jnilli H'ilh the rolonists nod tviib ibe guvuminciit 
nt lioint^ nnd by [tt»ln>us cunning mid bu^ttiiig 
Activity, lo wiirk his way into the oommacd of 
ibo miutiy. TIm vigorous iwd s 
chuniclor of the Adelantado for sonie lime kepi 
bitn in avrv ; but tcImw he wao »beeat Iran itw 
vMlkHWRli RoMiut WM kUc to CNiry on bis ■ 
WtMUi witk <uniU«M«^ Dm Diego, win d 
tMWMMMMia ImMI*. w mi fqgfct *aA m 



ment, severe toil, and the loug absence of the ad- 
miral, he aSected to be moved by their di^iressea. 
He threw out suggestions that the ndmirul might 
never return, being disgraced ntid ruined in con- 
sequence of the rep re-sen tall ous of Agnado. He 
sympathizeil with the bard treatment they ex- 
perienced from the AdeliiiitHdo and liis broilier 
Don Diego, who, being foreignera, could take no 
iuterBBt iu their weirnre, :ior feel a proper respect 
for the pride of a Spiiniurd; but who used them 
merely as slaves, to build houses and furtresseii for 
them, or to swell their state and secure their power, 
MB they marched about the island enriching them- 
selves with [he spoils of (he caciques. By these 
suggeatioua he exasperated llieir feelings to such 
a height, that they had at one time I'onned a coa- 
Bpiracy to liike away the life of the Adelautado, 
as the only meun< of delivering themselves trom 
an odious tyrant. The time and place for the 
perpetration of the act were concerted. The Ade- 
lauiado had condemned to death a Spaniard of 
the natue of Berahotin, a friend of Roldao, and 
of several of the conspirators. What was his 
oBenRe is not positively atuted, but from a passage 
id Las Caaas,' there is reai»on to believe tliat he 
was the very SjMiniard who had violated the favor- 
ite wife of Guarionex, the cacique of the Vega, 
The Adelunlado would be present at the execution. 
It was arranged, iherelbre, that when the popu- 
lace bad assembled, a tumidt should be made, us 
if by accident, and in the confusion of llie moment, 
IXm Bartholomew should be dispatched with a 



FottnoBtet* far tbe Adeliutada, bo 
pBrdooed tbe niminBL ibe uMmblage did not 
ukc place, aud the plan of ihe conspimlors was 

Wben Don Biinholoii»;nr waa absuut collecting 
ibu tribute in Xnragua. RuIJmu llioughi it was a 
hvuntlile liuH.' to briug afl'dirs to a crisis. He had 
■ountled Ihe fecUiigs of ih« roioaisis. and asoer- 
twiicd that there whs a lar^ pHrty disposed Tor 
opeu seditioD. His plim wbb to create a popular 
tumult, to iuiurpow ia his official churoctcr of 
ak-ulile OMjor, to throw the blame upon the op- 
pression anil injiietice of Don Diego aod hie 
bruthcr, tuiU, while be usurped the ittius of au- 
tlturiiy. lo Hppeiir as if actuated oiJy by zeal for 
the peace and prosperity of th^ island, and tbe 
interests of the sovereigns. 

A pretext soon presi^nied itself for the proposed 
tutiiiill. Whfii Ihe canivel relumed from Xar- 
Agna laden with the liiditui tributes, and tbe 
cargo was discharged, Don Di^o hud tbe vessel 
dmvm up on llit- land, lo protect it from accidents, 
or from «uy »<ini3ier dt«igns of the disaffected 
colonists. Buldau immediately pointed this dr- 
eutnalunce out to his partisaus. He secretly 
inveijjhed against the hardslup of having thb 
vessel drawn on shore, itislead of being letl afloat 
for the beiietit uf the colony, or seul lo Spain lo 
make known iheir distresses. He hinied that 
the true reason was ibe fear of the Adelantado 
and his brother Wl accounts should be carried to 
Spain of Iheir misconduct ; and be Manned thai 





they wished to remiun unilislurbed masters of tiie 
isltiDi], And keep the SpiiniArds tbcre as sulijects, 
or rather as slaves. Tlie people took fire at 
these suggeatioiis. They had long looked for- 
ward to the completioD of the caravels as Iheir 
ftniy chance for relief; ihey now insisliid that the 
vessel should be launched and sent to Spain for 
supplies. Don Diego endeavored to conviuce 
them of the folly of their demand, the vessel not 
being rigged and equipped for such a voyage ; hut 
the more he arietnpted lo pacify ihem, the more 
unreaaoimble and turbulent they beoime. Rot- 
dnn, also, heciicne more bold and explicit in bis 
iustigatioDa. He advised them to launch and 
take possession of the caravel, as the only mode 
of regaining iheir independence. TLey mi«hl 
then throw olf the tyranny of these upstart 
strougere, enemies in their hearts to Spaniards, 
and might lead a life of ease and pleasure ; sbar- 
ing equally all (hat they might gain by barter in 
the island, employing the Indians as slaves to 
work ibr them, and enjoying uurestrained Indul- 
gence with respect to the Indian women.' 

Don Diego received information of what was 
fermenting among the people, yet feared to come 
io an open rupture with Roldan in the present 
mntinoua state of the colony. He suddenly 
detached him, therefore, with forty men, to the 
Vega, under pretext of overawing certain of the 
Uktives who had refused to pay their tribute, and 
had shown a dispo.sition to revolt. Kolitaii made 
ON of tliis opportunity to strengthen his faction. 
> Hiat. del Almimnlt, cap. 73. 

urx AJn> F#r.<cs3 or 

•ubi* plans, mmi ttstamoi «itk In linkfaaad t» 
'^'■-"-. wbere be &b waive of « Otoag pv^ 
mmaag dw comman pouple. 

Tbe Adcluttadn lai by tliw tinie ntaraod faia 
X««eBK:bm Etildaa. fediae bimnttfM Ae fccMJ 
ff ABirmtg Ikaticoi. aud MT^uing tob' 
MAmtf ^'oiD iu« a&3aJ iit»Tiw^ mem < 

fandhlL The J U ii i aiig pwwygr w 

-*-- '^ I *-' '■ in i' n, T I-' J. 



»SU t 

the island. He aet off suddenly, 
therefore, lor the Vega, inlendiag to surprise llie 
foriress ul" CoucepiJon, and by {■etling commuiid 
of tlmt post and (he rich country aJjuceuI, lo set 
the Ailelantado al di;lianee. 

He stopped, on his way, at various Indian 
villages in which the Spaninrda were distribuled, 
endenvoring to enlist llie latter in liis party, by 
bolUiug out promises of great gain and free living. 
He attempted also lo sedutNt the natives from 
iheir nllegianee, by promising them freedom from 
til tribute. Those caciques with whom he had 
piaintaiued a previous uudcrstiuidiiig. received 
'ith open arms ; particularly one who had 
the name oF Diego Marque, whose village 
niaile his head-quarters, being about two 
leagues from Fort Conception. Ho was disap- 
pointed ill hia hopes of surprising the foriress. 
Its oomtnaiider, 3Iigtiel Baliester, was an old and 
ElBiich soldier, bolh resolute and wary. He 
drew himself into his stronghold on the itppruach 
of Roldan, and closed his gates. His garrison 
WRS small, but the forti6cation, siluuled on the 
aide of a hill, with a river miming at its foot, 
was proof against any assault. Boldan had still 
some hopes that Ballesler might be disalTeuled to 
govemmeul, and might be gradually brought into 
his plans, or that the garrison would be disposed 
to desert, tempted by the licentious life which he 
pennilted among his followers. In the neighbor- 
Iwod was (he town inhabited by Guarionex. 
Here were quartered thirty soldiers, under the 
command of Captain Garcia de Burrantes. Bol- 

18C UFK AS0 votjges of columbvs. 

dn nfMdred thUlier with his armetl force, hoping 
to enlist Ban-antes and his panv ; but Uie cfiptaio 
6bul hitniielt' Dp wilJi his dmu in a fortified house, 
refusing to perinii them lo hold aoy commuuiiMliou 
wilh Roldan. Thi: laller ihttstened lo »el fire 
to the house ; but &n«r a lillle <x>n^craliou, con- 
tented himself n'ith -ciziDg iheir store of pro- 
TiMonK, attd then msrvheil lovards Fort Conwp- 
tkm, which was not quite half a league diaiaav' 
I Bmwa. decad. i lib. in. txf. T. Bin. del Alminnte. 

aT.8. BtmABi, Etf. ~ 1811. Fait 
« 1^ foot of a hOI M* <allcd Saata 
Cmrl Ii u tMOMMedif tn^a*4bdiBaM«aaaUR4 
tb* lit —I 4«r ai «rk« jotf fianbBl. tl Maada ia tt« 
sbMefaaexabanMliinstiiliicI hat iandnl Hm (etta •( 

wnU>lho««f a 

a tp ii ltly ai •rCDlMabv. Tbe iabahHaats vbo nnind Uh 
cateowpb* Ptdnd tsaHDaD chapaLuacbibaaksaf arinr, 
abBui a hwg m ihraal. ■>«■ ibd w» tD>B of La T^ wh 




HE AdeloQtado had received itilelligence 
of the flftgitiouB proceedings of Rfildau, 
yet heBJtiiteiJ for a time to set out in 
pursuit of him. He hnd bat all confideiici! iu the 
loyally uf the people aruutid him, and knew uot 
bow far iho couspirncy extended, nor oti whom be 
oould rely. Diego de Escohnr. idcnyde of the 
Ibrtress of La Magdolena, together with Adriuu 
de Moxica nnd Pedro de ValdiTieso, all principal 
loeu, were in league with Roldaa. He feured that 
the commander of Fort Conception might l|}(ewic>e 
be in the plot, and the whole islaud iu iirms against 
bim. He was reassured, however, by tidings from 
Miguel Balleitter. That loyal veterau wrote to 
hhn pressing letters for succor; representing the 
weakness of his garrison, and the increasing forces 
of the rebels. 

Don Bartholomew hastened to his assistance 
with his accustomed promptness, and threw him- 
■elf with a reinforcement into the fortress. Being 


i|[nanu)( of fbe force of the rebels, and duabtfnl 
of the lufklty ut hin uwii rolloH-en, lie determiaed 
lo adupl mild nx^asures. Undereisuding that BoL- 
iImi WHt qiistirml at » viUtige but Imll' a league 
dislBtit, he »cnl R message to him, rcmoustrKtiiig 
on lllv flngrant irTegalnritj of bia conduct, iba 
Ityilry it wnfl cdeuUued \a produce in llie u4»Dd. 
und the certain niiu it must briu^ upon biiasclC 
and »umn>oning liiiu lo appear M tfae tattnm, 
pledging hii< itotiI far lus pemmal safety. Sold>B 
r.-)wiivd Rcvxirditigly to Fort Cooc^lkn, vberc the 
AdrUntnda brld a poHcjr witib Un &xnb a ■ ' 
dvnuuidin^ tlic rraiun of bb ) 
LI to ntval aaibuHiT. 
bokUjr, tint ti» ms in tbe xtthc of he sonra^gM^ 


ence of bia tnco, mid (lejmrled, ilecUring ibnt he 
wodM seek a more eligible i-esidence elsewhere,' 
He now pruposeJ lo bis rollowers to Like pos- 
seseion of the remote province of Xaragua. The 
8paniar<U who bail returned thencei gave enticing 
accounts ol' the Uk ibey bad led there : of the 
fertility of the soil, the sweelneas of the climate^ 
the tio^piiulity and genlleness of the people, their 
feast's daDce:j, and various amusements, ajiU, above 
all, the beauty of the women ; for they had been 
captivated by the uaked' charms of the dancing 
nyrnplis of Xarugun. In this delighlful re^oo, 
eraaucipaieJ Frum the irou rule of the Adelantado, 
and relieved froni the necessity of irkwrae labor, 
tliey might lead a life of perfect freedom and iu- 
dnlgence, anil have n world of beauty at their 
oommaud. In short, Roldan drew a picture of 
loose setisual enjoyment, such as he knew to be 
irresistible with meu of idle and dissolute habits. 
His followers acceded with joy lo his proposition. 
Some preparutiouB, however, were nect's»ary to 
aury it into effect. Taking advantage of the ab- 
sence of the Adeiantndo, he suddenly marciied 
with his band to Isabella, and entering it in a 
nunner by surprise, endeavored to launch the citra- 
vel, wiib which they might sail lu Xaragua. Don 
Diego Columbus, hearing the tumult, issued Ibrtli 
with several cavidieni ; but sucli was the force of 
ibe mutineers and their menacing conduct, that he 
WSB obliged to withdraw, with his adherents, into 
the fortress. Roldan held several parleys with 

> Ucrrgn, dwad. i. lib. iii. cap. T. UiaL del Almimitt, 



him, and offered to submit to bb command, pro- 
vuled Ue woulil «t binwelf up in opposition to his 
brtrflier the AdeUnlodo. His propasilion whs 
treated wirh ecom. Tlie forireas was loo strong 
to be aoMkilcil with euccess ; be found it impossible 
to latiuch the carftvel, and feared the Adelantado 
might return, and lie be iucloaed between two 
furuea. He proceeded, therefore, in nil haste, to 
DiHke provisions for the proposed eipedilion to 
XiiTfigna. Still pretending to act in liis official 
citpacity, and to do everything from loyal moiivee 
for the protection aiid 8up|iort of the oppressed 
subjuuis of the croM-n. he broke open the royal 
warehixise, with shouts of ■' Long live the kiug I " 
supplied his tbihiwers with nniu, ammuuioMi, 
clothing, ninl whntever they desirvil from Ike pntK 
tie stuns 1 jii'orvedetl lo the indoeare wber« (ba 
(Mltle and oiher European aninub w«re kef>l tt 
breed, t^xik swAx as be tbongbt necce a agy Sir hit 
Uileiided eeUUidhiaMil, and parautwd Us fi " 
to kill suoh wi' Ifaa newaimlw w Aey ■ ' 
&« pn»«tit supply. lUriaig tommiOtA I 
ful ravage, bo iuaTi:tMKl ia triaiaipk mM af li 
RvHectiii^ buWDV«r. on tbe prorapt •; 
ctuiraccer v£ ibe AdeLuitaJu. he tixlt that him tA- 
UHliou wooU btt but litile ;«t:ur« widt such aa 
active euetny behind biin: who, in i iriii.iitiin^hiai 
mi\i liviu preaeut perplesjtioe. would aot bit to 
punue liiut to ht» ptvpvaed pamJise it Xai^ii^ 
Ua deceruMiivd, tiiens^re, to man:b aewn to Ae 
Vega, and endeavov eitbw la gat [ 

' UMb Od AJniraiUB, ot|k T^ tlo 

e Kepi to 




Ibe person of the Adelantndo, or to strike solliu 
Uuw, ia bis present crippled slate, tliat shoiili] dis- 
able biin Troro offering further raolesttitioTi. Re- 
tamiog, therefore, to the Ticinily of Fort Coucep- 
tion, be endeavored in every wny, by the ineniis 
of subtle emissnries. to seduce Uie gnrrison [o Ue- 
•erlion, or to eioite it to revoll. 

The Adelanlwlo dared not take the field nith 
his forces, having no confidence in tlieir Hdelity. 
Be knew Iliat they listened wialfully to the etois- 
wuiee of Roldan, and contrasted the meagre fare 
and stern discipline of llie garrison, will) llie abuii- 
dant cheer and easy misnile that prevailed among 
tbo rebels. To counteract these sednclions, he 
niaxed from his usual strictness, treating liis men 
with great indulgence, and promising tlieni large 
TCWards. By these means he was enabled to 
Biuutain Willie degree of loyalty among bis fc^rcvs, 
-bie rerviee having the advantage over thai of 
Boldao, of being on the side of government and 

Finding bis altempLs to corrupt the garri.son 
unsuccessful, and fearing some sudden sally from 
Uie vigorous Adelaniado, Roldnn dreiv off to a 
distance, end sought by insidious means to 
airenglben his own power, and wetiken that of 
Ihe government. lie asserted equal right i 

miinage tl 

s of the island with the AdelaJi- 

tado, and preleiided U> liave sepamted from liiin 
; passionate and vindictive 
s autlioriiy. He represented 
him as the tyrant of the Spaniards, the oppressor 

. aa account of h 
JB the exercise of his a 



of the Iiidisns. For him»elf, lie assamed the 
charBCler of a redresser of grievances and 
(Juunpion of the injured. He pretended to feel 
K patriotic indignalion at tlie affronts heaped 
upon SpaniafiiB by a family rif obscure and arro- 
gunt foreiiriera ; ami professed lo free tiie natives 
from tributes wrung from tlistn by these rapacious 
nieu for their own enrichment, and contrary to 
the beneficent inientions of the Spanish monarchs. 
He connecled hiiiiself closely with the Carib 
cacique Manicaolex, brother of tbe late Caonabo, 
wtiuse sou and nephew were in his poRse.«sion as 
lioBtngcs for payment of tributes. This warlike 
chieftain he conciliated by presents and caresses, 
bestowing on him the appellation of brother.^ 
The untiappy natives, deceived by hb professions, 
and overjoyed at the idea of baring a protector 
in arms for their defense, submitted cheerfully to 
li thousand impositiona, supplying bis followen 
with provisions in abundance, and bringing to 
Roliltiii all the gold tbcy could collect; volun- 
tarily yielding him heavier tributes than those 
from which lie preieuded to free llit-m. 

The affairs of tbe tlawl w-^re now in a lumen- 
labhi situation. Th« Iixltiuis, perr-riviD:! the dis- 
seusiotH MUM^ ibo whiiB men. and em-tiuraged by 
thv proleetwu of RoMan. begka to throw off ah 
dU Mngmue* to ^ govWMMWL TbeeMtqnw 
M ■ dbtaacv c«hk4 to'sead m tkeir critMiies, sad 
tkoee who ««tc im tW liauitj w 



retun their friendabip in this time of danger. 
Roldan'a raction daily gained Btrengtb ; tbey 
ranged in^obiitly and at large in the open 
coQDttj, and were supporied by the misguided 
natives ; while llie Spuiiiarda who remained loyal, 
fearing conspiracies among the natives, hod to 
keep under shelter of ilie furl, or in the strong 
bouses wbiuh they had erected in ihe FillngBS. 
The cominuiidera were obliged lo palliate all 
kinds of sligbu and indignities, both from their 
soldiers and from the ludluus, fearful of driving 
them lo sedition by any severity. The elothing 
and munitions of all kinds, either for maintenance 
or defense, were rapidly wasting away, and the 
want of all supplies or tidings fivm Spain was 
■inking the spirits of the well-afiecieil into de- 
spondency. Tlie Adelantado was shut up iu 
Fort Conception, in daily expectnlion of being 
openly besieged by Roldiin, and was secretly in- 
fermed that means were taken lo destixiy bim, 
ahonld he issue from the walls of the fortress.' 

Such was the desperate slate to which tiic 
cobny was reduced, in consequence of the long 
detention of Columbus in Spain, and the iiuped- 
imeuls thrown in the way of all bis measures for 
the benefit of the island by the deliiys of cabinuls 
and the chicanery of Fonseca and his satellites. 
At this critical juncture, when faction leigneJ 
triumphnnl, and the coloNy was on the brink of 
nin, tidings were brought lo the Vega that 
Pedro Feniandez Coronal had nnnved at the 
1 l.iuCwa>,Hii>I.Iiid.,lit> 


port of Snn DomiDgo, willi two ships, bringing 
aupplius ol' iill kinds, nnd r strong reiiifurcement 

of troops.' 

■ Lt» Cubs. Hpfi 

HisL del Alminmle. 


il of Coronal, which looli pitice 
e ihird of Febnmry, was the PHlva- 
I [ion of ihe colony. The reinforce menls 
of troops, and of supplies of nil kinds, strengthened 
[he liauds of Don Bartholomew. The royal cnn- 
firmation of liis title and nuihorily as Adelaniado 
at once dispelled all doubts as to the legitimitcy 
of bis power : and the tidingB tliat the admiral 
was in high favor at (»urt, and would soon arrive 
with a powerful squadron, struck consternation 
into those who had entered into the rebellion on 
the presumption of hie having fallen into dis- 

1 longer remained mewed 
up in his forireRS, but set out immediately for 
^n Domingo with a part of his troops, iiltliough 
a much GU|M!rior rebel force wiis at the village of 
the caciqne Guarionex, at a very short distance. 
Roldan followed t'lowly and gloomily with his 
parly, anxious to ascertain the truth of the-e 
make parti» 

possible, among 

la |«inMr iMi> Bear ■frfuuMJi lo S&n DomingOi 
but Bgidaa paMod wkUn a few leagues of Ote 

Wbeii >be AileUuIudo found liim^lf sei-ure in 
S«n I>>niliigo wilh this augmcntAlion of foror, 
mhI (1)0 proapuct of k still greater reinforcement 
Bl liHii'l, liU rnngimiiimity prevniled over his io- 
■liltiialfnii, Mkd lie sought by gentle means to allay 
llio iKipuUr MililimiK. tlint the i^^land migbl bt 
rMtoroil to tnitiquilliiy before Itis bmilior's arriniL 
Ho CUMidnred ih^t Ihe colonista hod suffered 
givtilly ftum llw witni nf supplies : ibai their dis- 

^" doubtful ol 




Roldaii. liowever, conscious of his guilt, and 
doubtful uf the cleineDCy of Dod Barlholomew, 
reared to ventun; n'ithin his power; he deler- 
initied, aUo, to prevent bin followers from com- 
municatiog with Coruual, lest tfaey should be 
Seduced from him hy the promise of pardon. 
Wheu ihul emissnry, tbertfore, approucbed ibe 
euctunpment of the rebels, be waa opposed in a 
nnrrow pa^ by il body of archers, with tbeir 
GrD8»-bows levelled. "Halt there! traitor!" cried 
BoIduD, -'had you arrived eight days later, we 
shonld all hnve beeu united as uuu man." ' 

In vain Coronal endeavored by fair reasotung 
■od earnest entreaty to win this pen-erse and tur- 
bnlent man from bis career. Roldnn answered 
with hardihood and defiance, professing to oppose 
only the tyranny and misrule of the Adelantado, 
but to be ready to submit lo the admiral on his 
MTiTaL He, aud several of his principal con- 
federate?, wrote letters to the same effect to their 
friends iu Siiu Domincro, urging tbetn to plead 
their cause with the admiral when he should 
arrive, and to assure him of their disposition to 
adcuowledge his nutbority. 

Whmi Coronal returned with accounts of Rol- 
tfwi's contumacy, the Adekntiulo proclaimed him 
Ind hie followers traitors. That shrewd rebel, 
kewever, did not sufier his men to remain within 
Mtber the seduction of promise or the terror of 
menace ; he immediately set out on bis march for 
his promised land of Xaragua, trusting to impair 
every honest principle titid virtuous tie of bis mis- 

1 [lenera, detsd. i. lib. lii. csp. 8. 


18 cfftctB of hU 
I became more and 
- bad the AdelaaCado 
left Fort Cnnec^cin, than a coiispit-acy was 
fenned amoag the Datives to aurpri^^e it. Guar- 
ionex was at the heml of this coiiBpiracy, moved 
hy the inBiigalioDs of BoMaa, who had promised 
bini protection and assixlance and led on by the 
fiirloni hope, in ihia <tistracl«d Btale of the S|>nn- 
i*h f(irori, of relieving his paternal domain? from 
the intolerable domination of usurping slrangere. 
Holding Heoret conimunit-iillons with his tributary 
eneiqiivB, il wa« concerted that they should all 
rind Hniullnneoii^ly and mnssacre the soldiery, 
i}unrieivd in sninll parties in their villages : while 
bv, with a chosen force, fbould surprise the for- 
lr*« of l\>nn>])iioa. Tile night of the liill mooii 
ivnn ixfri utHwi (or tbe itKurrectioo. 

iW (<i' ih« prineipal M a q n ea , bowever, t»t 
t«4<4 a (wnvM ohewrrcr of dw bearodv hodiea, 
t<«4k 1^ iinnK hAm the affoinled in^bs, md wu 

I^WfJ - - _ . - 



who hiid seliled like a curse upon his terriwries. 
He ha<l found their xety friendship wicheriDg aud 
destructife. nnd he now dreaded their Teiigeance. 
Abandoning, therefore, his righiful domain, the 
onoe hftppy Vegii. Ite fli;d with liis family nnd a 
small band of fHilhTiil FollowerB to the mouutains 
cf Ciguay. This is a lofYy chain, exiendiiig along 
the north side of the isliLnd, between the Vega and 
the sea. The inhnbiianls were the most robust 
and hardy tribe of iJie island, and far more for- 
midable than the mild inhabitants of ibe plains. 
It was a part of thia tribe which displayed hos- 
lili^ to the Spaniards in the course of the first 
voyage of Columbus, and in a skirmish with 
them in the Gulf of Semana the first drop of 
native blood hod been I'hed in the Nen- World. 
The reader may rcniember the fnink and con- 
fiding conduct of these people the djiy after the 
sktraiixh. and the intrepid faith with wliicli their 
cacique trusted biin~<elf on board of the caravel 
of Ihe admiral, and in the power of the Spaniards. 
It was to this same cacique, uamed Mayobanex, 
that the fugitive chieftain of the Vega now applied 
for refuge. He ciiiue to his residence at an Indian 
town near Citpe Cabroo, about forty leagues eB.«t 
of Isabella, and implored shelter for his wife aud 
children, and hia handful of loyal followers. The 
noble-minded cacique of the mountains received 
lum with open arms. He not only gave au 
asylum to his bmily, but engaged to stand by 
him ill his distress, to defend bis cause, and share 
his desperate fortunes. Men in civilized life 


lonru mngnBiiimity from precept, but their most 
gwiuruu* ncttiNw arc of)en rivaled bj the deeiU 
of iiiiIuUuvil MVB^u, who act only ii\>in uatunil 



KIDED by his monntain ally, and bj bands 
n of hardy Ciguayana, Guariouex made 
•eral descents into ihe plaiu, cutting 
off sliiiagling parties of the Spaniards, laying 
wnste the villages of the natives which coutiiiiied 
iu allegiance to itiem, and destniyiug the fntils 
of the earth. The Adelanlado pat a speedy *iop to 
ibese molestations ; but he determined to root out 
so formidable an adversary from the neighborhood. 
Shrinking from no danger nor fatigue, and leaving 
nothing to be tlone by others, which he could do 
hiiuaeli^ be set furtli iu the spring with a band of 
ninety men, a few cavalry, and a body of Indians 
to penetrate the Ciguny mountains. 

After passing a steep defile, rendered almost 
impracticable for troops by rugged rocks and exu- 
berant vegetation, he descended into a beautiful 
valley or plain, extending along the coast, and em- 
braced by urms of the mountains which approached 
the eea. His advance into the country was watched 
bj the keen eyes of Indian scouts, who lurked 


Jk3 the Spaoiitrd? 


iMUlg Ifaa fcrd of m riwr al the eDtraaw ol' the 
pUin, twQ of tiMM ipMS d«rt«d from atnoDg the 
bu*bM Ml iia b*nk. One flung himself headtoug 
iiiUi the waivr, and twiromitig mcraes llie nioulh 
i>r Uw rivpr oMMpvd ; the other beii^ tnktn, gAT« 
intrimwiiiMi ihnt nx ihoasa&d lodians lay in »in- 
btt*hon the oppoMic »borc, wiutiug to atiat^ them 
M (iiry cmiwci]. 

TV AtloUiitniln adTimcc^ vrilh cautiaB. am] 
llinlins n ftltalldw pUcc>. «nter«d i^ river with hit 
liikiim, Thry wcTV Mmm-ly uadw»j in the m 
* ln>Ii ih* savii|t«K. hticKMaly [ ' 

cbiJbww. TW ftvoM raqe 'kUi Am- jtit a^ 


of tlieir rocks mid Torests, iDOCCcssiLle to 
the Spaniards, 

Hsviag lokeo seveml prisoners, ibe AdelaDtado 
MDl one scinrnpaoied by hu Indian of a (riendly 
tribe, as a messenger to Mnvobauex, demanding 
tbe Hirrendcr of Gnorioties ; promising frieudsliip 
and prolectiuii in case of compliauce, bot thr«ut- 
ening, in case of n^nsal, to lay waste his territory 
with fire nnd swurd. Tlie cacique listened atten- 
tirely to the measenger : " Tell tbe Spaniards," 
■aid be iii reply, " thai ibey are bad men, cruel 
and tymnnicAl ; uaarpers af the territories of oih- 
en, and sheddera of innocent blood. I desire not 
the fnenilship uf such men ; Guarionex is it good 
nuui, he b my friend, he is my gaesi, he ha^ Hed 
10 me for refuge, I have protnL-^ (o protect bim, 
wid I will keep my word." 

This maguanimous reply, or rather deGauce. 
Gonviuced the Adelantado that nothing was to be 
by friendly overtures. When severity was 
ired. he could be a eteru suidier. He ira- 
itely ordered the village in which he had 
teen quartered, and several others in tbe neighbor- 
hood, to be set on fire. He Iheii sent further mes- 
Mayubanex, warning him that, unless 
:fce delivered up the furtive ciicique, his whole 
iminioiis should be laid wast« in like mau- 
and he would see nolliing in every direction 
he smoke and flames of burniug villages. 
Alurmcd at this impending destruclion, (tie Ci- 
gintyaus surrounded their chieftain witli clamor- 
ous lamen tat ions, cursing the day that Guurionex 
liad taken refuge among them, and ui^ng tliat he 



•Itould be given up for the s&lvation of the couoirv. 
The gcnennts cadque wna ioflexible. He re- 
mtnilMl tliein of the many virtues of Guarionex, 
■D(l the sacred cl&ims be bad od their hospitaliCj, 
mid ileclftred he would abide all e%-ils, rather than 
il nhuulil ever be said MayuboacK bad betrayed 
hia giiisil. 

Tbti people retired with sorrowfal hetirts, aod 
the chioflain, sununoDing Guariuncx iDto bis pre^ 
eiico, ugniti pledged bis word (o pnitecl him, 
tlxiugh il should cost lum hia domiuiona. He 
wilt uu reply to the Adelautado. tuid lest further 
muMugers might tempt the iidelity of his sutyeets, 
)m placed men in nnibusb, with ordeis h> slay maj 
messotlgera who might H[^nMch. Tbej faid not 
liun iu vrwt loiig, before iImjt bebdd two hko adr 
vBiioing tbivugh ibe forest, om of wImo) araa • 
C«4)liTe ngmyiui wkI thn othw •■ Ib£m ilff fjf 
ttts SpiMM«dk Ttey worn hnch inslaailj sIkb. 
Th» JL-fekHliMtn 1— g tuUtfiaidg U ■» gwt iKi«Bn>», 
wilk uuly tiM foot Mlifiers tad (bur hMrwu— > 
VWm k» fottMi hH ■emrafwa ^jriog dead w ika 
fonva ptttbk tran^vvd witb anov^ W «■» B^Wtf 
«ni^<M«i«d. unl riMolvvtl to tfail i' 
likiB wlwbuUw trib«> 

aH. )ti» foTM <w Cttbruu, wImn 9kp«bai 
vwiy w«rw ttuiuiuntdi 
ferwr iML-iquvs ami their wUtarante iWit. « 
b? HKnir <jI' liiu ■Spwuinr'te. KiaBuy hiMwif ti— 
<to«ttnevi. Msyobiuaax took ratu^ with hie fimflv 
in », swiW. part ut' tha qwuulMOe>. Sivonl ul' 
liw l.'igUKf 'U» ^HHigUi lur ti^uanwuex, lu lull ium 
IN* deii^iM' iiiiu up a»<i pnt^itituut-v 'iiRiniig, hit 


he fled to ibe heights, where he wandered tibout 
alcne, in the most savage aod deaolatu places. 

The deuaiij of the forests and ihc niggedneBS 
of the mouiitaius rendered this eicpeditioii exceas- 
ivel; painful Hud Inborious, imd protracted it fur 
beyond the time tlini the Adelantadu had contem- 
plated. Ilis men suffered, nut merely froDi fatigue, ' 
but hunger. The unlives had all tied to ihi- 
mountains ; their villages remained empty and 
desolate ; nil the provisions of the Spanianis coii- 
sieted of cassava bread, and sach roots and herbs 
HS their Indian allies could gather fur them, with 
uow and then a few alius taken with the assist- 
ance of their do^. They slept almost always on 
the ground, in the opeit uir, under the trees, ex- 
posed to the JMiavy dew which falls lu this climate. 
For three months ihey were thus ranging the 
IDuuntains, nntil almost worn out with toil and 
hard fare. Many of them had farms in ihe 
neighborhood of Fort Conception, which required 
their atteutiuu; they, therefore, entreated per- 
roisaion, since the Indians were terrified and 
dispersed, to return to their abodes in the Vega, 

The Adelaulado granted many of them pass- 
ports, and an allowance out of the scanty slock 
of bread which remained. Ketaining only thirty 
men, he resolved with these to search every deii 
and cavern of the mountains until he should find 
the two caciques. It was ditEcult, however, to 
trace them in such u wilderness. There was no 
one to give a clew to their retreat, for the wholu 
country was abandoned. There wei-e the linbita- 
tions of men, but not a human being to be seen; 




or if, by clmiice, lliey caught some wretched 
Indinn stealing liirlli from the moiiDluins in quest 
of Ibod, be hIwhvb professed utter ignorance of 
the hiding 'plnce of the cnciquea. 

It linpptiied, one diiy, however, lh»t several 
K|Hit3inrdA, while huuliug utiaa, cnpiiired two of 
the tollowere of Mayobanex, who were ou their 
way to a distant villnge in search of bread. 
They were taken to the AdclHutado, who coni- 
pelled them lu betmy the place of concealment of 
their chieftain, and to act ns guides. Twelve 
Spaniards rolnnleered to go in quest of him. 
Stripping themselves naked, staining and painting 
their bodies so as to look like Inditias, and cover- 
ing their swords with palm-leaves, they were 
conducted by the guides to the retreat of the un- 
fortunate S^yobaiiex. They came secretly upon 
him, and fouud him surrounded by his wife and 
ehildreu nnd ii few of his household, totally un- 
snepicioua of danger. Drawing their swords, the 
Spaniards rushed upon them and made them nil 
prisoners. When tliey were brought to the Ade- 
lautadu he gave up all further search after Gua- 
rionex, sod returned to Fort Conception. 

Animig the prisoners thus taken was the ftister 
of Miiyotmnes. She was the wife of another 
cacique of the mountains, whose territories had 
never yet been visited by the Spaniards : and she 
was reputed to he one of the most beautiful 
women of the island. Tenderly atlached to hei- 
brothfr, she had abandoned the security of liei" 
own dominions, and had followed him among 
ro<^ and precipices, participating in all his hard- 


iforting liini will 
pathy nnd kiiulneBs. When her huiibtknd heard 
of her captivily, he hastened to the Adelantado, 
aad ofiered to submit himaelf and all bis posaea- 
sions to his sway, if ii!s wife might be restored to 
him. The Adelaiiludo accepted his offer of aile- 
gituice, and released his wife nnd several of lii^ 
subjecis who had been captured. The cacique, 
&itbrul Ui his word, became a Rrm and valuable 
ally of the Spaniai'ds, cultivating large tracts of 
land, and supplying them with great quantities 
of bread and other provisioiiB. 

Kindness appears never to have been lost upoa 
the people of tJiis inland. When this act of clem- 
Boey reached the Ciguayans, they came in mulii- 
ludes to the fortrei<s, bringing preseuts of various 
kinds, promising allegiance, and imploring tbe re- 
lease of Mayubaciex nnd bis family. The Ade- 
Untado granted their prayera in part, releasing 
the wife and household uf the eaeiqiie, but slill 
detaining him prisoner to insure the liJelity of 

In the mean time tbe unfortunate Guarionex, 
'bo had been hiding in the wildest part of the 
nlaiiis, was driven by hunger to venture 
occasionally into the plain in quest of food. 
The Ciguayang looking upou him as the cause of 
their raistbrlunes, and perhaps hoping by his 
sacrifice to procure the release of their chiei^aiii, 
betrayed his haunts to the Adelantado. A party 
was dispatched to procure him. They lay in 
wait in the path by which he usually returned to 
tbe mountains. As the unhappy cacique, after 



fXM of hid famkheil excarsioiM, was returning to 
his deD HUKHig i)ie clilF:^ he was surprised b; ih& 
larking Sptuuards, aiid brought in chaius to Fort 
ConoeplioD- After his repented iusurrecliaiis, mid 
the exlraur>iinary ivtJ and perseverance diBplayed 
in his pursuit. GuHriones expected nothing less 
thiut dentil from the reugeance of the AdelaDtAdo. 
IX>u Bnrlholouiew, Itowevtir, though stern in his 
poUcj, Wfts neither riudictive nor cruel iii his 
Mture. Ue considered the tranqiiiUity of the 
Vogs Buificieulljr secured by the captivity of the 
CKcique; and oidured him la be detained a prisoner 
&nd hosiHge iu the fortress. The Indian hostil- 
ities iu this iinpurtHiiI part of the ishmd being 
llius brought lu a conclusion, and precauiioiu 
taken to prevent ilieir recurrence, Don BaithoU 
oinevr returned to the city of San Domingo, 
where, shortly afler his arrival, he bad . tlie bap- 
piuess of receiving his brotlier, the admiral, aAur 
nearljr l>vo years aud six mouths' absence.' 

Such WHS tlie active, intrepid, And sagacious, 
but turbulent aud disastrous administraiioD of the 
Adelatitudo, iu tvtiiuh we find evidences of the 
great capacity, the uieulal and bodilj vigor of 
this self-formed, and almost self-taught man. He 
united, iu a singular degree, the sailor, the sol- 
dier, and the legislator. Like his brother, tlie 
admiral, his mind and manners rose immediutely 
to the level of his situalion, showing no arrogance 
nor ostentation, and exercising the sway of sud- 

i Btiren, liitt. lad., deMil. I. lib, iii. cap. 8, S. 


den and extraoi'diiiary power, with Ihe sobriety 
and moderfttion of one who had been bom to 
rule. He baa been accused of severity in his 
government, but no instance appetirs of a cruel 
or wanton abuse of authority. If he wns eteru 
towards the Facetious Spaniards, he wiia just ; 
the disasters of bis adminintration were uot pro- 
duced by his own rigor, but by the perverse pns- 
eioQB of others, whidi called for its exercise ; and 
the admiral, who had more suavity of manner 
snd beneToleuce of heart, wna not more fortunate 
in conciliating the good will, aud insuring the 
obedience of the colonists. The merits of Don 
Barihoiomcw do not appear to luive lieeo Ruffi- 
eietitly appreciated by the world. His portrait 
has been suffered to remain too much in the 
shade ; it is worthy of being brought into the 
light, as a companion to that of bis illustrious 
brother. Less aminble and engaging, perlmps, in 
its lineaments, and lees characterized by miignan- 
imity, its traits are nevertheless bold, generous, 
and heroic, and stamped with iron firmness. 

BOOK xn. 


[Aogost SO, 1498.] 

^^^SOLUMBUS nmved at San Domingo, 
KRbS wenrieii by a long and arduous voyage 

mind and body craved repose, but from the lime 
he first entered into public life, he had been 
doomed never again to taste the sweets of trttn- 
qnillity. The island of Hiapaniola, the favorite 
child as il were of his hopes, was destined to 
involve him in perpetual troubles, to fetter his 
fortunes, impede his enterprises, and embitter the 
conelusioii of his lilo. What a scene of poverty 
and suffering had this opulent and lovely ishiiid 
been rendered by the bad passions of a few des- 
picable men ! The wars with the natives and 
the seditions among the colonists had put a stop 
to the labors of the mines, and all hopes of 
wealth were at an end. The horrors of fmnine 
had succeeded lo ihose of war. The cultivation 
of tbe earth had been generally neglected ; sev- 


i or COLUMBUS. 2U 

eral of (he proviaoes had been deaoktcd during 
tbe lale troubles ; a great port of the Indiana 
bad fled to the mountuiDS, and those who re- 
maiaed had lost all heart Ui labor, Heeing the pro- 
uuco of iheir toils liable to be wrested Irom tliem 
hj rutMesa strangers. It is true Ihe Vega was 
oiice more tranquil, but it was a desolale tran- 
quillity. Tbal beautiful region, which the Span- 
'""i' but four years before had found so populous 
"M bappy, seeming to iucloae in its lusuriant 
■""om all ihe sweets of tiature, and to exclude 
all the cares and sorrows of the world, was now 
a acene of wretchedness and repiuiug. Many of 
'''"^ lodtan towns, where ihe Spaniards had 
been detained by genial hospitality, and almost 
wonhiped its beneficent deities, were now silent 
txA deserted. Some of iheir late inhabitants 
«en; lurking among rocks and caverns ; some 
wjre reJiiced to slavery ; many had perished 
wiih hunger, and many hud fallen by the sword. 
It Hetns almost incredible that so small a number 
01 men, restrained too by well-meaning govern- 
on. CouH in go short a space of time have pro- 
dn«d such wide-?preadiug miseries. But the 
priiicipiea of evil have h fatal activity. With 
eTerj exertion, the best of men can do but a 
"loiierale amount of good ; but it seems in the 
I power of the moat contemptible individual to do 
iocalculable mischief. 

Tliu i-vil pusaioiig of the white men, which 
fltd itidicled such calamities upon this innocent 
people, hod insured likewise a merited return of 
fpfiering to themeelves. In no port was this 



toon trttly exemplified tbaa iintoug the iiihabl- 
iMin of Isnbclln, tlie most idle, facIioiiB, and 
Hwulutc uf iho JsIbiiiI. The public warks were 
uiifliiished : ihe gnnlens luid fields ihey hftd be- 
gun lo ciiUivuie Iny Unglecled : they had driren 
iho nniives rrotu tlieir Tit-iiiiiy bj exlurtion and 
cnmlly, and bud rcudered the couutry around 
ilK'in » suliury wilderness. Too idle lo Ubor. 
niid desiiitila of auy r«sonrcee with which to 
OMUpy Uieir indoleace, they quMTelled among 
tliuiiiselvos, tDutiuied ng&inst their riders, aiid 
wnsiud their time iit alleniale riot and despon- 
dency. Mnuy of the soldiery quartered about 
the island, lutd sutTertid from ill health during the 
late lroubl(^^ being shut up in Indian villages, 
where they could lake no exercise, uiid obliged 
to •ubsist on food to which they could not accus- 
tom theiuselvca. Thu^ actively employed, had 
beou worn down by hard service, loug nurches, 
aiid scanty fooil. Many of them were broken in 
Gonititulion, and nmny had perished by disease. 
Tlture WHS m univerMl deaire to leave the island, 
■ltd escape frutu misei-ies created by themselves. 
Yet this was tlie fuvored and fruitful land to 
which the eyes of philosophers and poets in 
Europe were fondly turned, as realizing the pic- 
lures of llie golden age. So true it is, that (he 
fairest Elysium fancy ever devised, would be 
turned into a purgatory by the passions of bad 

One of the tirst measures of Columbus on his 
arrival, wiis to issue a proclnmatiou approving of 
all the measures of the Adelantado, aud denounc- 




; Boidnn Dtj<] bis associates. That turbalent 
,11 liai) taken possession of Xaragun, and been 
kindly receivtid by the natives. He had permit- 
led his rollowurs to leud an idle and ticetitious life 
among ila beBiilirul scenea, making the suirooDd- 
ing country and its iDhnbilants subservient !□ their 
pleatmres and Iheir jinssioiifl. An event happened 
previous to their kuawledge of the arrival of Co- 
lumbus, which threw supplies into their hand?, 
Bod strengthened their power. As they were one 
day loileriug on the sea-shore, they behetil three 
caravels »t a distance, the night of which, in this 
unfrequented part of the ocean, tilled them with 
wonder and alarm. The ships apprunelied the 
land, and i:«mf! to anchor. Tiie rebels apprehended 
at first they were vessels diepatehed in pursuit of 
them. Rotdan, however, who was sagauious as 
he was bold, surmised them (o be shipn which bad 
wandered from their course, and been borne to 
I the westward by the currents, and thet ihey must 
I be ignorant of the recent occurrences of the isl- 
' and. Enjoining secrecy on fais men, he went on 
board, pretending to be stationed in that neighbor- 
hood for the purpose of keepiiig the natives in 
obedience, and collecting tribute. His conjectures 
aa to the vessels were correct. They were, in fact, 
the three caravels detached by Columbus from 
hii squadron at the Canary Islands, to bring sup- 
plies to the colonies. The captains, ignoi'iuit of 
which set ihiMugh the 

the strength of the 
Oaribbean Sea. bad been 

Tied V 

t iiir beyond 

Iheir reckoning, until they had wandered to the 

ft WM mt mnl thn diiid it^, 
9M)dM(ile Cbm(i«l, Uu nnt int el B gem of iha 
time <apcuai, fltaeorered tte ra»l <' 
llie gtHMs be bad adannedto &«etf 

w« aAiclnJ. He and Us ftUm c 
amaj wirrwl «Diiven»tion» w 
*oHn| lo perHude him I^Dia his itangetvus o|h 
pniiiiimi to ih« n^Ur Mithoriljr. The ceruin^ 
Ihnt Columbo* was octaalljraa bis way to the isl- 
lutA, wiih adiliiional foraak ttod nuginenled aa- 
ihnrily, linil ijper&led Hlrobgly od bis miuL He 
hull, M liiM nlreaily beon iDtimaled. prepand 
hi* rriond* ai .San Domingo to plead hi» oause 
will) ()iu admiral, assuring him that he hnd ouly 



Acted in opposition to the injustice and oppression 
of the Adeliuitailo, tiiil was ready la aubtnit to 
Columbus on his sirivnl. Ciirviijnl perceived thHt 
the resolution of Itiiidim and of several of liis 
principal confederates was shaken, ujid flattered 
himself, that, if he were to reiuuiu some little 
time among the rebels, he might succeed in draw- 
ing tlieni back to their dutv. Contrary winds 
rendered it irapoaaible for the sliips to work up 
against the currents to San Domingo. It was at^ 
ranged among the captains, Iherefore, that a large 
number of the people on board, nrtilicers and oth- 
ers roost important to the service of the colony, 
should proceed to the settlement by land. They 
were to be conducted by Juan Antonio Colombo, 
captain of one of the caravels, a relative of Ihe 
admiral, and zealously devoted to hb interest 
Araaa was to proceed with the ships, when the 
wind would permit, and Carvajal volunteered to 
remain on shore, to endeavor to bring the rebels 
to their allegiance. 

On the fblloiving morning, Juan Antonio Co- 
lombo lauded with forty men, well armed with 
cros»-bows, swords and lauces, but was astonished 
to liud hiinself suddenly deserted by all his party 
excepting eight. The desertei's went off to the 
rebels, who received with exultation this impor- 
laut reinforcement of kindred spirits. Juan An- 
tonio enJeavured in vain by renionstmnccs and 
tlirealB U> bring theni buck to llieir dnty. They 
were most of them convicted culprits, accustomed 
to detest order, and to set law at defiance. It 

I equHlly iu vaia that he appealed to Botdan, 


■■I ■■Hded Ub flf hii proftsdooB of loj'aliy lo 
As f iwiMiK Ths ktter replied tliiit Im had 
M> noHN of flolbreuig obedieitce ; his was n mere 
" Uonaslery of Observation," where every one was 
«t libenj to adopt the habit of the order. Such 
was the S»I of a loug traia of evils, which sprang 
from this most ill-judged expedient of peopliug a 
colouy with crimluala, aud thus raiagliog vice and 
villaiiy with the fouiitaia-head of ila popiilatJon. 

Jutui Antonio, grieved and disconcerted, re- 
turned on board with the few who remained faith- 
ful. Fearing further desertions, the two CBiilaioc 
immediately put to sea, tearing Carvajal od ahore, 
lo prosecute his attempla at reforming the rebels. 
It was not without great diffii;ulty and delay that 
the vessels reached San Domingo ; the ship of 
Carrajal having Btmck on a sand-bank, and sus- 
tained great injury. By the time of their arriral, 
the greater part of the provisions with whiuh they 
tuul been freighted was either exhausted or dam- 
aged. Akxuo Saoche* de Carrnjal arrived shorl- 
\f afterwxrda by la«i, iMviog been e^oorled lo 
vitUa six kagnn of ike place by eevend of the 
I, to pnitoet Um from the Indians^ He 
o pcfsna^ tfae band to in- 
M;b«l Bdd«B bd ponnaedthe 
■HMMba bM4«f llNMnnlaf CUumbick ba 
wmU nipak M te Msgfctoihaol tf Sa« Do- 
■ilWk la to ft kMrf IB t«to h 



opinioii, from all tbat he obseiTcd of the rebels, 
thai iliey tniglit easily be brought back to their 
vllegiancB by an asaurarice of amiieaty.^ 





Some raettBures were immediatelj' necesstiry to 
fertifj ihe lidelity of the people against aach ee- 
ductions. Me was aware of a vehement desire 
■nrong many to return to Spain ; and of aii hs- 
eertion industriously propagated by the seditious. 
that he and h\n broihera wished to detain the 
floloDisIs on the islands through motives of self- 
interesL On the I3lh of September, therefore, 
he issued a proclamation, ofierlng free passage 
and provisions tor the voyage to all who wished 
to return to Spain, in live vessels, nearly ready 
to pul to sea. He hoped by this means lo relieve 
tike colony from the idle and disaffected : to 
wenkeD the party of Roldim, and lo retain none 
aboul him but such as were sound-hearted and 

He wrote at the same lime to Miguel Bulles- 
ter, the stanch and weli-lried veteran who com- 
manded the fortress of Conception, advising him 
Id be upon his guard, as the rebels were com- 
ing inio his neighborhood. He empowered him 
&lso to have an interview witli Buldan ; to offer 
faim pardon and oblivion of the past, on ctiudi- 
tion of his immediate return to duly ; uud lo 
invite him to repair to Sun Domingo to have 
on interview with the admiral, under a solemn, 
■ad, if required, a written assurance from the 
biter, of personal safety. Columbus was sincere 
lit his intentions, He was of a benevolent and 
pUcable disposition, and singularly fi-ee from all 
vindictive feeling towards the many worthless 
and wicked men who heaped sorrow on his 

urr AMB roTAsea of 

; M the TiSage of 

m Vep, t whig Ac tame mamm; *l>oat ten 
llflli fr«B For CoaafliDa, and abotu tWEMjr 
A«iM San Pimngn. !■ k veU peofiled sad >biiii- 
4Mrt a wHitrj. Bore Ptadto BeqoelMte, one of tbe 
rinfl«Mi4«n of Ibe wiil MW. tnd lup poMBasian, 
mi4 bb wwidnnM Www tiw beaAqnarttn of Uir 
Mhok. JLdrun do lioxio, « nun «f uubKieut 
IU\A tmncint^tim dwmotur. lirou^I lii> detadb- 
nN>li1 oi' lUtitniuU! ruffians to tlii» jrlaoe of rpiW- 
v<utK Il»94nn aiui utiicn of iIk i 
■In^ h^imhnr tbort- bv liiSvrtiiit Tnotes. 

In-n) •■r iltt omdU oi fioldan. iIud be aei &nb to 
aiM bt*t Skllvw « 
tiM»4i<aL wid «< a s 





AID liuliaiis captured unjuscijiafaly, and about (o bu 
ihippeU lo Spaiu as slaTes, notwiiha landing that 
le, in his capacity of alcalde mayor, bad pitidged 
lis word Tor their protection. He declared llinl, 
jutil these Indians were given up, he would 
islen to no terms of compaci ; throwing out nii 
insolent iulimHtioo at the flame time, tliat he held 
llie admiral and his fortunes in his hand, to make 
and luar them as he pleased. 

The ludians here alluded to, were certain sub- 
jects of Guurionex, who had been incited by Bol- 
-^u lo resist the exaction of tribute, and who, 
lender the sanction of hix supposed aulhority. had 
^wigaged in the insurrections of the Vega. Kol- 
r4ftn knew tliat the enslavement of the Indinns 
unpopular feature in the government of 
the island, especially with the queen ; and the 
artful character of this man is evinced in his giving 
his opposition to Columbus the appearance of a 
Tindication of the rights of the suffering islanders. 
Other demands were made of a highly insolent na- 
ture, and the rebels declared that, in ail further 
ncgutinlioDs, tbuy would treat with no other inter- 
mediate agent than Cnrvajal, having had proofs of 
his faimeGS and impartiality in the course of thtir 
late commumcatious wiih him at Xarogua. 

This arrogant reply lo his proffer of pardon 
IS totally different from what the adniinii had 
teen led to cxpeci, and placed him in an embar- 
raesiog situation. He seemed surrounded by 
treachery and falsehood. He knew that Roldan 
bad friends and secret partisans even among those 
who professed to remain faithful ; and he knew 

On tlte ]8th of October, therefore, tbe ships 
pal lo sea.* Colnmbus wrote to the sovereigiiB 
it of the rebellion, hdJ of his proffered 
pardon being refused. As fioldao preiended it 
i qaarrel between him and the Ade- 
wbich (be admiral was not an impar- 
tial jadge, the Initer entreated that Boldan might 
be BDmiDoned to Sp:iin, where the Bovereigns 
might be hia judges; or that an investigntion 
might lake place in presence of Alonzo Sancliex 
de Carvajal, who was frit^ndly to Roldnn. aud of 
Siigoel Ballesier, as witness on the part of the 
AdeUntado. He alttihuled, in a great meaaure, 
the Iroables of thb bland to his own long deleu- 
tiod in Spain, and the delajra thrown in his w&j 
by those appointed to assist him, who had re- 
larded tbe departure of the ships with supplies 
until the colony had been reduced to the greatest 
scarcity. Hence had arisen discontent, murmui^ 
ing, and finally rebellion. He entreated the sov- 
ereigns, in the most pressing manner, that the a£- 
fairs of the colony might not be neglecied. and 
those at Seville, who bad cbar^ of its concerns, 
might be instructed at least not !□ devise impedi- 
ments instead of assistance. He alluded to his 
tdiaatisement of the contemptible Ximeno Brevi- 
cBca, the insolent minion of Fonseca, and entreat- 
ed that neither that nor any other circumstance 
mi^t be allowed to prejudice him in the royal 
(■Tor, through tlie misrepresen tat ions of desigo- 

1 In ODa of tbise shlpt sailed the Tstber of [he Teaerable 

■f hia hiitoiy. 1.U Caus, lib. i. cup. 1&3. 

( tbe nftlnral re- 
I BOllung but good 
wsdU of tbe cok*- 
■!•(» t bat thai dm latter w«re indolent sod prof- 
U|prtv. Ilo pcofMHed Id wnd home, bj everj 
•bi|i, n* in lb« prwent inMante. a namber of the 
'llatHmiviitiid sod worthkas. to be replaced by 
•ulwi' uuJ ituluatriuus men. Be begged eiao (hut 
iM<ul»iuH«tit3« might b« seal out br the instrucdon 
Mill iinivvniuu ul' the ladiaiw: and. nh^t was 
WtiHkllj' iKn.-VHMU'y, liir th« returauttion of the dis- 
■^Uiv S(MuuuU». He rvquired aim a roan le«niod 
in tittf tew, U >iAd>Bi« as jodge over the island, 
iNlpdtiv «Ub w«w»l oUcMCB of the rojal revenue. 
MWkAl||«MiU MHpMatte wlawB and policj 
tftfcwuHB.uttiMt kU —iiiTMtrly one dwne 
tiHMl*Bn«aknaqr«f AiB «uellt»t bOer. 
Ihk < wyim ifcuftr »■» J— h ^ w tha Span- 

« ikmfc ^ 4d)r «rfd^ WK lif ask. hwnrar, as 




ID such enthusiastic terms, ns the moat favuieil 
part of the £nst, the source of iuexhauatihie trenfl- 
nres, the supposed seat uf the terreBtrial Ftiradbe ; 
aod he promised to prosecute the discovery of 
its glorious realms with the tLru-e remaining 
ships, as soon as tlie affairs of the island should 

Bj this opportunity, Roldnn ntid bis Friends 
Ukewise went letters to Spain, endeavoring lo 
justify their rebellion, by charging Columbus and 
Us brothera with oppression and injustice, and 
painting their whole conduct in ihe blackest col- 
ore. It would naturally be supposed that the 
representations of such men would have Utile 
weight in the balance, against the tried merits 
and exalted services of Columbus : but they had 
numerous friends and relatives in Spain ; they 
had the popular prejudice on their side, and there 
frere desigiu'ug perrons in the confidence of (he 
BOTereigns ready to advocate their cause. Co- 
lombus, to use his own simple but affecting words, 
was "absent, envied, and a stranger." * 

■ LuB Cdsaa, Hist. Ind., lib. i. cap. IBT. 


•^■d. Col umbos n^ 
) the rebels; 
' to pat an 
1 the bland and 
■aai^tod ^ Us N""* "^ dbcorcrr. Hb three 
HMMMg al^ kj ifia in tbe bsrtior, thon^ a 
lifilB a£ fftnaaij bc«mdle» wealth was to be 
Kt ftan A He had mtended lo tend fab brother 
OB tfe diwDWy, bol the actiTe and mililar^ 
^irit of tbe AManlado nndend his presence in- 
~ " " ( sbotild come to 

Sadi wet« the ttilBcnhiew enmunlerad 
M emy Mep of hia generoas and magnanitDous 
; iinp«d«d at one time bj the insidious 
* of a«fty iDcn in place, and checked at 
r br the inaolent turbulence of a bandfnl 

In hi$ consulladons with the moei important 
persom «b»nt him, Col<nnbti!> found (hat much of 
tbe popular discontent was attributed to the strict 
nile of bb brother, n4)o was accused of dealing 
out justice with a tigaraas hand. Las QwaSi 


I howerer, who saw the whole testimony collected 
from varioQa sources with reapect to the conduct 
of the AdelatitHdo, acquits him of nil charges of 
the kind, and atfirnia that, with respect to Roldan 
iti particulHr, he had exerted great forbearance. 
Be this OS it may, Columbus now. by the advice 
of bis counsellors, resolved to try tlie alternative 
of extreme lenity. Ue wrote a letter to Eoldau, 
dated the ~20th of October, couched in the most 
oonciliating terms, calling to mind past kind- 
nesses, and expressing deep concern for the feud 
existing between him and the Adelantado. He 
entreated him, for the common good, and for the 
sake of hia own reputation, which stood well with 
the sovereigns, not to persist in his present in- 
subordination, and repeated the assurance, that he 
and bis companions might come to him, under 
the faith of hia word for the inviolability of their 

There was a difficulty as to who should be ilie 
bearer of this letter. The reiiela bad declared 
that they would receive no one as mediator but 
Alouzo Sanchez de Carvajal. Strang doubts, 
however, existed in the minds of those about Co- 
lumbtis as to the integrity of tliat ofHcor. They 
observed that he had su^ered Roldan to remain 
two days on board of his caraval at Xaragua ; 
had fiirniahed him with weapons and stores ; had 
neglecl«d to detain him on board, when lie knew 
him to be a rebel ; hnd not exerted himself to 
retake the deserters ; had been escorted on bis 
iray to San Domingo by the rebels, and had sent 
refreshments to them at Bonao. It was alleged, 


moreover, that he liad giTen himself out as a 
collciigue of Columbus, appointed hy goverDmeDi 
to linvt) H walob aoU contral over iiis L-onilucL 
It wiu> su;;)^ted, that, in advisiug the rebels (o 
np|inwcli Sai) Domingo, he had intruded, in case 
the admiral did not arrive, to unite his pretended 
nulhoril/ as colleague, to that of Roldan, aa chief 
judge, and to seize upon ihe reins of goveramenU 
FinalW, the desire of the rebels to have him sent 
to them as an agent, was cited as proof that be 
was to join them as a leader, and that the standard 
of rebellion was to be hoisted at Bonao.' These 
oircuiuBtances, for some time, perplexed Colum- 
bus 1 but lie raflecled that Carvajal, as far as he 
had observed his conduct, had behaved like a 
mail of iutegrilj ; most of Uie circumslauces 
alleged ngainst him admitted of a couslructton iii 
his fuvor : the rest were mere rumors, and he 
had uiiti>rtuiinU)l^ eKperienced, in hia own ou^e, 
how easily the tUireat actions, and the fairest 
characters, may be lalsified by rumor- He dis- 
oardod, ihorelbre, all suspicion, and determined to 
coiiddo impiidtly in Carv^ni ; nor had he ever 
any reason to repent of his confidence. 

The admiral had scnrcely dispatched this letter, 
when he received one from the leaders of the 
rebels, written several days previously. In tlii^ 
they not merely vindicated themselves from the 
charge of rebellion, but claimed great merit, as 
having dissuaded their followers frum a resolutiou 
to kill the Adelantado. in revenge of his oppres- 
siuus, prevailing upon them to wait patiently for 

1 QiM. dol Almiruite, cap. 78. 


redress from Ihe admiral. A month Imd elapsed 
since his arrival, during wliich they lia<l wailed 
anxiously for Lis orders, but be bad lUHjiifested 
nothing but irritulion agaiual tbein. Coiisider- 
Dtioris of honor and safety, therefore, obliged 
them h> wilhdmw from bis service, and tliey nc- 
coi-ditigly demanded their diacbarge. This leller 
WHS dated from Bonao, tbc 17tb of October, uud 
signed by Francisco Roldan, Adrian do Moxiea. 
Pedro de Gamez, and Diego de Escobar.' 

In the meantime, Carvajal arrived at Bonao, 
accompanied by Miguel Ballester. Tbey found 
the rebels full of arrogance and presumption. 
Tlie conciliating letter of tbc admiral, however, 
enforced by the earnest persuasions of Carvajal, 
and the admonitions of the veteran Ballester. bad 
a favorable effect on several of the leader?, who 
had more intellect than their brutal luUuwei's. 
Roldan, Garae£, Escobar, and two or three 
olliera, actually mounted their horses le repair to 
the admiral, but were retained by the clamorous 
opposition of their men ; loo inialualed with their 
idle, licentious mode of life, to relbb the idea of 
a return to labor and discipline. These insisted 
that it was a matter which concercied them all ; 
whatever arrangement was to be made, therefoie, 
should be made in public, iu writing, and subject 
to their approbation or dissent. A day or two 
elapsed before this clamor could be appeased. 
Roldaa then wrote to the admiral, that his fol- 
lowers objected to his coming unless a written 



On the 6tb ai November, Roldnn wrote a letter 
from Bonau, coiilaining his terms, aud requestuig 
that a reply miglit be sent to him to Conception, 
M smrcitj of provisions obliged him [o leave 
Bonao. He aiMed tbut he should n-ail lor a reply 
aiitil the followiug Monday (the 11th). There 
Wns nn iDsoIeiit menace implied in (lib note, bc- 
oorapaaied aa it was by insolent detnnnds. The 
•dmirnl fuund il impossible to comply with the 
Iwter ; but lo manifest his lenient dispoaition, atul 
to l&ke from the rebels all plea of rigor, he bad 
a proclftmation ufSxed for thirty claya at (he gate 
of the forlreas, promiBing full indulgence and com- 
plete oblivion of the past to Roldaa and bis fol- 
iowere, on condittou of their presenting themselves 
before him, aud returning to their allegiance to 
the crown within a mouth ; together with free 
conveyance for all such as wished to return to 
" but threateniug lo execute vigorous justice 

upon those who should not appear within the lim- 
ited time. A copy of this paper he seot lo Roldan 
bv Cnrvajal, with a letter, stating the impossibility 
of compliance with hi? terma, but offering to agree 
lo any compact drawn up wilb the approbation of 
Carvtyal and Stdamaiica. 

When Carvajul arrived, he found the veteran 
Ballester actually besieged in his fortress of Con- 
ception by Roldan, under pretext of claiming, in 
his official character of alcalde mayor, a culprit 
tvho bad taken refuge there from Justice. He 
had cut off the supply of water from the fort, by 
way of distressing it into a surrender. Wheu Car- 
Vajal posted up the proclamation of the admiral on 


mmgo, and eoler into ibe royal service, or to hold 
Utnds )□ any part of the ialuml. They preferi-ed, 
however, to follow the forlUDe.t of Roldao, tvho 
departed nitli bis band Ibr Xuragua. lo awiiit the 
arrival of lliu ships, accompEuiied by Miguel fial- 
lesier, sent by ihe admiral to superiiileud tliu prep- 
arations for their embarkation. 

ColanibuB was deeply grieved to have his pro- 
jected enterprise to Terra Fimia impeded by such 
contemptible obstacles, and the sliipa which ehoold 
have borne his brother to explore that newly-found 
continent, devoted to the use of this turbulent and 
WDTlUes^ rabble. He consoled himself, however, 
with the reflection, that all the mischief which bad 
so long been lurking in the island, would thus be 
at once shipped off, and theuceforlh everything re- 
stored to order and tranquillity. He ordered every 
9 be made, therefore, to get the ships in 
to be sent rouud to XarH»uaj but llie 
KBTcity of sea stores, and the difficnlly of com- 
pletiug the arrangements for such n voyage in the 
disordered state of the colony, delayed their de- 
parture lar beyond the stipulated time. Feeling 
thai he had been compelled to n kiiKl of deception 
towards the sovereigns, in the certificaie uf good 
conduct given to Roldan and his followers, he 
wrote a letter to them, slatiug the circumstances 
under which ihat certificate had been in a manner 
wrung from him, lo save the island &om utter con- 
fusion and ruiu. He represented the real char- 
acter and conduct of those men ; Itow they had 
rebeUed against his authority ; prevented the In- 
dians litim paying tribute; pillaged the island; 

IV -ni)v)' iMvinr tab Ae a^|M«bH4 





^^^ and r 

oo circunistancee over wliicli tliey knew he cuuld 
pe no coDtroL Carrajal made a formnl protest 
lira a Dotary who had accompanied him, and 
ling that the ships were HiitTering great injurj 
frum llie teredo or worm, and their provisions 
;, be aent them back to S»n Domingo, Hnil 
I on his return by hmd. Roldan accompanied 
Utile distance on lior^ebuck, evide&lly dis- 
turbed in mind. He feared to return to Spain, 
mt was shrewd enough to know the insecurity of 
present situation at the liead of a baud of di»- 
lute men, acting in defiance of authority. Wliat 
tie had he a.\xm their fidelity stronger than the 
ns which they bad violated P After 
riding thoaghtfully for some distance, he paused, 
requested some private conversation with 
tjal before lliey parted. Tliey alighted under 
shade of a tree. Here Roldan made further 
ifessions of the loyalty of bis intentions, and 
finally declared, that if the admiral would once 
more send him a written security for his person, 
with the guaranTee also of the principal persons 
aboot him, he would come to treat with him, and 
trusted that the wbole matter would be arranged 
oa terms sHlisfactory to both parlies. This offer, 
however, he added, must be kept secret from his 

Carvajal, overjoyed at thb prospect of a final 

BTrai^ment, lust uo time in conveying the prop- 

i-oMtioa of Roldan to the admiral. Tlie hitter 

imediutely forwarded the required passport or 

ity, scMled with the royal seal, accompanied 

)y a letter written id amicBble terms, exhorting 



hi»4MM otodknce to ihe aatbori^ of ibe aoFTotw 

nips. Btrwnl of iIk pnndpal persons aUo, who 
mm wtUi ibe admiral, wrote, U his reque^i. a 
ltU«r (/ aecufitf t4> Itoldso. pledging them^lve^ 
tor Um Miel; of liliutdf ud liU followers during 
Um mtgotutlioa, proviiltd Uicy did ooUiing hMUle 
Iw tlia roj«l MuUiurity ur its represeoUIive. 

While Coluinbiu wu thus, wiib unwearied as- 
niduity Mid loyal seal, endeavoring to bring the 
Uliiiiil luick lo its ubodimcc, be reoeired a replj 
trinn Spuin, ki ibn earnest rvfireseatatiaas main 
by him, in the preoediiig wauaaa,<t[ ibe diioacted 
aiMte t>f ilw culony and Um ootn^ea of these law^ 
Iw* umn, and his prajmn for vaytX owmienanw 
and MinxMt. The ktwr «w wnUea kj- Us b- 
vMioM fMMnj, Ute Bbbop Fnaccna, Bf»^lMiB< 

•f 1 " ~ _ ' " 

of hb atm a in wi i nf iW aOwnd MovMOM it 




: to expedite the negotiation witi) Roldaii, 
therefore, he Bailed in the lailer part of August 
with two caravels to the port of Azun, wtisC of 
Son Domingo, and much nearer to Xaragiia. He 
was accompanied by several of the most importajit 
personages of the colony. Rotdan repaired thither 
likewise, with the turhulent Adrian de Moxica, 
and & number of his band. The concessions al- 
ready obtained had increased his presumption ; and 
he had, doubtless, received intelligence of the cold 
manner in which the complaints of the admiral 
bad been received in Spain. He conducted him- 
self more like a conqueror, esacling triumphant 
terms, than n delinquent seeking to procure pardon 
by atonement He came on board of the caravel, 
ftnd with his usual effrontery, propounded the pre- 
Hminaries upon which he and his companions were 
disposed to negotiate. 

First, that he sho^ild be permitted to send sev- 
eral of his company, to the number of filYeen, to 
Spain, in the vessels which were at San Do- 
mingo. Secondly, that those who remained 
should have lands granted them, in place of royal 
pay. Thirdly, that it should be proclaimed, that 
everything charged against him and his party 
bad beau grounded upon false testimony, and the 
machinations of persons disaflected to the royal 
Hrvice. Fourthly, that he should be reinstated 
in his office of alcalde mayor, or chief jiidge.^ 
• These were liard and insolent conditions to 
commence with, but lliey were granted. Roldan 
then went on shore, and communicated them to 
' Hemfs, dead. i. lit), iii. op. 16. 


lu eampanioiu. At the end of two daj8 the in- 
sufgenta sent their CMpitabtiooa, drawn np in 
fiimi, itnil oonctied in urogutt Ungnage. ioi^liKl- 
ing all the stipiiUtioos granted at Fort Coucep- 
turn, widi ihixe recentlf demanded by Roldaiu 
and conduiling with one, more iD^otent ihau all 
the rest, Diiniul;, that if (he admiral ehoald fail 
in the fulfiltmeat of on/ of these articlei>, [liey 
should have a right to sasembie together, aad 
compel bid performance of them by force, or by 
auy other menus they might thiak proper.' The 
coit^irators thus sought Dot merely exculpation gf 
the past, but a pretext for fiiture rebelliou. 

The mind grows wearied aud impatient witL 
recording, and the heart of the generoas reailer 
must huru with imlignalion al perusing, this pro- 
tracted nrnt iiMsfiectual struggle of a man of the 
exalted inerila and matchless Bervioes of Colum- 
bus, ID the toils of such miscreants. Surrouuded 
by ilouht anil dauger ; a foreigner among a jeal* 
ous people : ao uupopular commander iu a mu- 
tinous island ; distrusted and alighted by tlie 
government he was aeeking to serve : and creat- 
ing duspiciou by his very services ; he knew not 
where lo look for fkiihfiil advice, efficiunl aid, or 
candid juilgmeaL The very ground oa which 
he stood seemed giving way under him, for he 
was told of seditious symptoms among his own 
people. Seeing the impunity with which the 
rebels rioted iu the possession of one of tho 
finest parts of the island, they began to inlk 
among themselves of following their example, of 
1 HsTren, Hist. &e\ Alminnts, cap. 33. 



&ban<loDiDg the standard of the tidniiral, and 
seizing upon the province of lliguey, at the enai- 
em extremity of the islnod, which was said to 
contain valuable mines of gold. 

Tims critically situated, disregiirdiog every 
coiisideralion of personal pride and dignity, and 
determined, at any individoal sacrifice, to secure 
iLe interests of an ungrateful sovereign, Columbus 
forced himself to t^igo this most humiliating ca- 
pitulation. He (rusted that uftemards, when he 
conld giiin quiet access to the royal ear, he should 
be able to convince the king and queen that it 
had been donipulsovy, and forced from him by the 
extraordinary difficulties in which he had been 
placed, atid the imminent perils of the colony. 
Before signing it, however, he inserte<l a stipula- 
tion, iLat the commands of tlie sovereigns, of 
himself, and of the justices appointed by hijn, 
shotUd be puttctually obeyed.^ 



Id alla^ the jenlousies and prejuilices awakened 
Bgainsl liim, and by variuus coiicesaious to lure the 
&ctious lo the performance of tlieir duty. To such 
of the poloiiists generally as preferred to remain 
in the binnd, he offered a choice of either royal 
pay or porlioa? of lands, iritli a number of ludians, 
gome free, others an slaves, to assist in the culli- 
TutioD. Tlie hitter was geaeralty preferred ; and 
grants were made out, in which he endeavored, 
as mach as possible, to combine the benefit of the 
individual with the interests of the colony. 

Roldun presented a memorial signed by upwards 
of one hundred of liis late foUoivers, demanding 
graiiCs of land)! and licenses Id settle, and choosing 
Xnragua for their place of abode. The admiral 
feared to trust such a numerous body of factious 
partisans in so remote a province i be contrived, 
therefore, to distribute them in various parts of the 
island ; some at Bonao, where their selllement 
gave origin to the town of that name ; others on 
the banks of the Rio Verde, or Green River, in 
the Vega ; others about six leagues thence, at St. 
Jago. He assigned to them liberal portions of 
land, arid numerous Indian slaves, taken in the 
wars. He made an arrangement, also, by which 
the caciques in their vicinity, instead of paying 
tribute, should furnish parties of their subjects, 
free Indians, lo assist the colonists in the cultiva- 
tion of their lands : a kind of feudal service, which 
was tlie origin of the repartimientos, or distribu- 
tions of free Indians among the colonists, a(\er- 
wanls generally adopted, and Bharaefully abused, 
throughout the Spanish colonies ; a source of inlol- 

urz AMB ruTAeu of 

the unhappj 
al Hi^wniola.' Colum- 
in tlie liglit of a coiiquer- 
faimseirall ilie righia 
of m oanqoeror, m the name of the mvereigaa br 
whom be IbngbL Of ootinie all liis compouians 
in the eolerpnse were eutilled lo take part in the 
uquired teirilory, and lo establish themselves 
lUiarv a* feudal lord», reducing the natives to the 
condition of villains or vassalft.^ This was an 
arnuigittnunt widely dilfcrent froin his original in- 
lonlion uf trealiug the natives with kindnesa, as 
punoufiil RulyGOta of the crown. But all his plans 
hitd boiiii suhvertcd, and his present measures 
dXKixl upon him by tlie exigency of the times and 
tlitt vittloiicti of lanU'.'iS men. He appointed a 
t<«)ilKin vrith an armed baud, as a kind of police, 
wild ttHrn to rnxige the provinces: oblige the lo- 
duUM h> |M,v ibeir tribaKs ; viodi onr Uie ooadiicl 
el' A* voieMtt; «d checfc ike k 


luploy, in ibe cultiv 

Q of the farm, the sub- 
s hEid becu cut off* 

I Vej 

"}ects of ihe tficique n 
by AloDSO de OJeda in liis first military expedition 
into the Vega. Roldan received, also, gratils of 
IftDd ID Xaragua, and a variety of live slock from 
the CEL(Ue and other animals belonging to the crowo. , 
These grants were made to him provbionally, 
until the pleasure of the sovereigns should be 
known ; ' for Columbus yet trusted that when they 
should understand the manuer in which these con- 
cessions bad been extorted from him, the ring- 
leadera of the rebels would not merely be stripped 
of their ill-gotten possessions, but receive well- 
merited punishment. 

Boldan having novr enriched himself beyond 
his hopes, requested permission of Columbus to 
visit his lands. This was granted with great 
reluctance. He immediately departed for ihe 
Vega, and stopping at Bonao, his late heod- 

;.qQarters, made Pedro Requelme, one of bis most 
'.ive confederates, alcalde, or judge of the place, 

fwith the power of arresting all delinquents, and 
sending them prisoners to the fortress of Concep- 
tion, where he reserved lo himself the right of 
eentencing them. This was au assumption of 
powers not vested in his office, nnd gave great 
offense to Columbus. Other circumstances cre- 
ated apprehensions of further troubles irom the 
late insurgents. Pedro Bequelme, under pretext 
of erecting furmiug buildings for his cattle, began 
to construct a strong edifice on a bill, capable of 
being converted into a formidable fortress. This, 
' Hemrtt, dncad. i. lib. iii. np. 10. 


t Dimmi, (Innul. i. IQi. il 



poslpone liis Jepnrture, and held him involved 
the EkSttirs of iliia lUvoriie but fatal island. 
The two cnravcls were dispatched fur S{>BiD 
ihe bcgiiuiing of October, taking such of Lhe 
W^nists as chose to return, and among them a 
Dombei' of Roldan'a partisans. Some of these 
took with ihem elnves, others carried awny ihe 
daughters of caciques whom they had beguiled 
front their far^ilics and homes. At thc^e in- 
iquities, no less than at many others which 
equally grieved his spirit, the admiral was 
obliged to eonuive. lie was conscionn, at the 
same time, that he was sending home a reiuforce- 
rnent of enemies and false witncsseH, to defame 
his character and traduce his conduct, but he bad 
no alternative. To counteract, as much as pos- 
sible, their misrepresentations, he sent by the 
same caravel, the loyal and upright veteran 
Miguel Ballester, together with Gracia ile Bar- 
rant^, empowered to attend to his affairs at 
Gcurl, and furnished with the depositions taken 
relative to the couduct of Boldau, and his accom- 


' In bis letters to the sovereigna, he entreated 
lem (o inrjuire into the truth of the late traiis- 
KtioDS. He staled bis opinion that his capitu- 
Intioits with the rebels were null and void, fur 
various reasous, viz., — they had been extorted 
&Dm bim by violence, and at sea, where he did 
not exercise the office of viceroy ; — there bud 
been two trials relative to the insurrection, and 
Hia insui^uts havijig been condemned as traitors, 
it was not in the power of the admiral to absolve 



I1mb6m& dnr aimhiftlitf ; — the cupitulations 
tntiiai Iff ■■iir m toudung ihe rojal revenue, 
titer wbidi he h»d do couItdI, without the inter- 
reniUin ofllie proper officers ; — lastl}', Francisco 
RnltUn anil hb companions, od leaving Spnio, 
luul luki^n ma oalh to be failbful to the sovereigns, 
Mid U> the admiral in their name, which oath they 
hiul viuhileJ. For fhese and similar reasons, 
SHiino juBt, others railier sophistical, he urged the 
Kiivi-nnitiiH not to consider themselves bound lo 
rnllfy llie coiiijiulsory terms ceded to these proffi- 
gatu men, hiil lo inquire into their offenses, and 
Iront ihom acootdingly.' 

Ha rapwlixt the reqaest made in ■ lonmet 
lellw, that ft leauned judge n^t be aaa oat Id 
ndmiitiater the kwn iu ilw tslaBd, aaga he hai- 
Mtr M hmi «lMi8(d wilh i^nr. ■hhawgh <tm- 

«M:!^ n« wyw u J akm tiM iiiiriwi pOMM 

- % iwK*Mifc ■.•k'fc.aa^tn. 




and the triumph of ihe rebels, had been caused 
bj Ihe distrust of the crown, aud its iaatleatioa 

Finding age and infirmity creepiog upon bim, 
and hia health much impnired by hia hist voyage, 
he began to tbiuk of his son Diego, as an active 
coadjutor; who, being destined as his successor, 
mighl gain experieuce under his eje, for the 
future discbarge of his high duties. Diego, 
though still serving na a page at the court, was 
grown to man's estate, and aipable of entering 
into the impnrtant concerns of life. Columbus 
entreated, therefore, that he mij;lit be sent out to 
assist him, as he felt himacir infirm in health and 
tH<oken in conatilution, and less capable of exertion 
than rormerly.' 

> H«iTen. dv.'sd. i lib. iii csp. 16. 



110X6 Uw nosa which induced Colum- 
I bus lu postpone kb departure for Spuiii, 

I has been mentiooed the arrival of" four 

■hi|» at the wcslom pnrt of the island. These 
bad aacbonxl on lli« ^ih of Seplember iu s har- 
bor a lil(l« b^w Jaeqnemel. appareotly wiib iIju 
defiigB of cutting djre-woodf^ which abounil In 
that neighboritood, tuid oCaurj-ing off the nntivi<» 
fer slaves. Further reports iulbnaed him tliat 
dtey were coiutuniuled bj Alouiio de Ojeda. the 
Mine bol-headed and bold-heArted cavalier who 
bail distinguished himself on rarious occasions in 
the previous voyages of discovery, niid parlicu- 
Inrly in llie capture of the cairique Caouabo. 
Knowing ihe dHring and adveulurous iipirit of 
(his ntan, G)lunibiis felt much disturbed at his 
visiting the ii^latid in thi« clandusline manner, on 
what appeared to be liille better tluui a (reebonc- 
ing expedition. To call him to account, and op- 
pose his aggressions, required an agent of spirit 
and address. No one seemed better fitted br the 


purpose than Rolilun. Ht: was iis daring as 
OjihIb, and of a iiiuie crafly clinracter. An ex- 
pedition of the kind would oociipy [he atteution 
of himself and his partisans, and divert, tliem from 
iiiij sclieniefi of mischief. The large couceaaiotis 
recently made to them would, \\a trusted, secure 
llieir present fidelity, reudering it more proliluble 
for ihem to be loyal than rebellious. 

Koldiin readily uudeitook the enterprise. He 
had nothing further to gitiii by sedition, and was 
anxious to secure his ill-gotten possessions, and 
alone for past oSenses by public services. He 
wns Tain as well as active, and took a pride in 
acquitting hiraself well in an expediliun which 
called for both courage and shrewduess. Depart- 
ing from Snn Domingo with two caravels, he ar- 
rived on the 29lh of September within two 
leagues of the harbor where the ships of Ojeda 
were anchored, ilere he landed with five-aud- 
twenty reailule followers, well armed, and accus- 
tomed to range the forests. He sent live scouts 
to reconnoitre. They brought word that Ojeda 
was several leagues distnnt from his ships, with 
only filteen men, employed in making caxsavu 
bread in an Indian village. Roldan threw him- 
self between them and the ships, thinking to take 
them by surprise. They were apprised, however, 
of his approach by the Indians, with whom the 
very name of Roldan inspired terror, from his lote 
excesses in Xaraguii. Ojeda saw hla danger; he 
supposed Roldan Imd been sent in pursuit of bim, 
and he found himself cut off from his ships. 
With his QBiud intrepidity be imraediately pre- 



B bOowt 

e Boldan. attended merely by 
'3. Tltr Utier craAily began 
imenl topics. He tbeo ia- 
8 (br lauding on the bland, 
IMiticalarij aa thai remote and looelj part, wilh- 
ODl first reponiiig Lu arrival to the adminil. 
Qjeda replied, ikat be bad beeo en a vojege uf 
discoverj, and had put in there in distress, to re- 
pair hb $h)ps and procure prorisiona. Roldan 
tlien demanded, in the name of the goTcmmeut, 
a sight of the license ander vhich be sailed. 
Ojeda knew the resolaie charsoier of the man he 
had to deal with, restraitied hid natural iropetuos- 
it;, and replied that hb papers were ou b(»nl of 
his abip. He declared hb intention, on deporting 
theuoe, to go to Sau Domingo, and pay hb bora- 
te to the admiral, having many things to tell 
him which were fur hb private ear alone. He 
intimated to Roldan that the admiral was in com- 
plete dbgrace at court; that there was a Lilk of 
taking from him hb command, and that the 
queen, hb patroness, ivas ill, bejond all hopes of 
recovery. This iulimation, it b presumed, was 
referred to by Holdan in his dispatches to the ad- 
miral, wherein he mentioned thai certain things 
had been wnununictited lo him by Ojeda, which 
he did not think it safe to confide to a letter. 

Rotdan now repaired to the ships. He found 
several persons on board with whom he was ac- 
quainted, and who had already been in Hi^spani- 
ola. They confirmed ihe truth of what Ojeda had 
said, and showed a Uceuse signed by the Bishop 
of Fonaecfi, as superintendent of the aSkirs of the 



Indies, nuthoriKiDg him to sail oa a voyage of 

It appeared from the report of Ojeda and his 
follower*, ilmt the glowing accounts mat botne by 
Columbus of his kle di5ix>vene3 on the coast of 
Paria, his magnificent speculations with reapect 
to Ilie riches of tlie newly-fouud country, and the 
specimen of pearls transmitted to the sovereigns, 
hail inflamed the cupidity of various adveuturers. 
Ojeda happened to be at thnt time in Spain. He 
was a favorite of llie Bishop of Fonseca, and ob- 
tained u sight of the teller written by the admiral 
to the flovereigns, and the churls aud maps of bis 
Toule by which it was accompanied. Ojeda knew 
Columbus to be embarrasiwd by the acdiiions of 
Hispaniola ; he found, by his conversation with 
Fousouii and other of the admiral's enemies, that 
strong doubts aud jealousies eusted in the mind 
of the king with respect to his conduct, and that 
bis approaching downfall was confidently pre- 
dicted. The idea of taking advantage of these 
circumstances struck Ojeda, and, by a private en- 
terprise, ho hoped to bu the first in gathering the 
wealth of these newiy-discovered regions. He 
communicated hi? project to his patron, Foascca. 
The Iftiier was but too ready for anything that 
might defeat the plans and obscure the glory of 
Columbus ; and it may be added that he always 
showed himself more disposed to patronize mer- 
cenary Bilveulurera than upright aud high-minded 
men. He granted Ojeda every fitcility ; funiiah- 
itig him with copies of the pEipers and churls of 

■ Utsirera, decid. i- lib. if. cup. 3. 

ktfaHkiK«M H^whHiJ t 


«f BcBBM aigned with his 
MS «& tkat of the sover- 
he should 
u the Kin g of 
discovered by 
fBorm I'tSA. Tk hst prgvieiou 
r of FoiHeea, M it leil 
ibe rbits of 
' hanng bsca diwuiwud br Columbos 
ye«r. The ships 
«tn la he fined aot at the dkarges of ihe adveu- 
tKi% tmd a certaiB prapaitioii of the prmiucts of 
tba vaj^a wa« la be nadeted id the crown. 

Uader this lieeDae Qyeda filled ont four ships 
at Seville, aaaisled by many eager and wealthy 
■pendaton Amnog the aumb«r was the rale- 
braled Aanarigo Vespocd, a Florentine merchtml, 
veil ncquainced with geographj and navigation. 
The prindpnl pilot of the expedition wb3 Jiiiin de 
la Coea, a mariner of great repute, a disciple of 
the admiral, whom he had accompanied in his 
first Tojage of discovery, and in that along the 
Boutheni coast of Cuba, and round the island of 
Jamaica. There were several also of the man- 
uer^ and BaribolomeH Boldan, a distinguiished 
pilot, who had been with Columbus in his voyage 
to Farift.' Such was the expedition which, by 
a singular train of (circumstances, eventually gave 
the name of tliis Florentine merchant, Amerigo 
Vespucci, to the whole of the New World. 

This expedition had sailed iu May, H99. The 
1 LuCuu. 


adventurers had nrriTed od the southern caatiaeol, 
and ranged along its coast, from two hundred 
leagnes east of the Oronoco, lo the Gulf of Parla. 
Guided b^ the chtirts of Culumbus, ihey had 
pnssed through this gulf, and through the Boca 
del Dragon, mid had kept along westward lo 
Cape de la Vela, visiting the island of Margarita 
and the adjacent continent, and discovering the 
Gulf of Venezuela. They had subsequently 
touched at the Caribhee Islands, where they bad 
fought vrith the fierce uativei>. and made many 
captives, with the intention of selling them in the 
slaTe-markels of Spain. Tlience, being in need 
of supplies, ibey had sailed to Hispaniola, having 
performed the most extensive voyage hitherto 
made along the shores of the New World.' 

Having collected all the inforraation that he 
oould obtain concerning these voyagers, their ad- 
ventures and designs, and trustiug to the declara- 
tion of OJedit, that he should proceed forthwith 
(o present himself to the admiral, Roldau re- 
turned lo San Domingo lo render a report of bis 




JitEN intelHgeace was brouglit lo Cnbr 
3 of the nature of the expediiiw^ 
^^^^ OjediL, and llie license under wliidi K 
sailed, lie corisidered himself deeply Bggrie»e<i| * 
l>eing a direct infrnctiou of liiB niosl iropoHtf^ 
prerogntives, and Banctioned by authority "'"^^^a 
ought to have held tliem sacred. He awail^*^ 
palietilly, bowevcr, the promised visit of Alca^^^ 
de OJeda to obtain fuller exjilanations. Nolliio^^ 
was further from the intention of that rorinj^g 
commaDder than lo keep such promise : lie hi^^ 
made it merely to elude the vigilance of BnUui'^ 
As soon as he had refitted his vessels and obtained 
a supply of provisious, he s^ed round to ibi 
coast of Xaragua, where he arrived in Februw;. 
Here he was welt received by tbe Spniu«4> 
reaideul in that province, who supplied all \ai 
wants. Among tbem were many of the liU 
comrades of Roldnn ; louse, random chnmcten, 
impatient of order and restraint, and burning 
with animosity against the admiral, for baring 


MPS AND Forjasa of coluubob. 25S 

r^S»* brought them nnder the wholesome aa- 
«:>*-itjr of the laws. 

Idiaowing the mah and fearless charnclcr of 
IJ^<3h^ and Suding that there were jeidousies 
let'x^^^n him and the admiral, they hailed him 
Id a. new leader, come to redress iheir faocied 
^^"VftDces, ID place of Roldan, whom tlicj^ cud- 
gidl^TTed aa baring deserted them. Tliey made 
d^niorous complaiuta to Ojeda of the iiiji]8li<« of 
tbe admiral, whom they cliarged with withholding 
ffOTO them the arrears of their pay. 

OJc^da was a hot-headed man, with somewhat 

of a «!^unling spirit, and immediately set liimseif 

op for a redresser of grievances. It is said, also, 

that he gave himself out as autlioriie<i by govern- 

meiit, in conjuuctloti with Carvajal, to aut aa 

cotmsellors, or rather supervisors of the ndmiral ; 

aud I hat one of the first measures they were to 

ia»e, %vas to eiilbrce the payment of all salaries 

due to the servants of llie crown.' It la quea- 

tionable, however, whether Ojeda made any pre- 

tensioti of [he kind, which could bo readily be 

^proved, and would have tended lo disgrace 

him with the government. It is probable that be 

wsi eiiTOuraged in his intermeddling cliieliy by 

his knowledge of the tottering slate of the 

aonural'g fsvor at court, and of his owu security 

ill the powerful protection of Fonseca. He may 

h»'e imbibed also the opinion, diligently fostered 

by thwe with whom he had chiefly communi- 

cB^ in Spain, just before his departure, (hat 

tluM people had been driven to extremities by 


the oppression of llie edminil and his brolhff-* 
Siiiiie fteling of generosity, iherefure, wiiy I**^^ 
mingled witli his uaual lovo uf action and ealt^^ 
prise, when he proposed to redrt'sa all ihe?** 
wrongs, put himself at their head, mnrcli nl m*-"^ 
to San Domingo, and oblige the ndminil 10 p*^ 
them on the spot, or expel him from ihe isluuL 

The proposition of Ojeda was received wit-** 
acetaniBlions of tmnsporl bj some of Ihe rede!* » 
others miide objectious. Quarrels arose : ■^ 
rulTuinly scene of violence oiid brawl ensued, l«» 
which several were killed and wounded on tiut^ 
sides; but the pHrty for the eijiedilion tu Si^* 
Domingo remained triumphant. 

Fortuniiielj for the peace and aafelj of ^^ 
admiral, Roldan arrived tn the neighborhood, Ju^ 
at this eriiicul juoclure, aitended bj a cnw I* 
resolute fellows. He had been d^patched t^ 
Columbus to watch the moremeDta of Ojedh uV 
hearing of his arrival on the coast of XallgD»- 
Apprised of the rioletit scenes which were iikni^ 
pkcp, Rultlan, when on the way, sent to hia ohl 
confederate Diego de Escobar, lo follow him witt 
alt the trusty force he could collect. Thej 
reached Xaragua within a day of each olhtf. 
An instance of the bad fnilli usual belweon bid 
men was now evinced. The former partisana of 
Buldiin, finding bim earnest in \\\s lulenlion of 
serving the government, nnd that there waa M 
hope of engiiging him in their new sedittoni 
sought lo wiiylay and destroy him on his marchi 
but hb vigilance and celerity prevented them.' 


I, wlicn he heftnl of the Ajrpronch of Rol- 

dn.«x nnd Eacobiir, relireil oil board of liis ships. 

TlK:>ugh of a daring i>piril, he luid no inci inn lion, 

m the present instHoce, to come to blows, where 

lli^j-e waa a cerlaiiiiy of deaperaie figliting, and 

iu> gnin ; and where he must raise his arm 

agn-inst government. Koldiiii now issued such 

renionstmnces aa had oflen b««ii ineffecIiiHtlj nd- 

3r«»aed to himself. He wro(e lo OjeJa, reasoo- 

•"B ^ith biin ou his conduct, and the confusion 

he '^rt%» producing in thu island, and inviting him 

'"* shore to an amicable nrrangement of oil 

imogtd grievances, Ojcda, knowing the crafty, 

violent character of Roldnn, disregarded his 

rep^^ted mesBuges, and reliiaed to venture within 

"^ power. He even seized one of Lis messuu* 

^f'**! Diego de Tniiillo, and landing suddenly at 

"^•""giin, carried off another of his followers, 

"■"ned Toribio de Lenares ; Ijoih of whom he 

^^ijied in irons, on board of bis vessel, as hos- 

^^^ for a certain Jnan Finlor, a one-urmed 

"'***«'. who had deserted, threatening to hang 

.•** if the deserter was not given up.^ 

'^ «rious municuvres took phtce between these 

j? we!l-niHiched opponents; each wtiry of the 

M** ""ess and prowew of the other. Ojcda miule 

^> and stood twelve leagues to the northward, 

to 'li^ province of Cahay, one of the most beauti~ 

(tu ^tid fertile purU of the country, nnd inliabiled 

to^ a kind and gentle people. Here he landed 

«iu^ tbrly men, selling upon whatever he could 

L gpA of the provisions of the natives. Iloldnn and 

■ 1 Us Casu, Hut. Ind., lib. i. vap. Ifiil. MS. 


i Ea<x>hai to B 

f Igr Indinns, wLo np- 

a «f Ifcc aUp. iafurmed Ojeda 

' wiiU him on 
K ba*l fi>r faim. 

«of hiseiiemj; 
L boat wiiliin h sbon 
. vhcn Uie crew lay on 
I to come to them. 
" demanded 
•'Oaiy «w or «." »■» the reply. 
CpM ihB DHgtt 4a BMobu' and four otiiers 
«w4«4 a* IW hat. TW cn« nfteed to admit 
nw^ faMM A^ ■fffawd one tnmi to carry 
Imb M Am bMgK. tmi MMtbor to nnlk by his 
riia aod MMt Mm. Bf this rtnttageni, liis 
Tbe insUiit he entered 

0« ihnr irTttMi^ Iw Mid hi* toiu{>iu>ioD^ attucked 
than strortl ia huA wovndcd $ev«ra1. and made 
• wi Indian nrclier, who, 
!spvd by swimming. 
TUs WM an infiiKtenl triumph for Roldan. 
Qjeda, uoigas for the rrcnvery of his boat, 
which wwa tudiiipensable for (lie serrice of the 
•hip. now iiuid« orartui-M of peni-e. He ap- 
pnncbed the ^hore in his ivnuiining liont of small 
eiie, taking n-iih hint bia prini^ipnl pilot, and 
arquebusier. and four oarsmen. Ruldnn entered 
the boot he had just raptured, with seren ruwers 
and fifVeeu lighting men, cansing fifleen others to 



be ready on »hore to embark in a large canoe, in 
case of need. A chnracleriBtic iiiterviei? look 
pUce between these doughty anlngonbts, ench 
keeping warily oq liis guard. Their confereuee 
was enrricd on nt n distance. Ojeda justified his 
hostile niovcmenls hy alleging that Holdiui bad 
come witb an armed furce to seixe liim. This 
ibe latter positively denied, promising him die 
most amicable reception from the admiral, I'n 
case he would repair Id San Domingo. An ar- 
rangement was at length effected ; the boilt was 
restored, and mniual restitution of die men took 
place with the exception of Juan Pintor, the one- 
armed deserter, who had absconded ; and on the 
fullowing day, Ojeda, according to agreement, set 
sail to leave ibe island, threatening, liowever, (o 
return at a future time with more ships and 

Rolilan waited in the neighborhood, doubling 
the truth of his departure. In the course of a 
few days, word was brought that Ojeda had 
lauded oti a distant part of the coast. He im- 
mediately pursued him with eighty men, in 
canoes, sending scouts by land. Beibre he 
arrived at the place, Ojeda bad again made sail, 
and Roldan saw and heard no more af him. Las 
Cuas>erts, however, that Qjeda departed- either 
to some remote district of Hiipaiiioln, or to the 
islBiid of Porto Rico, where he made up what he 
called his Ckealgada. or drove of slaves ; carrying 
off numliers of the unhappy natives, whom he 
Bold in the skve'inarket of Cadiz.^ 

t Letter of C<.lu 

M of PriBC« Ji 

Fsp. ISO. 




JfT^mEIEN men have been occuatnmed 
R^WJI t'aii^fly, they luke great merit to iJi#<^ 

Tlif ibllowers of R«!dflii were loud in Irnrnpelu"^ 
forth llieir unwonted loyjlly, and the great seriiS^ 
they had rendered to government in driving CBrf* 
fixxn the ialnnd. Like nil reformed knitres, ibc^ 
expected that their good conduct would b« unpl^ 
rewarded. Lofiking upon iheir le«der iu> li^tin^ 
everything in his gifl, and being n-e!l pleased irill* 
the delightful province of Caiiay, they rrqUHtd 
hiin to share the land among them, that tlwy ni^ 
settle there. Koldan n-ould Imve had no hesiuwa 
in granting llieir request, hiid it been made daring 
his freebooting career ; but tie was now anxioiuV 
establish a character for adherence to ilie li«* 
He declined, therefore, acceding to their wulu■^ 
until sanctioned by the admiral. Knowing, how- 
ever, that he had fostered a spirit among these (ora 
which it was dangerous to contradict, and thattlMiT 
rapacity, by long indulgence, did not admit of 


^^J^j. he shared among them eertniu lands of Li^ 
***''*■, in the terriiory of his ancient host Behechio, 
^■^••que of XaraguH. He then wrote to the att- 
***'»-^«J for perraiasion to return lo SaD Domingo. 
■iticl peceivBci a lellcr in reply, giving him many 
'Uak^Ju anJ commendations for the diligence and 
^d«-«s3 which he hiwl mftnifeBled, but requealiiig 
'"»t» la renmin for a lime in Xiirngun, lest Ojedrt 
^"*OJd he yet horering about the coast, and dia- 
P^^rf to make another descent in that pnjvince. 
-Tile troubles of the island were not yet at nn end, 
'""■ %were destined iiguin to break forth, and from 
*™*^ wlini of a romiintic canse. There niriTed 
swJtit this time, at Xanigun, ft young cavalier of 
OuUl** family, named Don Hernando de Gnevara. 
"6 fnjieesscd an agreeable person and winning 
tcmaitera, but watt headstrong in his passions, and 
3W»1 ute in hia principle?. He was cousin lo Adri- 
•" de Moxica, one of ilie most active ringluaders 
in the late rebellion of Roldan, and had conducted 
bimself with such licentious nesa at San Domingo, 
ihiiL Columbus had banished him from the island. 
Thftr-e being no other opportunity of erobiirking, 
be bad been sent lo Xanigun, to return to Spain 
in one of the shipa of Ojedu. but arrived after their 
dfip*rture. HoUian received him favorably, nn 
Bccoant of bis old comrade, Adrian de ilosica, 
xnd perniilted him to choose some place of resi- 
dence uuiil further orders concerning him should 
atn^e from the admiral. He chose the province 
of Calisy, at the place where Roldan had captured 
the hrjat of Ojedu. It was a delightful part of 
ijtt.i beautiful coast ; but the reason why Guevara 

chose it, was its viciniiy to XnroguB, Whil* 
tlie latter place, In consequence of tlie iodulgeC^ 
of BoMan, he was ravonibly received ftt the boi* 
of Anacaona, the willow of Caonnbo, and »Ii' 
of the cacique Behechio. That remarkahle worn* 
nliil relniiicd hor partiality to the Spaniards vC 
\viiiiataDding the disgraceful scenes wiiioh te 
pnsHed before her eyes ; and Ilie native digniij c 
her character had commanded the respect erenc 
the dissolute rabble which infested ber ppovinc 
By her lute husband, the cadque Citoaabo, it 
had a daughter named Higuenamola, just grow 
up, and greatly admired for Iier beauty. Giievi 
being often in company witU her, a mu 
ment ensued. It was to be near her that he cbo^^ 
Cahay as a residence, at a place where hia eoui*^— ■ 
Adrian de Moxioa kept a number of dogs *i»'* 
hawks, lo be employed in the chaae. GntTEC ^ 
delayed his departure. Roldnn discovered ll»' 
reason, and warned him to desist from his prelect 
sions and leave the proTince. Las Cosas iotimil^^ 
that Roldan was himself allnched lo the young It*'' 
dian beauty, and jealous of her preference of hi^* 
rival. Anacaona, the mother, pleased with th^^ 
gallant appearance and ingratiating manners of 
the youthful cavalier, favored his nlbidiment; t>- 
pecially as he sought lier daughter id marriiga- 
Notwithstiknding the orders of Roldau, Goevm 
still lingered in Xamgun, in the bouse of Aot£tr 
ona; and sending for a priest, desired liim 
(ize his iulended bride. 

Hearing of this, Roldan sent for GueviuM, 
rebtiked him sharply for remainJagM 

t. Goevm 

of AatOr 

lim to bap- J 

levMM, Bnd ^M 



cvltempling lo deceive n person of the impor- 
lanc^i^ of Aiiocaonn, \sy biisnaritig Ihi: flfTetitinri* of 
her <:limgliter. Guevara avowed the Blreiiplli of 
liis j>n)<3ion, and his correct intenlioii;, and eu- 
trence^d penniasioQ to reniiiin. Koldun was inflex- 
ible. He iillejied that some evil const ruci ion might 
be pUKDiilii» conduct by the admiral; but It is prob- 
»1>1^ his true motive wna a desire to send away a 
rival, nho interfered with his own amorous de- 
signs. Guevara obejed ; but had scarce been three 
dftys nt Cahay, when unable to remain longer 
fibsent from the object of liis passion, he returned 
W» Xjniigua, accompanied by four or five friends, 
an4 concealed himself in tbe dwelling of Anaca- 
oua. RolJan, who was at that time confined by 
» miLlitdy in his eyea, being apprised of his return, 
sent orders for him to depart inslanlly to Calmy. 
T'le young cavalier assumed u tone of defiance. 
He nraraed Soldaa not to make foes when he had 
»u«h great need of friends ; for, to his certain 
knowledge^ ihe admiral intended to behead him. 
l^POQ ihia, lioldan commanded him to quit that 
P""^ of the ialiiud, and repair lo San Domingo, to 
present hiniBelf before the admiral. The thoiishta 
o' Wing banished entirely fnim the vicinity of his 
laditui beauty, checked ihe vehemence of the 
y^oih. He changed his tone of haughty defiance 
ioto one of humble supplication ; and Roldan, ap- 
p*Med by this submission, permitted him lo remain 
{an (he present in the neighborhood. 

Saldun had instilled willfulness and violenoe 
iOlu Ibe hearts of his late followeM, and now was 
doomui to experience the effects. Guevara, in- 




censed at liis opposition to his pnssion, medituiLiI 
reveuge. lla »ooa made n party among the uiil 
comrades of Roldau, who detostud, iis a nuLgixlratc, 
the man lliey had idolized ea h lender. It vraa 
coDcertiitl to rise suddenly upon him, and either 
to kill him or put out liis eyes. Roldan was ap- 
prised of the plot, and proceeded with his usual 
promptness. Guevara was seized in the dwelling 
of Anacnoiin, in the presence of hU intended bride ; 
seveu of his accomplices were likewise arrested, 
Roldan immediately sent an aocount of the aX^ix 
to the admiral, professing, at present, (o do nothing 
without his nuthoriiy, and declaring liimself not 
competent to judge impartially iti the ca«e. Oo- 
lunbuB. who was at that lime at Port Conception, 
in the Vega, orrlered the prisoner to be conducted 
to the foriresa of Son Domingo. 

The vigorous measures of Roldan against his 
old onmrades, produced commotions in the island. 
When Adrian do Moxica lieanl that his cousin 
Guevara was a prisoner, and tliat, too, by com- 
mand of ills former confederate, he was highly 
exasperated, and resolved on vengeance. Has- 
tening to 13ouao, the old haunt of rebellion, he 
obtained the co operation of Pedro Kequelme, the 
recently appointed alcalde. They went round 
among their lute companions in rebellion, who had 
received lands and settled in various ports of the 
Vega, working upon their ready passions, and en- 
lisUng Ibcir feelings in the cause of an old com- 
rade. These men seem to have had an irresisti- 
ble propensity to sedition. Guevara was a favor- 
ite with them all; the charms of the Indian beantj 





•"haA probably liieir inflnence ; Hnd [he coniliict of 
Boldau was proDouiiced a tyraauical interfereoce, 
lo prerent e mnrrin^ agreeablit to all parties, ami 
' 1 to ihe colony. There is no being so 
odious In bis former associates as r reformed rob- ' 
ber, or a rebel, ealislei) in the service of justice. 
[iThe old scenes of faction were renewed ; ibe 
■weapons which had scarce been hung np from the 
iteceol rebpllions, were agnin snatched down from 
.fhe walls, and rash preparations were made for 
action. Moxica soon saw a body of daring and 
reckle^ meu ready, with horae and weapon, to 
Ibllow bim on anj de^ptrnte eaturpri^. Blinded 
by tlie impumty which had atlendeU their former 
outrages, he now Ibreutened acts uf grenier atroc- 
ity, medilaling, not merely the reacue of his 
cousin, but iJie death of Rolilau and Ibe mlmiral. 

Columbus WHS at Fort Conception, with au in- 
considerable force, when this dangerous plot was 
«oacerted in his very neighborhood. Not dream- 
tog of any furtlier hostilities from men on whoui 
la had lavished favors, he would doubtless have 
bllea into their power, had not intelligence been 
brought hini of the plot by a detterier from the 
oonspiralors. He mw at a glance tiie perils by 
which he wan surronnded, and the storm about lo 
burst upon the island. It was no lunger a time 
fi>r lenient measures ; be determined to strike a 
Uow which should crush the very head of rebel- 

Taking with him but six or seven Iriisty ser- 
vants, and three esquires, all well armed, he set 
Mt in the night for the place where tlio ringlead- 



ere were quartereJ. Omfitliug probiibly in the 
Becrccy of llieir plot, ami Ihe lale passiveiicsa of 
the admiriil, Iliey appear to have been perfectly 
uriguurdtd. ColDmbiiB came upon tlii-in by sur- 
prise, fleize<l Moxicft am) sevurni of tita principal 
ConfedemleB, and bore lliem off lo Fori Concep- 
tion. Tlie moment w«s criiical ; tlie Vega was 
ripe for A revolt ; be hart the fomenter of tlie con- 
spiracy in hit power, and an example was catlud 
for, that should strike terror into the factious. 
He ordered Moxica lo be hanged on the lop of the 
l!ic fortress. The hitler entreated to be allowed 
to confeaa himself previous to execution. A 
priest vrasi summoned. The miserable Moxica, 
who liad been so arrogant in rebellion, lost all 
courage at the near approach of death. He de- 
layed to confess, beginning and pausing and re- 
comtnencing, and again liesilaling, as if he hoped, 
by whiling away time, to give n chance for rescue. 
Instead of eonfesiiiiig his own sins, he accttsed 
othera of criminality, who irere known to be in- 
nocent ; until Columbus, incensed at tbia faisebood 
and treachery, and losing all patience, in his 
ntingled indigo aliou and scorn, oi'dered the das- 
tard wreteh to be swung off from the battle- 

This sudden act of severity was promptly fol- 
lowed up. Several of the accomplices of Mox- 
ica were condemned lo death, and thrown iti irons 
to await their fate. Before the conspinitorj had 
time to recover from their asionifihmcnt, Pedro 
Requelme was taken, with sevenil of hid com- 
1 Herm>, deotd. L lib. iv. cap. e. 



peers, in his ruffiati den ul Bunao, itud convej'cd 
ia the fortress of Shu Domingo ; where was alao 
confined ihe origiiml iiiovvr of tliia second rebel- 
lioD, Ileraaiido de Guuiara, ibe lover of the 
jouug Indiiin princess. These unexpected acts 
of rigor, proceeding from ii qiiurler which hud 
been long so lenient, hud the desired effect. The 
conspirntora tied for the most peirt to Xiimgua, 
iheir old and favorite retreat. Tbe^ were not 
anfiered to congregate there again, and conctTt 
Dew sedition*. The Adelantado, seconded by 
Koldaii. pursued them with his characteristic ra- 
pidity of movement and vigor of arm. It has 
been said that he carried a priest with him, iu or- 
der ilini, as he nrrested delinquents, they might 
be confessed and hanged upon the spot ; but tlie 
more probable account is that he ininsmitted 
ibem prisoners to San Domingo. He had seven- 
teen of ihein at one lime confined in one eoin- 
mon dungeon, awaiting their trial, while he con- 
tianed in indetkligable pursuit of Ihe remainder.' 
^^^These were prompt and severe measures ; but 
^^■tn we consider how long Columbus hod borne 
^^Phh tbesu men ; how much he had ceded, and 
^^toiliced to them ; how he hod been interrupted 
in all his grent undurlakings, and the welfare of 
Uie colony destroyed by their contemptible and 
seditious bniwls -, how they had abused his lenity, 
defied his authority, and at length attempted 
his life, — we cannot wonder lliat he should at 
laat let fall the sword of justice, which he had 
hitherto helil suspended. 

I Las Ciuiia, IlIM- Ind., lib. i. cap. 170, MS. Ucrrera, 



The power of fiiclioii nas now completelj ■ 
dued ; and tlie good f 9ecU of llie ' 
urvs taken by Ooliimbui', »iiice his last arrivnl, 
the benefit of the isliiud, began to uppenr. 
Indians, seeing' tlie iavtlicacy of rcsistaiKW. bim X3 
mitted to the yoke. Many gnve stgu» of civilK 
satioii, having, in mine instnnee* adopted tloMw^j^ 
And embracvd Chrislinnity. Assisted by iheir X^^^ 
bwB the Spaniards aow cultir«ied their htndf <JU«— 
gently, and there wa» every appearance of mU1^>^' 
and regular prosperity. 

Coliinibiis considured all this happy chaags ^^^ 
bt-onglit nbout by llie especial iuterveniioD (»*^ 
Heaven. In a letter to Dona Juana de la Tujj***' 
a lady of distinction, aya or nurse of Prince .Ii»**» 
he gives nn instauce of those visionary fandd t*' 
which Ue was Hubject in limos of ilines* and hb^"^ 
iety. In the preceding winter, be says, about il>^^ 
festival of Gbrislraas, when menaced by loili*^^ 
war and doniestic rebellion, when disirusifiil <» 
those around him and apprehensive of disgrace t'^ 
court, he sank lor a time into complete deipcn-^ 
dency. In this hour of gloom, when abandunef 
to despair, he heard iu the night a voice addre9»- 
ing liim in words of comfort, "O mau of UUle 
faith 1 why art ihou cast down ? Fear nothing, I 
will provide for thee. The seven years of the 
term of gold are not expired ; in thai, and in all 
other things, I will take care of thee." 

Tlie seven years term of gold heiv menUoiied, 
alUidus lo a TOW mttdi' by Columbus on ilisourer- 
ing llie New World, and recorded by liitn in a 
letter lo the eovemigus, that witbUi sevun yean 



he woulil fumisli from (he profils of his discov^ 
eries, Hfty thaiisanil foot and tive ihousAtiil liorae, 
for the delivL-rnnce of the holy sepulchre, and aa 
oddiiionnl fiirce of like »mouut, witlijii five je^trs 

The coraforiing nssumnce given biin by the 
voice w)is cotToboratei), he says, thnt very day, 
by ill lei lige lice received of the discovery of a 
large tract of country rich id mines.' This 
imagioory promise of divine aid thus mysteri- 
ously givun, appeared to him »t present in Klill 
greater progress of fullillmenL The trophies and 
dangers of the island litul been succeeded by 
tranquillity. He now anticipated the prosperous 
proaeciiiion of his favorite enterprise, so long in- 
lerrupleil. — the exploring of llie regio;is of 
Paria, and the establishment of a Hshery in liie 
Gnlf of Pe»rb. How illusive were his hopes I 
Al this moment events were maturing whieb 
were to overwhelm biin with dintress, strip bim 
of his honors, and reiider him comparatively a 
wreck for the remaifider of bis days ! 


JIIII.E CoIiimlmB was involved in o ae- 
rJM of iJilfii'uUiM ii) llie factioaa island 
of HinpHnioIti, his enemies were but loo 
•iicctn«rul in aiidermitiing his reputation in the 
oourt of Rpnin. The report brouj^ht by Ojeda 
of hi» Htilicipated <Il)>grnce was not eniirely un- 
foiindfil ; the event wna considered neiir at hand, 
nnd cvi'ry perficlious exertion was made to Kcci-l- 
emln it. Every vesHel from the New "World 
ciimo froiKlited with complaints, representing Co- 
liimbiiH nnd his brothers as new men, iitinccus- 
toniud to eommnnd, inflated by their sndden rise 
fl'om obiK<urily ; airognut and insulting towards 
men of birth and lofly spirit ; oppreraivo of the 
common |>eiiple. nnd cruel in their treatment nf 
the native*. Tim insidious and illiberal insinua- 
tion was conlinUHlly urged, thdt they were for- 
dgnorS) who could have no intereHt in the glorj 

UFs aud votaqes of COLUHBTTS. 271 

f Spnin, ' 


prosperity c 

. it Ijad I 

01 so 
, exlm 

I CBllK 

' tontempiible as lliis plt>u mny t 
powurTul ttfect. Columbus visa even ncciiBud of 
a design to cnst off nil Hllegi*iice to Spain, and 
eillier irnike liimacif sovereign of tlie countries 
he bnd discovered, or yield (hem itilo llie linnds 
oilier power : a eluitder wliiuli, liowever 
exlntvn^it, woa calculated to startle the jealous 
mind of Ferdiimnd. 

It is true, that by every ship Columbus like- 
sent home statements, wriileii with the frank- 
and energy of truth, setting furih the real 
: and nature of the dislriitrliona of llie isand, 
and pointi[ig out and imploring remedies, which, 
if properly sppljed, might have been efficacious. 
His leltere, however, arriving at dbtant intervals, 
It single and transient impressions on the 
lind, whiuli were speedily effaced by the 
ilufluence of daily and active misrepresentation. 
His enemies at court, having continual access to 
the sovereigns, were enabled to place everything 
urged iigaiiist him in the strongest point of view, 
while ihey secretly neutralized the force of his 
idicatiuns. They used a plausible logic to 
iilher bad management or bnd faith on his 
There was an incessant drain upon the 
.hor country for iho support of the colony. 
this compatible with the extravagant pic- 
be lind drawn of the wealth of the island, 
\a golden mountains, in which lie had pre- 
tended to tind the Ophir of ancient days, the 
Morce of all tlie riches of Solomon ? Tliey in- 
tiirred that he bad either deceived the sovereigns 

\ tte <nwl HtghEt of I 
Ttw Dm »■» of Calwn&n^ wW i 
piigeft to cfaa ({lUMn. bappeoao^ to put b]^ thaj 
fcUuantd ihoTR iridk iinpncBUuae. iiilMiiiii'in, 
~ I tha »» rf (f 


^ of him who 

grave of Spanish 

land of V 


delnKioD, t 

The incessant repeiilion of falsehood 
gradually wear ils way into ihe most caadid 
mind. Isabella herself began to eutertain double 
lapecling the conduct of Columbus. Where 
fliere was such universal and incessant complaint, 
it seemed reasonable to conclude that there must 
exisl some fault. If Columbua and his brothers 
were upright, they might be injudJciouB ; and, in 
gorernmcnt, mischief is oftener produced through 
error of judgment, than luiquily of design. The 
letters writien by Columbus himself presented a 
lamentable picture of the confusion of the island. 
Uight not this arise from ihe weakness and inca- 
pacity of the rulers ? Even granting that the 
prevalent abuses arose in a grtiit measure from 
Ihe enmity of the people to the admiral and his 
brothers, and their prejudices against them as 
fbreignere, was it safe to intrust so important and 
diatant a command to persons so unpopular with 
the commnnity ? 

Tliese considerations had much weight in Ihe 
candid mind of Isabella^ but they were all-pow- 
erful with the cautious &nd jeidous Ferdinand. 
He had never regarded Columbiis with real cor- 
diality ; Mid ever since be had aseertained the 
importance of bis discoveries, had regretted the 

eeled i 

I The 

■sive clamors wbicli had arisen c 
ministratioti of the Adelituiiido. 
g out of the faction of Kuldnu, 

I HieL del Almirante, op. t 

iiig the brief 
mil the break- 
I length dels^ 



mined tlie king lo send oat some person of 
oouseqaeoce anJ ability, lo invesligale the ulfairs 
of itie colony, nnJ, if necessary for its safety, to 
take upon bimMlf the commnnd. This important 
BUd oriticat metv^ure it tippears had been ilcciiicHl 
upon, tuul the p<ip«ra and powers ai;tually drawn 
out, in the spring of 1499. It was not carried 
iiilQ ttflwt, however, until the following year. 
Various reasons have been iiBsigneii for this de- 
lay. I'he important services rendered by Co- 
lumbus iu the discovery of Paria and the Pearl 
latmids, may have had some effect on the royal 
miud. TliB necessity of fitting out an armament 
just at ibal DWmcnt, lo cooperate witb tlie Ve- 
netians against the Turks : the menacing move- 
ments of the new King of France, Louis XII. ; 
the rebelliuR of ilie Moors of iLe Alpuxarra 
mountains in the lately conquered kingdom of 
Granada ; all these have been alleged as reasons 
for jiostponing a measure which called for much 
Dousideratiun, nnd might have impurlunt effects 
upon the newly-discovered possessions.' The 
most probable reason, however, was the strong 
disinclination of Isabella to take so Imrsh a step 
against a man tor wliom she enteri dined such ai^ 
dent gratitude and high admiral ion. 

At length the arrival of the ships with the 
lalD followers of Koldan, according to their cn- 
pilulttiion, brought rontters to a crisi". It is true, 
that Bnllesler and Bnrrantes came in these ships, 
to place tile nfiiiirs of the island in a proper light; 
but they brought out a host of witnesses in favor 
I Moooi, Uiti. N. Mundo, put uDpabllihcd. 



' of Rolilan, and letters written by himself huiI lii^ 
coufetlerates, dttrlbutlng all their late conduct to 
the tyraiiiij of Colurabua and his brothers. Uri- 
ibrtuoiitelj, the testimony of the rebeb had the 
greatest weight with Ferdinand ; and there was 
a cireumstance in the case which suspended for a 
lime the friendship of Isabella, hitherto the 
greatest dependence of Columbus. 

Having a maternal interest in the welfare of 
the natives, the queeci had been repeatedly of- 
fended by what appeared to lier pertinacity oh 
the part of Columbus, in continuing to make 
slaves of those taken in warfare, in contradiction 
to her known wishes. The same ships which 
brought home the compalJi^^^l of Roldau, brought 
likewise a great number of bUvcb. Some, Co- 
lumbus had been obliged to grant to these men 
by the articles of capitulalinn ; others they had 
brought away clandestinely. Among them were 
several daughters of caciques, seduced away from 
their families and their native island by these 
profli^tes. Some of these were in a state of 
pregnancy, others had new-born infants. The 
gifts and transfers of these unhappy beings weru 
all ascribed to the will of Columbus, and repre- 
sented to Isabella in the darkest colors. Her seu- 
siibility as a woman, and Iter dignity as a queen, 
were instantly iu arms. " What [>ower," exclaimed 
Bhe indignantly, " has the admiral to give away 
my vassals ? " ' Determined, by one decided and 
peremptory act, to show her abhorrence of these 
outrages upon humanity, she ordered all the 



bShm Ik W icatand ta dwir countiy and 
imtkk 'Smf aon, her mMsnre was rt^lro$pec- 
n. Sh« oaaHMaded that thoae rormerly seui 
I Sfiii br tfae adHonl, abooU be sought out. 
HiHwninl*. Dnfortuimiel^ tor 
( tcfj jaucture, in one of bis 
letters Iw adwed iIk condnuance of Indiiui ala- 
viN-T Sjc sane lias kMger. as ■ aieasnre iroporUnt 
far tfcft toUm* «f iIm eatooj. Thu coatributeJ 
to hMgl«M Aa iMiigDMUoa of lMbt;lln, and io- 
e the seodiitg out of 
) hb conduct, tiud, if 

FrriiiMmil «■> axeeedin^y<I iu 
lyyomiwig ttw oaaimMROu, betireea his kosc of 
triJMt WM 4lW 10 tha duUBeter and senricev of 
Cohunbafi. aad kb Mmei; lo retract with deli- 
cacj ibe powers vested io him. A pretext at 
iM^lb was funusited by the recent request of the 
wtininU that a peraon of taltmla and probity, 
Ictinicit in iIm taw, niigbt be sent out lo act »s 
chief judge ; tuid that bd impartial umpire might 
be sppuiiiied, to decide in the attitir between him- 
^■If wkI RoMao. Fetdinnnd proposed to uoiuult 
\aa wisli^ but to unite tboee two officers in one ; 
mud as ibe penon be appointed would have to de- 
cide in ttuitters touching ibe highest iuDctioDa of 
Ibe adroiml and his bnithers, he was empowered, 
should he find them culpable, lo superKde thuiii 
in the gaveruineni ; a singular mode of injuring 

The person chosen for this momentons and 
dfiUcate office wn^ Don Francisco de Bobadilla, 




officer of the rayeX household, aad e. lurn- 
maniler of the military atid religious orilev of 
CtilatraTfw Oviedo pronounces him n very 
bonesi and religious man ; ' but he b represeiiTed 
by others, and his actions corroborate the descti])- 
tioD, as needy, passionnte, and ambitious ; three 
powerfid objections to his exercising the rights 
of judtcidure in a cane requiring the utmost 
patience, caador, and circumspection, and wlierc 
the judgii was to derive wealth and power from 
the conviction of one of the parties. 

The authority vested in Bobodilla is defined 
in letters from the sovereigns still extant, and 
which deserve to be noticed chivnologically i for 
the royal intentions appear to have varied with 
times and circumslunues. The first was dated on 
the 21st of Mnrcli. 14!>d, and mentions the com- 
plaint of the admiral, that an alcaide, and certain 
other persons, liad risen in rebellion against him. 
" Wherefore," adds the letter, " we order you to 
inform yourself of the truth of the foregoing; 
who and what persons they were 
j^lrho roee against the said admiral and our ma^s- 
', and for what cause ; and what robberies 
other injuries ihey have committed ; and 

thermore, to extend your inquiries to all other 
matters relating to the premises ; and the infor- 
mation obtained, and the truth knourn, whomw- 
ever you find culpable, arrett their pertoHi, and 
iequalrate their effeclf ; and thus taken, proceed 
against them and ilie absent, both civilly and 
cnminally, and impose and inflict such lines and 



pUDishmenla as vou mnj think fit" To chitj 
this into effect, Bobndilln was authorized, in ctuv! 
ofDecessiiy, lo cull in the nsaistance oflhe ndmim], 
and of all oilier penions in anthority. 

The powers here given are manifestly directed 
merely ngninsi tJie rebels, and in coiiseqnence of 
ihe complaints of Columbus. Another letter, 
(lulcd on the 2Ut of Mny, two mouths snbse- 
<liieutly, is of quite different purport. It makea 
no menlion of Columbus, but is addressed lo the 
Vftrions functionaries and men of property of the 
islands and Terra Firma, informing them of the 
np)Kiintment of Bobodilla to Ihe governmenl. with 
full dvil and criminal jurisdiction. Among the 
powers specified, is the following: — "It is our 
will, thai if ihe said commander, Francisco de 
Bobadilla, should think it necessary for our ser- 
vice, and ihe purposes of justice, that any cava- 
liers, or other persons who are at present in 
tJiose islands, or may arrive there, should leave 
them, and not return and reside in them, and 
that ihey should come aud present themselves 
before us, he may command it in oiir name, mid 
oblige them to deparl; and whomsoever he thus 
commands, we hereby order, that iinmedintely, 
without waiting to inquire or consult us, or lo 
receive from us any other letter or command, and 
wilhout interposing appeal or supplication, they 
obey whatever he shall say and order, under the 
penalties which he shall impose or our part," 

Another letter, dated likewise on llie 21si of 
Hay, in which Columbus is styled simply 


" admirnl of liie ocean sea," orders tim and liia 
brothers to surrender llie fortresses, sliips, Louses, 
arms, HinmuDilioii, cat lie, uni all other royal 
properly, into the hands of Bobadilla, as gov- 
ernor, under perialtj of incurring ihe punish- 
ments to which thoae subject themselves who 
refuse lo surrender fortresses and otlier trusts, 
irlien commanded by tlieir sovereigns. 

A fourth letter, dated on the 26lh of May, and 
addressed to Columbus, simply by the title of 
admiral, is a mere letter of credence, ordering 
him to give faiili and obedience to whatever Bo- 
badilla ahould impart. 

The second and third of these letters, were 
evidently provisional, and only to be produced, if, 
on examination, there should appear ^uch delin- 
quency on the part of Columbus and his brothers 
as to warrant their being divested of commaud. 

This heavy blow, as has been shown, remained 
8u^)ended for a year : yet, that it was whispered 
about, and triumphantly anticipated by Iho 
enemies of Columbus, is evident from the asser- 
tions of Ojeda, who sailed from Spain about the 
time of the signature of those letters, and had in- 
timate communicBlioBH with Bishop Fonseca, who 
was considered instrumental in proiluciiig this 
ry license granted by the 
bishop to OjtdH, to sail on a voyage of discovery 
iu contravention of the prerogatives of the 
admiral, has the air of lieing given on a presump- 
tion of his speedy downfall ; and the same pre- 
sumption, as has already been observed, must 
have encounigcd Ojeda in his turbulent oooduct 
ftt Xaragoa. 


Al length the long-projecled measure wn? 
oarrieil into etToct. BobtuliUa Bet sail for Son 
Domingo ttbi)iit ihe inidille of July, loOO, with 
two carHvels, in wliicb wore Iwenty-five men, en- 
Ibted lor a year, to serve as a kind of gustd. 
There were six fritkn likewiae, wbo htul charge 
of H nura(>er of ludiuns sent back to their couucry. 
Besides the letters paleot, Bobatlilla was aulhor- 
i«ed. by wyal onier, to aaoerlain and discharge 
all arrears of pay due to persons in the service 
of [be crowu i aud to oblige the admiral to pay 
what was due on bla part, ~so that tliose people 
might receive what was owing to them, and there 
might be uo ntore cumpliuats." In addition to 
all lltew powers, Bobadilla was fumbhed witli 
many blank letters signed by the sovereigns, to 
be tilled up by him in such manner, and ilirecied 
to such peraoiis, as be might think ndviaabte in 
relation to tlie misaion with which be waa iu- 

' H«mra, docacl. i. lib. iy. op. 7. 




JjjOLUMBUS was stiU at Fort Concep- 
I, regulating the siTairs ol' tlie Vega, 

I iiiler llie cataatropbe of the sedition of 

Moxica ; tih brother, tbe Adelantiido. iiccompii- 
nied by Roldan, was pnreuiug and arreBting the 
fugitive reUils in Xaragua ; and Don Diego Co- 
lumbus remained in temporary command at San 
Domingo. Faction had woru itstlf out ; tbe io- 
surgeuls bad brought down ruiu upon themselves ; 
and the ialaud appeared delivered from the do- 
mination of violent and lawless men. 

Such waa the state of public affaii's, when, on 
the morning of the 23d of August, two camvels 
were Jeseried off the harbor of San Domitigo, 
about a It^giie at B<;a. They were standing off 
and ou, wailing until the sea breeze, which getmr- 
ally prevails about ten o'clock, should carry them 
into port. Don Diego Columbus supposed them 
to be ships sent from Spain with supplies, and 
hoped to find on board his nephew Diego, whom 
had requested might be eent out to 


n his Tfirioas concerns. A omoe was 
iminntintplj dispaldied lo obtain infornmtion ; 
wliich nppnutching the caravels, inqnired what 
I ihpy broiighi, and whether Diego, the son 
of <bc iiilmind, nriu^ on board. BobadilU himself 
replied from the principnl veseel, nnnnuncjng him- 
fwlf as ■ raininissioner sent out to iuvesiigate the 
late rebellion. The master of the caravel then 
iiiqiiired nbout the news of the islaud, and vas 
infiinned of the i«eent tnuisactions. Seven of 
thv rebels he was told, had heeti hanged that 
wwk. and five more were in the fortress of San 
Domingo, condemned to sufler the «anie fate. 
Among these were Pedro Reqiiclme and Fer- 
nando de Gnevara, the young cavalier whose 
pusion for the daughter of Anacnona had been 
the original cause of the rebellion. Forllier 
n pa»«d, in tlie course of which Bob- 
ad'IU ascertained that the rtdmiral and the Ade- 
laiiiado were absent, and Don Diego Columbus in 

When the canoe returned to tlie city, with tie 
mmissioner had arrived to make 
intjuiaition into the late troubles, there was a 
great stir and agitation throughout the commu- 
tiitjr. Knots of whisperers gathered at everj 
corner ; those who were consuious of malprnctices 
were filled with consternation ; while those who 
had grievances, real or imaginary, to complain of, 
oepecially those wha'io jwv was in arresr, ap- 
peared with joyful c 

cap. 169. Uemra, Hitt. Ind. 


13 Ihe vessels entered the river, Bobadilla be- 
Plteld on either bank n gibbet with llie bod^ at u 
"Spsniani hnuging on it, Rpparently but lately ex- 
^' (touted. He considered these as conclusive proofs 
the alleged cruelty of Columbus. Many 
boalB came off to the ship, every one being anx- 
ious to pay early court to ibis public censor. 
Bobadilla remained on board all day, in ihe 
course of which he collected much of the rumors 
of the place ; and as those who sought to secure 
his favor, were those who had most to fear from 
bis iuves ligations, it is evident that the nature of 
the rumors must generally have beeu unfavorable 
to Columbus. In fact, before Bobadilla landed, 
if not before he arrived, the culpability of the 
■dmiral was decided in his mind. 

The next morning he landed with all his fol- 
lowers, and went to the church lo attend nwBS, 
where he found Don Diego Colucnbus, [iudrigo 
Perez, the lieutenant of the admiral, and other 
parsons of note. Mass being ended, and those 
persons, with a multitude of the populace, being 
assembled at the door of the church, Bobadilla 
ordered bis letters patent to be read, authorizing 
him to inve!>tigate Ihe rebellion, seize the pereous, 
and sequestrate the property of delinquents, and 
r jiroceed against them with the utmost rigor of 
F%e law ; commanding bIao the admiral, and all 
Others in autijorily, lo assist him in the discharge 
of his duties. The letter being read, he demanded 
of Don Diego and the alcaldes, to surrender him 
the persons of Fernando Guevara, Pedro Re- 
qaelme, and the oilier prisoner?, with the depo- 


ritioBs lak«a cuacerning ihem ; and ordered that 
tbe parlies by whom they were Kccosed, aiid thow 
by wbcMe iwmnuuid Lbey had been taken, should 
Appear before Iiim. 

Dou Die^ re)>lied, that the proceedings had 
I fcuin the orders of the admiral, who 
beld superior powers to any Bobaililla could poo- 
wes, and without whoee authority he could do 
He requested, at the iiame liine, a copy 
of the letter patent, that he might send it to big 
brother, to whom alone tJie matter appertained. 
This Bobndillii refused, observing that if Dou 
016^*0 bad (lower U> do nothiug, it was useless to 
give him a copy. lie added, that since the office 
and authority he had proclaimed appeared to have 
no weight, he would try what power ami coose- 
queiiee there was in the name of governor: and 
would abuw them that be bad command, tiot 
Dwrely over them, but over the admiral himself 

Tbe little wmmiuiity remained in breathless 
suspeuMi, awaiting (be portenlooa oMveaients of 
Bobadilla. Tbe next morotng be appeared at 
I, twutved un aasuming those powers whieli 
9 Oldy to have been prnluccd itlier full inTe»- 
lI ample pruuf of the midcaaduct of 
Wheu nittss was over, and the <:^cr 
ad gathered round the door of tbe 
t, BobadiUa, in premnce of Don Diego ami 
Kwlr^ Pwv». •x^rvl his other ruyal pateot to 
Im iwtdi tuve«ttiig biiu with the goverDmeot of 
the ishuid^ and of Terra Firma. 

Tbe paiuiit buiiig reud. BobMltlla took the CD»- 
taamey uutlt, aud tbeu <tlatiited the obedieace of 


Dun Diego, Rodrigo Perez, and nil present, to 
(hia royal iuainimeiil ; on tlie authority of which 
Le agaiii dcmHuded Ilie prisoiiers coiiliiied in tht; 
fortress. In reply, ihey professed itie utmosi 
deference lo ihe letter of the sovereigns but 
nguD obeerved tjiat lliey held the priitoners in 
obedience lo the admiral, to whom the sorereigtu 
had granie'l lellere of a higher nature. 

The ^elf-iinpurtauee of Bolmdilln was inoenied 
at this noueonipliauce, especially as be saw it liad 
Kome effect upon the populnce, who appeared to 
doubt his authority- He now produced (he third 
nuuidate of tlie ltowh, ordering ColiimbiiB and 
his brothers lodellTer up all forIre:»»e!i. ^hip«, and 
other royal property. To win the public coin- 
pleiety lo hi? side, he read ahw tht iidditiDrial 
mandatt issued on the 30th of &Iay, of iJie same 
year, ordering him to pay the nvrtam of wa<^ 
due to ilII prrMias in the royal 6ervi(.-c. and to 
compel tLe admiral to pay ibe arrears vf liiOM to 
whom he was accounLuble. 

This last document was received with ■houta 
by the mnltiinde, many having long arrears due to 
them in C0Di»equence of the poverty of tlie ireaa- 
nry. Flushed with his growing imporuuice, Bu- 
Imilillj ugKin dt-mauded iLe priiWDers ; threaten iiig, 
if reAised, to take ibem by force. Meetiu^ wiili 
llie saiae reply, he repaired to tLe ftHlreu (o ex- 
ecute Ills tlirciUa. This [xiM wiis coninuuidad by 
Uiguel DiHz. llie same Ainigouiau cavalier who 
bad ouoe taLeu refuge amoiig the Jtidiaus on tba 
ImnkB uf the Ozema. won tbe affectious ul' the 
e cadqoe CalaliDo, received from ber inlbr- 



auUioii of tbe neigfaboriiig gold mines, and induced 
his countrymen lo remove to those pnils- 

Wheu BotwdiUa caine before l)i<; fortress he 
fiiund the gntes ck«e<l. and the lUuayde, Miguel 
Ditu, upon tbe balllemeiits. He ordered his letters 
pnieiil [i> be read with a loud voice, the elgnatures 
and «eaU to be held up to viev, oud then de- 
manded the surrender of the prisoners. Diaz re- 
quested a copy of the letters ; but Ibis liobadilta 
refused, alleging that (here was no time for delay, 
the prisoners being under sentence of dea(h, and 
liable at any moment to be executed. He tlireal- 
ened at the same time, that if they were not given 
up, be woulil proceed lo extremities, and Diaz 
should be answerable for che oonsequenfes. Tlit* 
nary alcayde agwD required time to reply, and a 
copy of llie letters ; saying that he held tlie Ibrtress 
for tbe king, by the cummand of the admiral his 
lord, who had gained Ihe^e territories ar>d islands, 
and that when the latter arrived, he should obey 
his orders,' 

The whole spirit of Bobadilla was roused within 
him at the refusal of the alcayde. Assembling 
all the people he had brought Crutn Spain, tog(;lher 
with the sailors of the shipa, and the rabble of tlie 
place, he exhorted them lo aid htm in getting poa- 
sessioaof tbe prisoners, but to harm no one unless 
in case of resistance. The mob shouted assent, for 
Bobadilla was already the idol of the multitude. 
About the hour of vespers, be 6et out at the head 
of his motley army, to scurm a fortress destitute 
of a garrison, and formidable only in name, being 
1 Laa Cuu, Hut. Ind., Ub. L c^i. ITS, 


calcalaled 1o wilhsland only a naked iiiiil sligbtly- 
arnted people. The accouuts uC this trausactioQ 
have Mimethiiig in Iheni bordering on Ihe ludi' 
crous, and give it ihe air of absurd rhodotnonlade. 
Bobadilla n^salled the portal with great impelu- 
oiitj, the frail bulls and locks of nliich gavts wuy 
aX the first shock, and allowed him easy admissiou. 
In the mean time, however, his zealous myrmidons 
affiled ladders lo the walls, as if aboat to carry 
the place by assault, and lo experience a desperaie 
defeuse. The alcayde, Miguel Diaz, and Don 
Diego de Alvantdo, aloue apjieared on llie batile- 
meDl^ ; they had drawn swords, but offered no re- 
si»Ia4ioe. BobadUla entered the fortress in triumph, 
and without molestation. The prisoners were 
(bund in a chamber in irons. He ordered thai 
tbcy should be brought up to him to the top of 
llie forlres*, where, baring put a lew qoe^tions lo 
liiem, as a matter of form, he gave them in charge 
to an alguazil named Juan de Espiuosa.^ 

Such wa? the arrogant and precipitate entrance 
into office of Frsudeoo de Bobadilla. He liad 
nsvened the order of his written iuetructioiui ; 
iwviag seiied upon (he gOTemtneuI before be had 
iuvmitigated the cuuduci of Columbus. He con- 
liuned his career iu the issuie spirit ; acting ar if 
the OM: had U^u prejudgt^j in Spain, axid he bad 
beea aeut out merely to degrade the admiral Irom 
bis eii^>k>yiDeuiE, not to ascertaiu the nuuiucr in 
vliicfa he Imd fuJBlled ibeiu. He tM>t up Ilia ret- 
ideaoc In the house of C'<oIumLu&, seixed iipuu 
his arms gold, {ilale. jewels, horsey togetlier wilfa 
> tMt Cum, ulii nip. tienmi, i^ 1141. 

J HEN the tidings reached Columbus Bt 
Fort Concept ion of the high -handed 
proceedings of Bobadilla, he considered 
them ihe unanthorized acts of eome rash adveutu- 
rer, like Ojeda. Since government had apparently 
thrown open the door to private enterprise, he 
might expect to have his path conlinunDy crossed 
and his jurisdiction infringed by bold intermed- 
dlere, feigning or fancying themselves aulhoriied 
to interfere in the affairs of the colony. Since 
the departure of Qjeda another squadron had 
touched upon the coast, and produced a transient 
alarm, being an expedition under one of the Fin- 
iwns, licensed by the sovereigns to make dis- 
coveries. There had also been a rumor of another 
squadron hovering about the island, which proved^ 
however, to be unfounded.' 

The conduct of Bobadilla bore all the ap[)ear- 
inoe of a lawless usurpation of some iniruder of 
mAe kind. Me had possessed himself forcibly of 
I Letter of Coluinbiu to Ihe Uuiu of Friaee Juan. 



ihe fbrlits*. mid consequently of the town. He 
luhd bsiieit bxiniTn^ant licenses, injurious to the 
gOTernmeat, aixl apimrcully iDlendeil only to make 
pftrlisnns nmong the people ; ant] Iiod Ihrcrtlenul 
10 llirow Uuluuibua himself in irons. Thut lliis 
mnu could really be Banctionetl by governraeni, 
ill suclt inlemperate measures, wns repugnant lo 
belief. The admiral's consciousness of liis own 
services, ibc rcpeHtetl itssunincee he Imd received 
of high consideration on the pnrt of the sovereigna, 
aud the perpetual prerogatives granted to him 
under their hnod and seal, with nil the aolemnily 
that » conipHCt could possess, all forbade him lo 
cousider tim imnsHctioiis at San Domingo other- 
wise than as ouimgea on his authority by some 
dnniig ftiid misguided iadividual. 

To be nearer to Shu Domingo, aud obtitia 
more con-eel iuroriwalion, he proceeded to Bonao, 
which WU3 noiv beginning to Hsaume the appenr- 
aiicti of a settlement, several Spaniards having 
erected honsos tbure, and cultivaied the ndjiicenl 
country. He hati scarcely roHched the place, 
when an slcnlde, bearing a siafi' of otfice, arrived 
there from Sau Domingo, procluiming the ap- 
poinlmonl of BobudiHo to the government, atid 
bearing copies of his letters patent. There waa 
uo espeoiul letter or message sent to the admiral, 
nor were any of the common forms of courtesy 
and ceremony observed in superseding him in 
the command ; all the proceedings of BobadiUa 
towards bim were abrupt aud iusultiug. 

Columbus was excecdiugly embarrnased hoiv to 
act. It waa evident that Bobadilla was intrusted 


with eiteDsive powers bjr tlie sovereigns, but that 
11167 could b&ve exercised such n sudden, UDioer- 
ited and apparently capricious act of severily, as 
that of directing him of all his (»nimands, be 
coutd not believe. He endeavoi^d to penoade 
himself that Bobadilla was some person ^ut out 
In exercise llie functions of chief judge, according 
to liie request he had written home lo llie sov- 
ereigns, and that they had intrusted him likewise 
with prarisional powers to make an inquest into 
the late troubles of ibe island. All beyond the»e 
powers he tried to believe were mere u^umplions 
uid exaggeration of authority, as in the case of 
Agnado. At all events, he was deiemiined lo 
act upon BDch presumptious, and lo endeaf'or to 
gniu time. If ibe mouurchs had reallj' taken any 
harsh measures with respect lo him. it must have 
been in consequence of misrepreseutntioiis. The 
least delay might give them an opportunity of 
■soertiuuiDg their error, and making the necessary 

He wrote to Bobadilla, therefore, in guarded 
tenns, welcoming bim to the island ; cautioning 
him against precipitate measures, espedaily in 
granting licenses to collect gold ; informing him 
that be was on (he point of goirig lo Spain, and 
ia a Utile time would leave bim in cummaiid, 
irith everything fully and clearly explained. 
He wrote at the asioe lime, to the like purport. 
to certain monks who had come oni with Boba- 
dilla, though he observes that the^ letters were 
ooiy written lo gain time.' He received no re- 

1 Letter of Oaumbiu Ig the Xuik of Priaw Jiua- 



plies : but while &q insulUng silence was ob- 
served toward him, Bobadilia 6Iled up several oT 
the blunk lotrers of which ho had a number 
■igiied by the sovereigns, and sent them to Rol- 
dau, aiid olber of the uduiinir^ enemieii, the rerj 
mull ivlioni he hod beeu sent out to judge. These 
lellera were full of civilities mid promises of f>- 

To prevent anj mischief which might arise 
from the liceosea sud iudulgeaces so prodigalljr 
gninied hy Bobadilia. Columbus published by 
word oiul li'licr. that the powers assumed by hira 
eutild uut be valid, nor his licenses availing, as he 
biuiself held superior powers granted to him ia 
perpetuity by the crown, which could no more 
be superaedcil in this instance, than they had 
been in that of Aguudo. 

Fur come lime Columbus remained in ibis anx- 
ious and perplexed state of mind, uncertain what 
line of conduct lo pursue in so singular nnj un- 
looked-for n conjuncture. Francisco Velasqnei, 
deputy treasurer, and Juan de Tnisierra, a Fran- 
ciscan friar, arrived nt Bonuo, and delivered to 
liiiu the royiil letter u( credence, signed by the 
sovereigns on ilie SSlh of May, 14011, command- 
ing hiiii to give implicit failb and obedience to 
Bobadilia; and Ihey delivered, at the same lime 
H BUininons from llie latter to appear immediately 
before him. 

Tliis laconic letter from the sovereigns struck 

At once at the root of all dignity and power- He 

no longer made hesitation or demur, but comply- 

l Idem. Ilemnt, di-cad. i, lib, iv. 


ing with the peremptory iiiiininans of BobAdilhi, 
departed Almost alone niid uiiul tended, tor San 



J UK tjdinga tlmt a new governor hod ar- 
rived, ivitd lltut Columbus was iti dis- 
fintw!. uiiJ lu btt sent home in cliniDS. 
oircuUlwl rapidly tlirougli tbe Vega, uiiil Elie col- 
onials luuietied fl'om fdt parts to Snii Damingo to 
malte imercst will) Itobttdilla. Ii was sooti per- 
oeivfid that there whs no surer nay Ihau that of 
viliryiiig hia prudeouiiaor. Bobadillii felt that he 
had taken n rash step in seizing upon the govem- 
incul, and that his own safely required lite oon- 
viotion of Columbus. He listened eagerly, tbere- 
(oTv, to all accuMititiiis, public or private ; and 
wolcomu was liu who could bring any charge, 
however extravagant, against the admiral and hia 

Htiariiig tliat the admiral was on bis way to 
the ciiy. be made a biisile of preparation, and 
armed ibo troops, afrt<cling to believe a rumor, 
that Colurnhua had culled upon the eaciquea of 
tbe Vega to aid bim with thuir subjects i 

tu lliG cotnmauds of 




grounds appcftr for this absunl report, which was 
probably iuvenled to give a coloring of precaution 
to Eub)>cquent measures of Tiolence and JneulL 
The Bdmtnil's broiher, Don Kego, was seized, 
throim in irons, and confined on board of s car- 
nrcl, without any reason being assigned for bis 

In Ibe mean lime Colnmbos pursued bis jour- 
ney to San Domingo, travelling in a lonely 
■muiner, wiiLoal guards, or retinue. Uost of bis 
people weK (rilh the Adelautndo. and he bad 
dtdiiied bdng attended by the remainder. He 
bad lienrd of the rumor? of the hosiile inientioos 
of Bobadilla ; and atlbougb be knew that Tiolenoe 
was tbrealeued to his person, he came in Ibis un- 
preieuding manner, to manifest his padiic feel- 
ings, and lo remove aU suspiciou.' 

Ko sooner did BobadiUa be«r of his arriral, 
than he gare otdere to put him in irons, and con- 
fine turn in the fortress. TliJs outrage lo a 
person of such dignified and venerable appear- 
ance, and such eminent merit, M;emed, for the 
time^ to shock even bis enemies. When ibe 
irons were brought, every one present shrank 
from the task of putting them on him, eiilier 
from a sentiment of oompossion at so prent a 
reverse of fortune, or out of habitua] reverence 
for bis person. To fill the measure of ingraii- 
inde meted out to him, it was one of his own 
domestics, " n graceless and shameless eook," says 
Las Casas, *■ who, wilb unwashed front, riveted 
Ibe fetterr- with n-i much readiness and alacrity, 

I Lh Cu*!, Hbl. Ind., lib. i. op. ISO. 



M ihougli he were Krring him with choice *nd 
Viyary viun<l«. I knew tlie fellow," odds Ibe 
Tcnenibli! liiBiurinu, "koiI I Ihiak Lis name w«s 
RipIiioBa." ' 

Columbus conducted himself with character- 
istic tnngiinnimity luuler the injuries heaped upon 
him. There ia a noble scoru which swells luid 
supports (he heart, and silences the tongue of the 
truly great, when enduring the insults of the un- 
worthy. Columbus could not stoop to depi-ecate 
the arrognnce of a weak and violent man like 
Bobaililln. He looked beyond this sballow agent, 
anil aJl his petty tyranny, to the sovereigns who 
had employed him. Their injustice or ingrati- 
tude alone could wound his spirit ; and be felt 
essared tlint when the truth came to he known, 
they would blush to llnd how greatly they had 
wronged hira. With this proud assurance, he 
borti nil present indignities in silence. 

Bobndillti, although he hod the admiral and 
Don Dit-go in his power, and had secured the 
venal populace, felt anxious and ill at case. The 
Adelnntado, with an armed force under his com- 
mand, was still in the distant province of Xam- 
gua, in pursuit of the rebels. Knowing his sol- 
die r-like and determined spirit, lie feared he 
might take some violent measure when he should 
hear of the ignominious treatment and imprison- 
ment of his brothers. He duuhtecl whether any 
order from himself would have any effect, except 
to exosporale the stern Don Bartholomew. He 
•ont a demand, therefore, to Columbus, to write 
1 Idem, lib. i, up. ISO. 

cfmrsTOPBKS colcmbcs. 


to his brother, requesting him to rppiur puiminhly 
to Sbd Domiiigu, and forbidding him to (ixtviito 
the persons he held in confioemonl : Cuhimbiia 
readily eomplted. He exhorted \m brother to 
submit quietly to tlie authority of hia BiivoruiKiii>i 
and to endure all present wrongs and itiiligiiiticii, 
under the confidence thiit when ihoy nrrivud M 
Castile, everything would be explained wid ru- 

On receiving tiiis letter, Don Dflrlholoriiow 
immediately complied. Retinquiahing hin nam- 
mand, he hastened pencefuily t<j Snii Domingo, 
and on arriving experienced the name trentmont 
with his brothers, being put in irons, and enn- 
fined on board of a caravel. ITiuy wore kepi 
separate from eaeh other, and no ooinmunicaiioi) 
permitted between them. Itobadilln did not ■^• 
them himself, nor did be allow (ilhrm to *i«it 
them ; but kept them in igiionuioe of tliu luiiM 
of their impnaonmeol, the Crimea with wliicii 

bcaKDt tr Spua. TUt Mat fc— ■>—■■» rf lt> awwai. 





they were charged, and the process that was 
going on agniosC tbcin.^ 

It has been questioned whether liobadilla 
really had aulbority for the arrest and imprboD' 
the admiral and lib brothers ; ^ ami 
whether such violence and iodigoity was in auy 
ease conlemplated by the sovereigbs. He may 
hare fancied himself empowered by llie clause io 
the letter of instructions, dated March 2lgl, 1499, 
in which, apeaking of llie rebellion of Roldau, 
" he is authorized to seize i/ie pereou, and iequtt- 
irale the prt^erty of those who appeared lo be 
culpable, aod then to proceed against tbein and 
against the absent, with the highest civil and 
criminal penalties." Tbis evidently had refer- 
ence to the persons of Roldau and his followers, 
1 then in arms, and against whom Co- 
lumbus had sent home complaints ; and this, by a 

1 CbBrl«voii, in hia Hisloiy of San Domingo (lib. tii. p. 
199). BtBtes that the suit tgainBl Columbus wu conaucled ia 
■writing; that wriltea chsrgei were eeni Io faiin, to which be 

of La<< Cnsnt, Heirera, and Femuido Colamlnu. Tlie ■dminl 
hiiDteir, in hii letter to the Nurxe of Prince Juan, after relUinK 
Ihe niuiner in which he uid bi« brolher hsd been throwD into 
itans, and couSoed eepsralelv, witbout beinn visiied hy Bo- 
bidilla, or pmnitled to >ee any other peraonv, expncily 

Bobndilla i 
wrested idU) sd nutbority for eetzing the persou 
of the Biliairal himself. In fact, in the whole 
course of his proceedings, he referred and con- 
fonndtd the order of bis ins I tactions. Hia first 
step should have been to proceed ngainst the 
rebck ; this he made the last. His last step 
should bave been, in case of ample evidence 
agaioBt the iidmlral, to have superseded him in 
office ; and this be made tbe fli-st, without wait- 
ing lor evidence. Having predetermined, Irom 
the very outset, that Columbus was in the 
wrong, by the same rule he had to presume that 
all the opi>osite panics were in the right. It 
became indispensable to bis own justification to 
inculpate the admiral and his brothers ; and tbe 
rebeb be had been sent to judge became, by this 
singular perversion of rule, necessary and cher- 
bheO evidences to criminate those against whom 
they had rebelled. 

The inieutiona of the crown, however, are not 
to be vindicated at tbe expense of its miserable 
agent If proper respect had been felt for the 
rtghta and dignities of Columbus. Bobadilla 
would never have been intrusted with powers so 
ejtieusive, undefined, and discretionary ; nor 
woulil be buve dared to proceed to such lengtlis, 
with such rudeness and precipitation, had he not 
&lt assured that it would not be displeasing to 
(lie jenlous-mitided Ferdinand. 

Tbe old scenes of the time of Aguado were 
DOW rciieweil with tenfold virulence, and the old 
cbargea revived, with others still more extravagant. 


Vnm ifce earir latA ■nci»to4e-4orgDt[«n outrage 
■poa CMtiiian pcide, of anqieUnig iMial^as, in 
liow of ttuer^tuej, to kbor in the oonstroctioe of 
wotka neocMBf; to the paUic MTetr. down lo the 
neent A»rge of levjiag war ftgainsl the gorem- 
ment, tfacre wm m( k b«rd»hip. abiee. nor ««ditioD 
!■ the ialuid, thai WM not impnted to ibe misdeeds 
ef Orfmibas and hk lvotb«re. Besides (he nsaa] 
■OCUSatioM of iwflieling uppre^ve In.l)or. nimeces- 
nij iBiks, painful restiictioaa, short allon-anctis 
of food, and cruel poiudiDenls upon the .Span- 
iards, and waging anjnst wsr« i^aiiisi ihe Datives, 
thej were now dnrged with prerentiog the con- 
Teraion of the latter, that (hej might aeod them 
staves to Spain, and pro6t hj (heir sale. This 
taat charge, so contrary to the pious feelings of 
the admir*!, was founded on his having objected 
to the bapliam of certaja Indians of mature agCj 
ontil the/ could be instructed in the doctrines of 
Christianity ; justly considering it ui abose of that 
holy sacrament to ndminisler it thus blindly.' 

Columbus was cluirged, also, with baviag se- 
creted pearls, and other precious articles, collected 
in his voyage along tlie coast of Paris, and with 
keeping the sovereigns in ignonmce uf the n&tar« 
of his discoveries there, in order to exact new 
privileges from them : yet it was notorious that 
he had seat home specimens of the pearls, and 
journals and clmrls of his voyage, by tvhi<.-h others 
had been eunbled lo pursue his track. 

Even the laie tumults, now that the rebels were 
admitted as evidence, were all turned into mutters 
1 MiiiiDi, UiM. K. Unndo, part unpubliibed. 


or aecosBlion. They were repres«nle(l as spirited 
and lojal resistances to tyninny exercised upon 
ilie oolooists anil the natives. . Tlie well -merited 
punishmenis inflicted upon eertaiii of the ring- 
lesders, were clleil as prootV of a cruel and revenge- 
ful disposition, and a secret liatred of Spariiariis. 
Boba<]ij]g believed, or alTvcted to believe, all these 
cu^Tges. He had, iu a manner, made the rebels 
his Confederates in ibe ruiu of Coluiubus. It was 
'*'*»nQe a cominon cause with ihein. He eould uo 
•wg^r, therefore, conduct himself towards ihein 
"** juijpe. Guevara, Requelme, and their fellow- 
'*'**' icld, were discharged almost without the form 
"* * triul, und it is even said, were received iuto 
j"'**" and countenance. Roldan, from the very 
1"*^ liad been treated with confidence by Bo- 
*'Ia. and honored wilii liis correspondence. All 
'I'* *3lliers, wiiose conduct had rendered lliem 
* *^ [0 justice, received either a ppeciiil acquittal 
" * general pardon. It was enough to have been 
uppos^j ii, any way to Columbus, to obtain full 
jU"lin«ation i„ the eyes of Bobadilla. 

"he taller had now oollected a weight of tea- 
l"^>»j, and produced a crowd of witnesses siif- 
6ae<ji^ as he conceived, to insure the condemnation 
wUi«s prisoners, and his own continuance iu com- 
He determined, therefore, to send the 
d and his brothers home in chains, in the 
s ready for sea, transmitting at the same 
' e inquest taken iu their case, and writing 
nt« letter^ enfonsing tlie charges made agaitist 
B, aii4 advising that Columbus should on no 



DomiDaDd, wbidi 1m 

aoconnt be restored to the 
bad 90 Bbunefally nbosed- 

Snn Domiago now Bwarmed with i 
jiut delivered froni the dungeon and the gibbet. 
It wu a perfect jnbilee of triamphant viUaiaj 
and dittlHrd m&lice. Eveiy base spirit whieh bad 
been awed into obeequiouaneSB by Columbna and 
his brothere when in power, now sinned np to 
revenge itself npon tliem when in chains. The 
iDOat injuriuus elatidera were loudly proclaimed in 
the eIreeiH; insDlling pasquinades and inflani' 
mnlor}' libels were posted up at every comer ; and 
horns were blown in the neighborhood of their 
prisons, to taunt tliem witli the ezullings of the 
rabble.' When these rejoicinga of the enemy 
reached him in his dungeon, and Columbus re- 
flected ou the inconsidiTute violence already exhib- 
ited by BubadillEL, he knew not how far his raah* 
nefls and confidence might carry him, and began 
to entertain apprehensions for his life. 

The vessels being ready to make mil, Alonzo 
de Villejo wns appointed to take charge of the 
prisoners, and carry them to Spain. This officer 
hud been brought up by an uncle of Font>eca, was 
in llio employ of that bishop, and had come oot 
with Bobadillo. The latter instructed him, on ar- 
riving at Cadiz, to deliver his priwuers into the 
hands of Fonseca, or of his uncle, thinking there- 
by to give the malignant prelntc a triumphant 
gratification. Tbia circumstance gave weight with 
many to a report that fiobadilla was secretly iu- 
Itigated and encouraged in his violt^ut r 

' Hist. iv\ AlminiDte, cap. SH. 


4if T\iwmt'\ii, and was promised his prolecliou mid 
inflnenoe at court, in case of any com)>liiit>I:' of 
his rondurt.' 

Viltejo andertook the oSi<x assigned hJrn. but 
he diacbarged it in n more generous mnntitr thna 
was intended. " This Alotizo de ViUpjo," snys 
the worthy Las Casas, "■ was a liidnlgo of honor- 
able character, and my partii:ulnr friend." lie 
certainly showed himself superior lo ihe low 
malignity of his patrons. When he arrived with 
a guard to conduct the admiral Irom Ihe prison 
to the ship, he found him in chains in a state of 
dent despondency. So violently had he been 
treated, and so eav(^ were tiie passions let loose 
•gainst Lim, that he feared he should be siicrilicud 
without an opportunity of being heard, and his 
name go down sullied and dishonored to posterity. 
When be beheld the officer enter with the gniii'd, 
he thooght it was to conduct him lo the scnlfoli). 
" ViUejo," said he, mournfully, " whither are you 
taking me ? " " To the ship, your Excellency, to 
embark," replied the other. " To embark ! " re- 
peated the admiral, earnestly ; " Villejo ! do you 
speak the truth ? " "By the life of your Kx- 
cellenoy," replied Ihe honest officer, " it is true ! " 
With these nords the admiral was comforted, mid 
felt as one restored from death to life. Noiliiii(i 
can be more tondiing and expressive thiin this 
little collixiiiy, reeorded by the venerable Liis 
Caaas, who doubtless had it from the lipa of hia 
&ieud Villejo. 

Thu caravels set sail early in October, heuring 
1 Lu Cuu, Hlit. iDd. lili. i. utp. 181), M». 

304 UFK A 


off Colarabu? shackled like tlie vilest of culpriu, 
■midst (he scofflf nod shoDte of a miscrEaut rabble, 
who took A bmial jay in hettping inaulu on bh 
venerabli: litiid. uii>l ^nt curses after liim froin the 
shores of llie islaiiil he had ao receutlj adJiMl (o 
the civilized world. FortunBtety the voytige was 
favorable, atid of but moderate durutioti, aiid wu 
rendered leM dtMgreeable b; tite conduct of those 
to whom be whs given in cuviody. The worthy 
Viilejo, though in the sen-ice of Fonseca, fell 
deeply moved at the ireatineDt of Columbus. The 
master of the uirttvel, Andreas Mu'tiu, was equally 
grieved i thej both treated the admiral with pro- 
found respect and assiduous aiientiou. They 
would have taken off his irons, but to this be 
would not consent. "^ No," said he proudly, " their 
mnjesties commanded me by letter to subioit 14 
whatever Bohadilla should order in their naUM; 
by their authority he has put upon me tliese chains, 
I will wear tliem uutil they shall order thein to 
bo taken off, and I will preserve them aiierwards 
as relics and rnemorials of the reward of my 

" lie did BO," adds his son Femaudo i " I sa 
tliem always htmging in his cabinet, and he r 
quested tluit when he died they might be burii 
with him!"' 





HE Brrival of Columbus At Cadiz, a 
prisoner and in chains, piwinceJ almost 
iw i^rent a aenaation rs his triumphant 
return from his flrst Toynge. It whs one of those 
■Iriking iind obvious fiict», which speak to the 
feelings of the multitude, and preclude the neces- 
sity of reflection. No one stopped lo inquire 
into the case. It was sufficieiit to be told that 
Columbus WHS hronght home in irons from the 
world lie had discovered. There was a general 
burst of indi;;nHtion in Cadiz, and in the powerful 
and opulent Seville, which was echoed throughout 
all Spain. If the ruin of Columbus had been ihe 
inteutioii of his enemies, they had defeated their 
object by their own violence. One of those 
reactions look place, eo frequent in the public 
mind, when persecution is pushed to an unguarded 
leogib. Those of the populace who had recently 


iBi ^tiJFBfft^ m^nTV-^ Be had pennBa ft lui^ ibQW 
to De& Jan* 4e k Tonc^ the ■;* of Pk-MS 
Jbm^ a Ujr kt^ in fitTor wrdt Qneen T— »-n- 
TUi kner, «■ bb Brnnl u Chdk, Aiii!ibm 
Haiia, tbaopiuii «<' ibm eatmni, penaiued bw 
I* wad fif piisteij bj eipRn. It annvd, 
>, befara the pntood of Ike pnceedn^ 

llw lafCre^BS derived lUriat n 

tfM—ftwm of ibe kk^udaT lbe« 
had taflerad, writt^ with his i 
«h1 energy. To ipecifj the ( 
bat to recspitulale dminMUoces aitcady n 
Sume expre^ioos, however, whidi bmat fnm hiB 
in ihe wormlli of bis feelings, are worthy cf being 
noted. "The slanders of worthless fDen," says 
be, " have done me more injary thaa all niy ser. 
ficM have profited me." Speakiog of ibe mia- 
r ep r e g on tatiooe to which be was sobjccted, be ol^ 
1 Lu Cut*. BhI. led. IB). L cap. 1S2. 



: " Such is ihe evi! name whioh I Iirvd ac- 
qnired, that if 1 were to build hospUsls aixl 
churches, they would be called deos <jl' robbtird." 
After relatiug io indignant tertna the conduct of 
Bobadilla, ill seeking testimony respecting his n<t- 
ministration from (Uu verj men who had rebelled 
Hgaiost kim, and throwing himself nnil bis brothers 
in irons, without letting them know tho offences 
with which they were charged, " I have been 
much aggrieved," he adds," in that a person should 
be sent out lo investi^te tny conduct, who knew 
ihst if the evidence which he could send home 
hhould appear to be of a sei'ious nature, be would 
i government." He complains that 
u opinion of bis administration, al- 
lowances hud not been made for the extniordi- 
nory dilGculties witli which he had (o contend, 
and the wild stale of the country over which he 
3 mle. " I was judged," he observes, " as a 
r who had been sent to t^ke charge of ft 
well-regulated city, under the dominion of well- 
estuUished laws, where there was no danger of 
everything running to disorder and ruin ; but I 
ought to be judged as a captain, sent to subdue > 
nnmerous and hostile people, of munners and re- 
ligion oppoeite to ours, living not in regular towns, 
but ia foreets aod mountAJns- It ought ta bo 
coitudered that 1 have brought all these under 
nbjedion to their majesties, giving them duinit^ 
ion over anolher world, by which Spain, bereto- 
Cire poor, has suddenly beoome rich. Whatever 
ecrars I may hare fkllen into, they were not wilii 
' ; aod I believe their iuaje*tie» 


will oedh wbu I wj. I hare known tkoB to 
be merciTul \o tboao wbo baTC wQfuUj done libea 
diseerrice : I un amrinccd ibal tbe^ will han 
■lUl more indulgefMe for m^ who bare cmd in- 
Dootratlr, or by eompnlsioD, as they will beiCKBer 
be more full/ informed ; aad I (nst th^ wiD 
oMisider cBjr great serncea, the advaalages of 
which Are e^vrj daj more and mote appanart.' 

WliCD thii letter was read to ihe Doble-OiiDilod 
Isabella, sif] sbe found bow gnxsl/ Golambos had 
beea wniuged and ibe rojal autbonlj abused, ber 
heart was filled with tDiiigled sjrapaxhj and indig- 
D&lioii. The tidings were cooGrmed bj a letter 
&om Ihe alcaide or coire^Jor ot' Cadiz, into whoM 
hands Colaoibus and his brothen had beeo dclir- 
ered onlil the pleasure of the sovereigns sboold 
be kDown ; ' and hj anotber letter from Abmco de 
Tillrjo, expressed in terms accordaot with bis 
bummie and houarable conduct toward] bia illis- 
tious prisoner. 

Ilowerer Ferdinand might hare secretly feH 
disposed agaiost Columbus, the monieiitary tide of 
public fetling was not to be resisted. He joined 
with Ui3 generous qoeen in ber reprubatiun of 
tbtt treatment of the admiraL and both sorereigne 
hastened to give evidence to the world, that bn 
imprisontaent had been wilbont their antboritjr, 
aiid oonirary to their wbbes. Without waiting 
to receive any docuoieiits tbut might lurive from 
Bobmlilla. thev sent onlera to Cadiz that the 

ihould be i 

lolly e 

[ liberty, and 

treated with all distinction- They wrote a letter 


I Columbus, coiicbeii in terms of gratitude mid 
iffectioD, es|)ressir]g iheir grief At all iliiit he hnd 
8u£FereU, anU inviting liim to courL Tliey ordtreU, 
Bt ibc same time, timt two thousand ducats sliould 
be advanced to defray his expenses.' 

The loyal heart of Columbus was again cheered 
by this declaration of his sovereigns. He felt 
conscious of his iutegi'ity, and aiiticipaled an itn- 
inediate restitution of all his rights and dignities. 
He appeared at court in Granada on llie 17th of 
December, not as a man ruined and disgraced, but 
richly dressed, and attended by an honorable ret* 
iiiue. He was received by the sovereigns with 
unqualified favor and distinction. When the queen 
beheld this veuenible man approach, and thought 
on all he hud deserved and all he had sulTei'ed, 
she was moved to tears. Columbus had borne up 
firmly agniost the rude couflicts of thu world, — 
he hud endured with lo(Vy scum the injuries and 
insults of ignoble men ; but he possessed strong 
and quick seDsibility. When he found himself 
thus kindly received by his sovereigns, and beheld 
tears in tlie benign eyes of Isabella, his long-tuji- 
pressed feelings burst forth : he threw himself uu 
his kneea, and fur some lime could not uller n 
word for the violence of his tears and sobbings. 

Ferdiikand and Isabella raised hiui fruin tlie 
ground, and endeavored to encourage bim by (be 

lib. L cap. 183. Tiro tbOBand duuli, m Iwo 

forlr-ui doIUn, «)uiiil7Ut Is 

Bt« btmlRd Bul Uurtj-cigtat dullan <it Ikt 

BBran, lead. i. lib. rr. cap. lA- 



mott gncions exprnsBions. As soon as he regnined 
■rif-poweaiioo, he entered iuio aa eloquent umI 
Ugb-roinded vindicBiioa of lii« lovoltj, and tbe 
wa\ b« b)(d ever fvlt rbr tbe glury mid advBoUige 
of ibo >Spaiii»b crown, declaring that if M *»j 
time he bad erred, it had been through inexperi- 
ence in goTcmmcnt, and the estrBordlt>nr}r dif- 
Gcullics hy wliich he bad been eurrounded. 

Tiiure Dpcded no vindication on bis part. The 
inlem^icriiuce of his enemies bad been bis best 
Advocate. He mood in the presence of his mvis^ 
eigng a deeply-injured mnn, und it renuuned for 
lliem to vindicate themselves to the vporld from 
the charge of iiigrHiitude towni^ls tlieir most de- 
serving subject. Tbcy expressed tlicir indignation 
at tlie pruoeediiiga of Bolmdilla, which lliey Uis* 
avowed, as cuntmrj to their instruciions, ami de- 
chired tiiat he should be immediately dismtssod 
from liis command. 

lu I'nct, no public notice was taken of the 
otiHrgea >K-nI liomc by Bobadilln, nor of llie letter* 
written in support of thum. The sovereigns look 
every occasion to ireal Colnmbus with favor and 
dintinction, assuring liim that his grievances should 
bo rodrcBsed, his property restored, and lie rein- 
stated in all his privileges a.nd dignities. 

It wu on tbe latter point that Columbus was 
chiefly solicituus. mercenary considerations bad 
scarcely any weight in his micid. Glory had been 
tlic great object of bis ambition, and he felt that 
u long as he remained suspended from his em- 
plciymuuls. a tacit censure rested on bis name. 
He expLVIed, therefore, that the momeui tlie sover- 


t should be satisfied of the reeliliide of his 
^conduct, they would be eager Id make him amends ; 
that a realitulion of the viceroyalty would im- 
mediately take place, and he should return ia 
Iriumph to San Domingo. Here, however, he was 
doomed lo eipenenee a disappoiDlment which 
threw a gloom over the reiauiuder of hia days. 
To account for this flagrant want of justice and 
gratitude in the crown, it is expedient lo notice a 
variety of events which had mftlerially affected 
the interests of Columbus in the eyes of the 
oolitic Ferdiiiaad. 




^Sj^flHE ^neml license granled by the Spnn- 
RkSS ij'i sovereigns in 1435. to iiniJertake 

various expeditions by enterprising individufJs, 
chiefly persons who haJ Niilei] with Cdlumbns in 
hia firsl voyages. The government, iinnble to 
fit out many nrmtiinenls itself, wrs pleaded to 
have its territories thus extended, free of coel, 
and its Iren^ury nt tlie rame lime benefltei] by 
the share of the proceeds of these voyoges, re- 
served RS a kiod of duty to tlio crown. These 
expeditions had cliiefly taken plapc while Colum- 
bus wBS in partial disgrace wilh the sovereigns. 
His own charts and jouniHl served as guides to 
the adventurers ; and hb man^nilicent accounts 
of Purift ajid the adjacent coasts had chiefly ex- 
cited their cupidity. 

Beside the enpedilion of Ojeda, already noticed, 
in the course of which he touclied at Xanigua. 
oue had been undertaken at ilie snme lime by 
Pedro Alonzo Nino, a native of Moguer, an able 
pilot, who liad been with Colnrabus in the voy- 
ages to Cuba and Paria. Having obtained a 


license, he iiilerested a rich merchant of Seville 
ia the underUking, who lilted out b caravel of 
fifty Ions LtirdeD, under condition that his brolher 
Christoval Giievra Ebould hiLVe I lie cominand. 
Tbey sailed from the bnr of Salle?, a ftw days 
afler Ojeda had sailed from Cadiz, in ihe spring 
of 1499, and arriving on the const of Terra 
Firma, to the south of Paria, rau alon" it for 
some dis lance, passed through the gulf, and 
thoQce went one hutidred and thirty leagues 
along the shore of the present republic of Colom- 
bia, visiting what was afterwards called the Pearl 
Coast. They landed in various places ; disposed 
of their Eunipetin trifles to immense prutil, and 
relnrned with a large store of gold and pearls ; 
having made, in their diminutive bark, one of the 
most extensive and lucrative voyages j'et accom- 

About the same time, the Pinzons, that family 
of bold and opulent navigators, fitted out an ar- 
mament of four caravels at Pitlos, manned in a 
great measure by their own relations and friends. 
Several experienced pilots embarked in it who 
had been with Columbns to Pariti, and it was 
commanded by Vincente Taiiez PiiiEon, who had 
been captain of a caravel in the squadron of the 
sdmiral on his first voyage. 

FinzoD was a hardy and experienced seaman, 
and did not, like the others, follow closely in the 
track of Columbus. Sailing in December, 1499, 
be passed ihe Canary and Cape de Verde Islands, 
■landing soulli-weat until he lost sight of the polar 
Here he eacouatered a terrible storm, and 





wu exceedioglj perplexed and confoanded bj tbe 
Dew asptct of lli« beavetia. Xoiliidg ivns yet 
knoirn of tbe southern hemispliere, nor of the 
beauliful cnn»teItatioD of llic cros?, wliidi in 
iboM regions has since euF^lied lo mariDers the 
place of ilie north slar. Tbe royngers bad ex- 
pected to iiiid St tbe soDih pale a star correspon- 
dent to that of ibe north. They were distnajred 
at beholding no guide of tbe kind, and thought 
there must be aome promineiil swelling of the 
earth, which hid tbe pole from their riew^ 

Piuzon continued on, howcvt^r, with great in- 
trepidity. On lite 2Gih of Jannarj, 1500, he 
saw, at a distance, B great beadlHnd, whii:h he 
called Cnpe Santa &Iaria de la Conaolncios, but 
which has since been named Cape St. Augustine. 
He loDiIed and took posseKgion of the country in 
the name of tlieir calliollc lUHJestiea, being a part 
of the territories since called the Bmzils. Stand- 
ing tbence westward, be discovered the Marsgnon, 
since called the rirer of tbe AniHzons ; lisveraed 
the Gulf of Paria. nod continued across the Carib- 
bean Sen and tlie Gulf of Blexico, until be fonnd 
him self among the Bahamas, where he lost two 
of bis vesseU on tbe rocks, near the island of 
Jumcto. He returned lo Patua, iti September, 
having added to his former glory that of being 
the tirat European wbo had crossed tbe equi- 
noctial line in the western ocean, and of having 
discovered Ibe famous kingdom of BrnaiL from 
1 the River Manignon to ita 
point. As a reward for his achieve- 

1 Feler Uartir, doMd. i, HI), ix. 


ments, power wiis ^tnled to him lo colonize and 
govern the lai>ds wliich he bad disrovered, nnd 
which extended souibward from a little bejoud 
the River of Uaragnon to Cape St. Aiigusline.l 
Tbe little port of Palos, which had been bo 
rtlDir in fumiahing the first squadron for Colnm- 
contitiually agitated by ibe passion 
IT discovery. Shortly afler the sailing of Pineon, 
knolber expedition was fitted out there, by Diego 
Xiepe, a native of the place, and manned by his 
adventurous townsmen. lie sailed in the same 
direction with Pinzon: but discovered more of 
the aoulhem cotilinenl than any other voyager 
of the day, or for twelve years afterwards. He 
doubled Cape St. Augustine, and ascertained that 
tbe coast beyond ran to the south-wesL Ha 
landed, and performed the usnal ceremonies of 
taking possession in the name of the Spanish 
aovensigns, and in one place carved their names 
OD a magnificent tree of such enormous magni- 
tnde that seventeen men with their hands joined 
could not embrace the trunk. What enhanced 
the merit of hia discoveries was. that he had 
nerer sailed with Colambus. Me had with him, 
however, several skillful pilots, who bad accom- 
panied the admiral in his voyage.^ 

Another expedition of two vessels sailed from 
J Cadiz, in October, 1^00, under the command of 
B-Kodrigo Baslides of Seville. He explored the 

dread, i. lib. iv. tap. 12. Mur«z, Hist. N-MoBdn, 

■s, Uttt. Ind., lib. ii. up. 3. Munoz, put uo- 



vatal of Ten* Finn*, pnsaing Cape de la YeLi, 
Ike wcetatu limits of the previous diacoveriea od 
dw Bwintaad, continuing on lo a part since called 
Tbe ReiKkl. where nderwards was founded the 
araport of Nonbre de Dios. His vesseb being 
nntrtf de^lraj^ hj the teredo, or worm, which 
abuunds in these seas, he hnd grent difficulty in 
reiurhing Xaragun in Hi^panioln, where he lofil 
his two enriveb, itnd proceeded with his crew by 
land to San DomingOL Here he wna seized and 
impriMned by Bubtutilln, under pretext that he 
bnd treated for gold with the Datives of Xara- 

Such wfu the 9VT«nn of Spanish expeditions 
immediately re»uliiag from the enterprises of Co- 
lumbus; but others were also undertaken by 
foreign nations. In the year 1497, Sehnslian 
CmIk>i, sou of a Venetian merchant, resident in 
Bristol, sailing in the service of Henry VII. of 
England, navigated lo tbe northern sens of the 
New World. Adopting the idea of Columbiia, 
he sailed in ({uest of the shores of Cathay, and 
hoped to find a north-west passage lo India. In 
lliis voyage tie discovered Newfoundland, coasted 
Labrador to the lifly-sixlh degiee of north lati- 
tude, nud then returning, ran down south-west to 
tl)e Floridns, when, bis provisions beginning to 
&il, be relumed lo England.^ But vague and 
Bcnnty accounts of tbis Toyage exist, which was 
important, as including the first discovery of the 
northern continent of the Now World. 

> UakluyCi CDllMtion oCVoytga, vol. iii. p. T. 


The discoveries of rival nations, however, which 
'. exciiiiil ihe alteniion anil jealousiy of the 
■ Spanish crown, were those of tl)e Portui^uese. 
YVasco de Gams, a man ot'mnk, and consummate 
^lalent and iiitrepidii^, had, at lengili, BCCorri' 
^^lished the great design of the late I'ri 

f Porlngul, and by doubling the Cape of Good 
^Hope in the year 1497, he opened the long 
ought-for route to India. 

Immediately aller Gama'a return, a fleet of 
thirteen sail was fitted out to visit the magnifi- 
cent countries of which ho brouglit accounts. 
This expedition sailed on the Olh of Marcli, 
1500, for Calicut, under ilie command of Pedro 
Alvarez de Cobral, Having passed tJie Cape de 
Verde lalanjs, he souglit lo avoid the cnlraa 
prevalent on the const of Guinea, by stretching 
for to the west. Suddenly, on the 25lh of April, 
be cnme in eight of land unknown to any one iit 
bis squadron ; for, as yet, they had not heard of 
the discoveries of Pinzon and Lepe. He at first 
supposed it lo be some great island ; but at^er 

^OMSting it for some time, he became persuaded 
ttat it must be part of a continent. Having 
tnnged along it Mimowhat beyoiid the fifteenth 
degree of foulhern latitude, he landed at a liurbor 
which he called Porto Securo, and takinf; pos- 
■esaim of the country for the crown of Poi'tugal, 
dispatched a ship to Lisbon with the important 
tidings.* In this way did the Brazils come into 
the possession of Portugal, being to the eastward 
of the conventionoi line tiettlcd with Spain as the 
LaSICBU, Conquelcs dts Portugaia, lib, ii. 

^_ ' i.anicBU, t^onij 


bouDddries of tbeir respective territories. Da 
Robertson, in recordiug this voyage of CebnuIH, 
coDcludtjs with one of liis just and elegv:^^ 

" Columbus' discovery of the New World was . 

he observes, '■ the effect of an active getiii^t^ i 
guided by experience, tind acting upon a regal^ES 
plan, executed wilh no less courage iban p^ t 
ijcverunee. But from this adventure of tbe Pew t 
tuguese, it appears that chance might have aH-'O 
coinplished that great design, wliich it is now lKib 
pride of human reason to have formed h-k«I 
perfected. If the sagacity of Columbus liad r«ic( 
conducted mankind (o America, Cabrnl, by i 
fortunate accident, might have led them, a GSsT 
years hiter, to the knowledge of tliat esienain 
continent." ' 

t RabertsDD, Hiat Amcrir 


ouey, ' 


s discoveries briefly noticed 
tu tlie precedjug chapter, had produced 
a powerful effect upoa the mind of Fer- 
Hb ambition, his avarice, and his jeal- 
ire equally inflamed. He beheld bound- 
less regiona, teeming with all kinds of riches, 
dmly opening before the enterprises of his sub- 
jeda ; but he beheld at the same time other na- 
doiiH launching forth into competition, emulous 
for a share of the golden world which he woe 
eager to monopolize. The expeditions of the 
English, and the accidental discovery of the Bra- 
ids by the Portuguese, caused him much uneasi- 
ness. To secure his possession of the continent, 
he determined to establish local govemmenta or 
comnuindB in the most important places, all to be 
subject to a general government, ealablished at 
Su) Domingo, which was to be the metropolis. 

With these considerations, the government, 
heretofore granted to Columbus, had risen vaslly 
It in^rtuLce ; and while the restitution oi it 

UFE ASD rorjess or 

! deanUe i 

k ejee. It becune 
f repngin&iice to the 

He had long re- 
pBried hsri^ vested SMdi great powers and pre- 
ragMtra in «dj ralQect, particularlj in a for- 
eigaer. At the lime at granting them, he had 
M> andci|ntie>n of mdi boundless countries to he 
pboed tmder his comnMnd. He appeared almost 
to consider himself oatwitted by Colnmbus in 
the arrangement : and erery gncceeding discovery, 
fauteod of his graiefol tatse of the obligation, 
only m^e biro repine the more at the growing 
tnagnitode of ihe revard. At length, however, 
the a^r of Bobadiila had eflected a temporary 
exdnuon of Columbus from his high office, and 
that without any odium to the crown, and the 
wary monarch secretly determined tliat the door 
thns closed between him and his dignities should 
never sgain be opened. 

Perhaps Ferdinand may really have entertained 
doubts as to the innocence of Columbus, with 
respect to tb" various diarges made against him. 
He may have donbted also the siucerity of bis loy- 
alty, being a Ktraiger, when he should liud him- 
self strong in his command. &t it great distance 
from the parent country, with immense and op- 
ulent regions un<ter bis control. Columbus biro- 
self, in his letters, alludes to reportx drculated by 
hiB enemies, that he intended eitlter to set up an 
independent sovereignty, or to deliver bis discov- 
eries into the bmida of other potentates i and he 
appfiim to fear tlial these slanders might have 
made some impression on the mind of Ferdinand. 



But there was one otiier consideratiou, which had 
no less force with the monarch m withholtUug 
thifi great act of justice — Columbus was uo 
longer indispensable to him. He had made hia 
great discovery ; lie had struck out the route to 
the New World, and now any one could follow 
it. A uumher of able navigators hml sprung uji 
under his auspices, and acquired experience iu 
his TojBgea. They were daily besieging the 
throne with offers to fit out exjieditious at theii' 
own cost, and to yield a share of the profits to 
the crown. Wby should he, therefore, confer 
princely dignities and prerogatives for that wliich 
men were daily offering to perform gratuitously ? 
Such, from his after conduct, appears to hare 
been the jealous and selfish policy which actuated 
Ferdinand, in forbearing to reinstate Columbus 
in those dignities and privileges so solemnly 
granted to him by treaty, and which it was ac- 
knowledged he had never forfeited by miscon- 

This deprivatioa, however, was declared to bo 
but temporary ; and plausible reasons were given 
for the delay in tus reappointment. It was ob- 
served that the elements of those violent Actions, 
recently in amis against him, yet existed in the 
island ; his immediate return might produce &esh 
exasperation ; his personal safety might be en- 
dangered, and the island again thrown into con- 
fusion. Though Bohadilla. therefore, was to be 
immediately dismissed from command, it was 
deemed advisable to send out some officer of tal- 

It and diB<xetion to snpersede him, who might 




ilispas§ioQat«]_v investigate the recent disordere. 
remedy the ahuM^B n-hich had arisen, aud expel 
•11 diMolutc and £kctious persons from the colony, 
He should hold the governmenl for two years, by 
which time it was trusted that all angry passions 
would he allayed, aud turbulent individuals re- 
moved : Colnmhus might then resume the rom- 
mond with comfort to himself and advantage to 
the erown. With these reasons, and the promise 
which aceompaoied them, Columbus wa£ obliged 
to content bimselfl There can be no donbt that 
they were sincere on the part of Isabella, and 
that it was her intention to reinstate hitn in the 
full enjoyment of his rights and dignities. aAer 
his apparently necessary suspension. Ferdinand, 
however, by liis subsequent conduct, has forfeited 
all claim to any favorable opinion of the kind. 

The person chosen to supersede Bobadilla was 
Don Nicholas de Ovaudo, commander of Lares 
of the order of Alcantara. He is described as 
uf the middle size, &ir compleiiun, with it red 
beard and a modest look, yet a lone of authority. 
He was fluent in speech, and gradous and 
cqurteons in his maimers. A man of great pru- 
dence, says Las Casas, and capable of governing 
many people, but not of governing the Indians, 
on whom lie inflicted incalculable injuries. He 
possessed great veneration for justice, was an en- 
emy to avarice, sober in his mode of living, and 
of such humility, that when he rost' afW-wards 
to be grand commander of the order of Alcan- 
tara, he would never allow himself to he ad- 
dressed by the title of respect altadied to IL* 
1 Lu Casas. llist. Ind., lib. ii. cap. 3. 


Such is the picture drawn of him by historians ; 
but his conduct in several instances ia in direct 
contmrlictiou lo iL He appenrs ta Itave been 
plausible and subtle, as well as fluent and cour- 
teous ; his huniility concealed a great love of 
command, and in his transactions with Columbus 
he was certainly both ungenerous anil unjust. 

The various arnLngementa to be mode, accord- 
ing to the new plan of colonial government, de- 
layed for some time the departure of Ovando. 
In the mean time, every arrival brought iiitelli- 
gBDce of the disastrous stale of the island, under 
the mal-admiuistratiou of Bobodillo. Ho hitd 
(smmeoced his career by an opposilfl policy to 
that of Columbus. Imagining that rigorous rule 
had been the rock on which his predecessors had 
split, he sought to condliate the public by all 
kinds of indulgence. Having at the very outset 
relaxed the reins of justice and morality, he lost 
all command over the community ; and such dis- 
order and licentiousness ensued, that many, even 
of the opponents of Columbus, looked back with 
r^ret npoii the strict but wholesome rule of liira- 
self and Che Adelantado. 

Bobadilla was not so much a bad as an im- 
pnideni and a weak man. He had not consid- 
ered the dangerous escesses to which hia policy 
would lead. Rash in grasping authority, he was 
feeble and temporising in the esercise of it: 
he could not look beyond the present exigency. 
One dangerous indulgence granted to the i»lo- 
nista called for another ; each was ci^led in its 
1, and thus he went on from crrar to error, 


— showTiif; that in government there is as mndt 
dtuiger (n Im apprehended from a weak as from 
» bud mnn. 

He hitd sold ihe fiirins and estates of the 
crown lit low jiriiies, observing that it waa not the 
wish of the motiarchs to enrich theuselveH by 
them, hut that thej should r«dound to the profit 
of their suhjocU. He granted universal permis- 
sioD to work the mines, exacting only on elev- 
eiilh of the produce for the crown. To prevent 
any diminution in tlie reveuue, it liecame neces- 
sarj-. of course, to increase the quantity of gold 
collected. He obliged the cadques, therefore, to 
furnish e.ich Spani^ with Indians, to assist him 
both in the kbon of the field and of the mine. 
To mrry this into more complete effect, he made 
lui entimertilion of the natives of the island, re- 
ducted them into cJasses, and distributed them, ac- 
conUiig to lus fiivor or caprice, among the colo- 
nists. The latter, at his suggestion, associated 
thomselvea in partnerships of two persons each, 
who were to assist one another with their ro- 
epective cupitala and Indians, one superintending 
the Libors of the field, and the oilier the search 
for gold. The only injunction of Bobadilla waa 
to produce large quantities of ore. Ho had one 
saying continnolly in his mouth, which shows the 
pernicious and temporizing principle npon whidi 
he acted : " Make the most of your dme," he 
would say," there b no knowing how long it will 
last." alluding to the possibility of his being 
sjMieilily recalled. The colonists acted up to his 
aiMc.-. ;md so hard did they drive the poor na- 



tivea, that ihe eleventh yielded more revenue W 
the crown than hail ever been prwiueed by the 
third under the govemment of ColumbuB. In 
the mean time, the unhappy natJvcH suHered 
under all kinds of cruelties from their inhuman 
taskmasters. Little used to labor, feeble of con- 
stitution, and accustomed in tlteir beautiful and 
luxuriant i^and to a life of ease and freedom, 
they sank under the (oils imposed upon them, 
and the severities by which they were enforced. 
Las Casas gives an indignant picture of the ca- 
pricious tyranny exercised over the -Indians by 
worthless Sjianiards, many of whom bad been 
transported convicts from the dungeons of Cas- 
tile. These wretches, who in their own coim- 
tries had been the vilest among the vile, here as- 
sumed the tone of grand cavaliers. They in- 
sbled upoD being attended by tr^ns of servants. 
They look the daughters and female relations of 
cadques for their domestics, or raiher for tludr 
concubines, nor did they limit themselves in num- 
ber. WLen ihey travelled, instead of UHng the 
horses and mules with which they were provided, 
ihey obliged the natives to transport them upon 
their shoulders in litters, or hammooks, with 
others atieniUng to hold umbrellas of palm-Ieavee 
over their heails to keep off the sun, and fans of 
feathers to c«m>I them ; and Las Casas affirms that 
be has se«D the backs and shoulders of the un- 
fbttonate Indians who bore these litters, raw lunt 
bleeding from the task. When these arrogant 
Dpstarte turiveil at an Indian village, they ron- 
mmed and la\-isbed away the provisos of the 



I fiiat pietare or dw eviBt wliidb 

tr Ike fatfc nk of BotMflk; 


at tbe daw of Up 
iMd tnaui to tlK 
wrang froB iIm iiiiiMiiiii if &e uliiFeijt* 

cigM ; bat he had Utill; nntden Ui 4 
ne abaae* of Ub gcitn u nent sc 

n^ esr, and. abot* aO, ibe wrongB of d 

thcs rew^ed tbe benen>leDt heart of T-t^^rlH 
Kotlring ma nKire (slealated to atonse h^r indig- 
natkm, and ifae di]^ the speedj departure of 
Orando, to pot a slop to these enomulies. 

In oonfonnitj lo (be plan already mentioned, 
ibe govierninent of Orando extended over tbe 
islands and Terra Firma. of whiiJi Hispaumla 
wroa to be the metropolis. He was lo enter 
upon tbe exerdee of his powers immediately 
npon his airiTal, bj procuration, sending home 
Bubadilla by the return of the tieeu He waa 
inrtmcted to inquire cUligeittly into tbe lat« 
abusea, paniahing tbe delinqnents without &Tor 

1 Lo Cam, Hbt lad^ lib. iL cap. I, MS. 



or partiality, and reraoring all wortliless pcrsniia 
from the island. Ue was to revoke immudiiiU'ly 
the Uc^uae granted by Bobndilla for the gnntiral 
search aiter gold, it having been given without 
royal authority. He wub to require, fbr the 
crown, a third of what was already coUeotodi 
and one half of all that Bhouhi be collected in 
future. He was empowered to build towns, 
granting them the privileges enjoyed by muni- 
cipal corporation§ of Spain, and obli^ng the 
Spaniards, and particulariy the aoldiers, to reside 
in them, instead of scattering themselves over 
the ishitid. Among many sage provisions, tliore 
were others injurious and illiberal, charBCtcristlc 
of an age when the principles of cotumcree were 
but little understood ; but which were ooutiuued 
by Spain long after the rest of tlie world hud 
discarded them as ihe errors of dark and uuen- 
lightenod umes- The crown mouopolizcd the 
trade of the colouies- No one could carrjr 
merchandise there cm his own accoonL A royaJ 
&clor waa appmnted. through whom aloae w«re 
to be obuined siqiplits of £uro|ieau artieliM. 
The fax>wD roMrred to itself not ouly ejuJuuve 
pn^KT^ in Ibe mfaies, but in prerkMU atone*. 
•ad like objeeU of eztnotiiinarr vslw::^ and aluo 
is dycwoodt. Xo vuvap:n. aod nbove alL tio 
Moon nor Jews, ven- pFnaiued bu EiAalili>ti 
in ihe idaud. out u> go ujiun vuyH|;<^ 
Sndi were •otne of i1k nauit^ 

eqaaDy BEbenL Hert 

i loltoweil up I9 Mhen 
»i«i policy !»« hiieB 




the acoff of modern timee ; bat ma; not the 
present restrictions of the trade, imposed bj the 
most intelligent nations, be equally the wooiler 
and tlie jest of fitEtire uges ? 

Isabeilu was pardcularly careful in providing 
for the kind treatment of the Indians. Ovando 
was ordered to assemble the cadques, and declare 
to them, that the sorerdgus took them aad thdr 
p«ople under their espeiaal protectiuu. They 
were merely to pay tribute like other subjects 
of the crown, and it was to be collected with the 
utmost mildness and gentlenees. Great paiua 
were to be takes in thai religious instruction ; 
for whid) purpose twelve Franeiscan friara were 
sent out, with a prelate named Anionio de Es- 
pinal, a venerable and pious man. This was the 
first formal introdnctiou of the Frattdscan order 
into the New World.' 

All these precautions with respect to the n&- 
tivea were defeated by one unwary pfovision. It 
was permitted that the Indians might be com- 
pelled to work iu the mines, and ia other em- 
ployments; but this was limited to the royal 
ser^'ice. They were to be engaged as hired 
laborers, and punctually paid. This provision 
led to great abuses and opressions, and was ullj- 
mal«iy as fatal to the natives, as could have been 
the most abwtule slavery. 

But, with tliat incouMstency freqnent in human 
couduct, while the sovereigns were milking regu- 
lations for the relief of the Indians, they encour- 
aged a gross invasion of the rights and wel&re 
1 Lu Cuu, Birt. lod., Ub. iL csp. a, US. 


of another raoe of human beings. Among tliuir 
vajions decrees on this occneiou, we lind die first 
tr&ce of Degro slavery in the New World. It 
was permitted to carrj to the colony negro 
slaves bom among CliriBtiaus ; ^ that is to say, 
slaves born in Seville and other parts of Spain, 
the children and descendants of natives brought 
from the Atlantic coast of Africa, where such 
traffic had for some time been carried on by the 
Spaniards and Portuguese. There are signal 
events in the couitic of history, which sometiiueB 
bear the appearance of temjiora] judgments. It 
is a fact worthy of observation, that Uispaniola, 
the place where this flagrant siu against nature 
and humanity was first mtroduced into the New 
World, has been the first to exhibit an awtid re- 

Amidst the various concerns whidi claimed, the 
attention of the sovereigns, the interests of Co- 
lumbus were not fiirgotten. Ovando mas ordered 
to e:tamiue into all his acconntB, without under- 
taking to ))ay them off. He was to ascertain the 
damages he had sustiuned by his imprisonment, 
the interruption of his privileges, and tlie confis- 
cation of his effects. All tlie property confis- 
cated by Bobadilla was to he restored ; or if it 
had been solil, to be made good. If it had been 
employed in the royal sen-ice, Columbus was to 
be indemnified out of the treasury ; if Bobadilla 
had appropriated it to his own use. he was to 
account for it out of his private purse. Ktjual 
care was to be taken to indemnify ihu brothers 

1 Herrera. Hist. lud., decad. i. lib. iv. cap. 13. 


r the koMs they had wnngfitDj 

GalnMkw wMEkewae to reoan the kimts 
of hii i Bwia t j ; and ifae tame were to be pmo- 
tatJfy paod ta turn m &bBe. Be was pennitted 
k betor leudest in the [gbnd, to be 
present at tte indtiiig and the markmg of tke 
gcAd, to oolkct his does, aitd in short to attend 
to all his aflUra. To tlus office he ^^mted 
AInwrt ^mJiJa ^ Owajal ; and the BovereitEiw 
"■"■■-^'fU' **— * hia agent sboaU be treated with 
great respecL 

Tbe fleet apptMnled to axiTev Orando to hU 
govenuuent was the largest that bad jret sailed 
to the New World. It consisted of thiitjr sails, 
five of tbem froio ninety to one hundred and 
fifty tons burden, ticenty-fbur camvels 6*001 
thirn' to lUDetj, and oae bark of tweaty-live 
ton&.' The nombea' of souls embarked in thia 
fleet waa aboat twentT-five hundred ; many of 
them persoQB of rank and distinction, with their 

That Ovando might appear with dignity in his 
new office, be was allowed to nse silks, bro- 
cades, precious stonee, and other articlee of 
sumptuous attire, prohibited at thai time in 
Spain, in consequence of the ruinous ostentation 
of the nobility. He wus pennitled to have 
seventy-two esquires as hi« body-guard, ten of 
whom were horeeinen. With diis expedition 



cbhistopher columbus. 331 

sailed Don Alonzo Maldonodo, appointed as ol- 
guazil mayor, or chief justice, in plaice of Rol- 
d&iit vho was to be seat to Spain. Tliere were 
artbans of various kinds : to these were added 
& physician, surgeon, and apothecary ; and 
seventy-three married men with their families, 
all of respectable character, deatined to -be die- 
tribnted in four towns, and to enjoy peculiar 
privileges, that they might form the basis of a 
sound and useful population. They were to dis- 
place an equal number of the idle and dissolute 
who were to be sent &om the island : this ex- 
cellent measure had been especially urged and 
entreated by Columbus. There was also live- 
stock, artillery, arms, munitions of all kinds ; 
everything, in short that was reqnired for the 
supply of the island. 

Such was the style in which Ovando, a fiivor- 
ite of Ferdinand, and a native subject of rank, 
was fitted out to enter upon the government 
withheld from Columbus. The fleet put to sea 
on the thirteenth of February, 1502. In the 
early part of the voynge it was encountered by 
a terrible storm ; one of the ships foundered, 
with one hundred and twenty passengeni ; the 
others were obliged to throw overbord every 
thing on deck, and were completely scattered. 
The shores of Spain were strewed with aiiides 
from the fleet, and a rumor spread that all the 
ships had perished. When this reached the sov- 
ereigns, they were so overcome with grief that 
liiey shut themselves up for eight days, and ad- 
1 MUDOz, H. N. Uundo, part medic 

I uiey SUU.I iiieniseirei 

k > Mufioi, H. 

SU Lrm .dxa TOTASxs ar comracw. 

nrni m &■ r ' j^ii m ^ ISA of .^iL' 



OLUMBUS remained in the dQ' of 
Granada upwards of nine months, en- 
deavoring to estricate his affura &om 
the confusion into which they had been thrown 
by the rash conduct of Bobadillo, and soliciting 
the restoration of his officea and dignities. Dur- 
ing this time he constantly experienced the gnules 
and attentions of the sovereigns, and promises 
were repeat^ly made him that he should ulti- 
mately be reinstated in all his honors. He had 
long since, however, ascertained the great inter- 
val that may eiist between promise and per- 
formance in a court Had he been of a morbid 
and repining spirit, he had ample food for mis- 
anthropy. He beheld the career of glory which 
he had opened, thronged by fiivored adventurers ; 
he witnessed preparations making to convey with 
miuBual pomp a successor to that govemmenl 
from which he had been so wrongfully and rudely 
_ .igected ; in the meanwhile his own career was in- 


1 temqrtcd, and as &r as public employ b a gsnge 
I of toyti foror, he ram^iied apparently in ^s- 

Hii aangoiue tempenunent was not long to be 
dqtrassed ; if cbed^ed in oue direciion, it broke 
forth in wiother. His visionary imugiuation iras 
an ialemal light, which, in the darkest tjmes. re- 
pellcMl itU outwaid gloom, and filled his mind 
with splondid imogis and glorious speculations. 
Ill this lime of eril, his tow to funiifsh, within 
seven yenrs fmni the time of his discovery, fifty 
thousand fiwl soldiers, and five thousand horse, 
for llie recovery of the Iioly sepulchre, recurred 
to his memory with pc«-u]iar force. The time 
had elapaod, but the vow remained unfiilliUed, 
and the means to perform it had fhilcd him. Tlie 
New World, with all its treasures, had aa yet 
produced expense inslend of profit ; and so fiur 
At>m being m a sitimtion to set armies on toot by 
his Dwu contributions, he found iiiniself without 
properly, without i>ower. and without employ. 

Destitute of the means of accomplishuig his 
pions intentions, he considered it his iluty to in- 
cite the sovereigns to the enterprise ; and he fett 
emiioldeued to do so, from having originally pro- 
posed it as the great object to which the profiln 
of his discoveries should be dedicated. He set 
to work, therefore, with his accustomed zeal, to 
prepare arguntenls for the purpose. During the 
intervals of business, he sooght into the prophe- 
cies of the Uoly Scriptures, the writings of the 
&thers, and all kinds of sacred and speculative 
■ounxe, for mystic portents and revelations which 


might be construed to bew upoa the discovery 
of the New World, the conversion of die Gen- 
tiles, and the recovery of the holy sepulchre : 
three great events which he supposed hi be pre- 
destined to succeed each other. These poseages, 
with the assistance of a Carthusian friar, he ar- 
ranged in order, illustrated by poetry, and col- 
lected into a manuscript volume, to be delivered 
to She sovereigns. He prepared, at the same 
lime, a long letter, written with his usual fervor 
of spirit and simplicity of heart. It 19 one of 
those singular compositions which lay open the 
visionary part of his character, and show the 
mystic and speculative reading with which he 
was accustomed to nurture his solemn and soar- 
ing imagination. 

In this letter he urged the sovereigns to set on 
foot a cnisade for the deliverance of .Jerusalem 
from the power of the unbeUevere. He entreated 
diem not to reject his present advice as estrav- 
Bgant and impracdcable, nor to heed the discredit 
^t might be cast upon it by others ; reminding 
them that his great scheme of discovery had orig- 
inally been treated with similar contompt. He 
avowed in the fullest manner his persuasiou, tliat, 
from his earliest infancy, he had been chosen by 
Heaven for the accomplishment of those two 
great designs, — the discovery of the New World, 
and the rescue of the holy sepulchre. For tliis 
purpose, in his tender years, he had been guided 
by a divine impulse to embrace Uie profession of 
the sea, a mode of life, he observes, which pro- 
^^iuoes an iaclinalion to mquire into the mysteries 



of nature ; and be luul lieen gifted with a corious 
■pint, It) rwul all kinds uf chronicles, geographical 
treMiMs. and works of philosogihy. Li luedibu- 
iug upon thes4'-. his understanding had been 
optmed by the Deit j, " as with a palpable hand," 
so as to disiTOver the navigation Ui the Indies, 
and be bad be«n in&tmed with ardor to undcr- 
tnke the enter{)tise. " Animated as by a heav- 
enly fire," he adds, •■ I came to yonr highnesse* ; 
all who beard of my enterptise mocked at it ; all 
the iicienc«« I had aci)nired profited me nothing ; 
eoven yeiu^ did I pass in your royal court, di^ 
puting the case with persons of great authority 
and learned in all the arts, and in the end they 
derided tlwt all was \Tun, In your highnesses 
alone remained fiuth and constancy, ^'ho will 
doubt that this light was fivm the Holy Scrip- 
tures, illuminiiig you as well as myself with rays 
of marvelous brightness ? " 

These idei>&, so repeatedly, and solemnly, and 
urtlosslf expressed, by a man of the fervent piety 
of Columbus, show how truly his discovery arose 
tVoui the working of his own mind, and not from 
intbrmatinn fiirnisbed by others. He considered 
it a divine intimation, a light from Uea^-en, and 
the fiiUUIntenC of what had be«n ibrelold by our 
Sai-iour and the prophets. Stilt he regarded it 
bnt as a minor event, preparatory to the great 
enterprise, the rt-covery of the holy sepulchre. 
He pronounced it a miracle effected by Heaven, 
to animate himself and others to that holy under- 
taking' ; and be assured the sovereigns that, if 
they had faith in his present as in his former 




pfoposition, they wonld assuredly bfi rewarded 
"ith equally triumjifuiiit fiuccess. lie c«njured 
'^'"n not to heeil (he Biieers of such as might 
w-iin txi him as oue unlearned, as ua ignorant 
■^f^er, a worldly niaii ; reminding them that 
"' *lo!y Spirit works not merely in the learned, 
■*"_' also in the ignorant ; nay, that it reveals 
"'"'Ss to come, not merely by rational being*, 
. ■*?■ prodigies in animalB, and by mystic signs 
in the air and in the heavens. 

A he enterprise here suggested by Columbus, 
""^^ver idJe and extravagant it may appear in 
*^ present day, was in unison with the temper 
"' *>te times, and of the court to which it was 
(""^Poeed. The vein of myatic erudition by which 
''Was enforced, likewise, was suited to au age 
""•^C the reveries of the cloister still controlled 
"*? Operations of tJie cabinet and the camp. The 
W'^t. of the crusades had not yet passed away. 
~ te caoBe of the church, and at the instiga- 
""'* of its dignitaries, every cavalier was ready 
™^**w hia sword; and religion mingled a glow- 
_ aud devoted enthusiasm with the ordinary 
^'^tement of warfiirc. Ferdinand was a- relig- 
* bigot ; and the devotion of Isabella went oa 
I Uu to bigotry as her liberal mind and raagnan- 
" s spirit would permit. Both the sovereigns 
'e under the influence of ecclesiastical politi- 
t, constantly guiding their enterprises in a di- 
ll to redound to the temporal power and 
f of the church. The recent conijui?st of 
a had been considered a Eurojiean crn- 
e, and hod gained to the sovereignit the epi- 


thet of Calholic It was natoral to tlutik of ex- 
tendiDg their sacred dietaries still farther, and 
tetaliatiug upon the infideU their domiimUoo of 
^lain aud ih^jr long triumphB over the croc& 
In fact, the Duke of Mei^a Sidoaia had nmde » 
recent inroad into BaHKuy, in the coone of 
which he had takcu the cit; of BJeliQa, and his 
expedition had been pranoonced a renewml of the 
hcAj wars ag»nst the infideb in AJrica.' 

Tfaer« was nothiitg, ther«fiire, in the propo- 
sition of Colombos that coold be ic^rded ai 
fU^posluruDB, coosidetwg the period and aaecmk- 
stances in whi<A it was mvle, tbo<^ il i x roo ^ 
31uf tRtte« his own entbnsiasCie and nuoiiaiy dmr- 
acMr. It moat be recollected that il was ned> 
itated in the toons c€ (he Alhanifara, among ibe 
tf-^'-m renains of Sbxinsh graBdear, wbeiv, b*t 
a few nan before, he had bdtdd Oe standaid 
•r ike'UUl elerowd m trimffc abon the 17B- 
tek of iaUelkj. It ^pean to Wn bees the 
\M\\* '\n%. of ooB ot Auae hioo^ of high t 




tiineil bj many oT hi> lealoiii onil learned Kdniiivn. The 
erudite lipidaiy, Jafme Fener, In the letter irrilten to Co- 
lambDain USE, at the camniand or the Hvereifnis, obHrrei: 
" t an in Ihia ■ grml myileiy; the dirine and in(«llible 
ProrideDca Kut tha great 3t Thooiu frota the neat inlu Ibe,lo aiaoireat in India our bply and Catholic faith; and 

the wut, until jaa have arrired in the Orient, into Iho ei- 
tieitia part of Upper India, that the people vuj bear Ihat 
which their anceaton oegleeled of the preaching of St- 
Thonui. Thiu thall he acaompliihed irhot wa> writtsa in 

And again, " The office which you hold, Senor, placet joii in 
the l^ht of an apostle and ambaBsador of God. unl by bia 
divine JDdgment, to make known hii holy name in unknown 
laodi." — Letm de Howen Jayme Ferrer, Navarreie Col«- 
cion.lom. ii. decad. 88. See alf-i llie opinion eiprened by 
Agoalmo Ginatinioni, hii conieniponuj, in bia Polyglot Paal- 


csatteb t. 

I D— ' ""I 

rf*» >a^ ■pAlwii liM h 

<r'^ilfii Ml« 

■ I if ai iTpirt !!■ r ill i. itah* 

HbS «H^Mttte 



of all kinds. The diBcoveries of the savBge re- 
gions of the New World, as yet, broLifi;hl liltle 
revenue to Spain ; but this route, suiWciily 
opened to the luxurious uountrieB of tlit^ Kiutt, 
was pouring immediate wealth into Portugal. 

ColumbuB waa roused to emulation by these 
accounts. He now conceived the idea of a voy- 
age, in which, with his usuaJ euthusiusm, hu 
hoped to surpass not merely the diaeovery of 
Vaseo de Gama, but even those of his own pre- 
vious eipedilioHB. According to his own obser- 
vations in his voyage to Farja, and the reports 
of other navigators, who hod pursued the same 
route to a greater distance, it appeared that the 
coast of Terra Firma stretohed liir to the west. 
The southern const of Cuba, which he considered 
a part of the Asiatic cotitinent, stretched onwards 
towards the same point. The currents of the 
Caribbean Sea must pass between thuite lundH. 
He was persuaded, therefore, that there must be 
a strait existing somewhere thereahonls, opening 
into the Indian sea. The situation in which be 
placed his conjectural strait, was somewIierH alMUt 
what at present is called the Isthmus of IJarien.' 
Coold hp but iliscover such a passage, anil iIiqji 
link the New World he had discovert^ with tlu! 
opuleni oiiental r^ions of the old. be fdt lliat 
he tbonld make a magnificent dose to his lahon, 
and oansmnmate tbia great otg«ct of lu* «Ui&- 

When he unfolded hii plan 

u> the smvre^M, 



immediately ; and repaired to Seville in the au- 
tumn of 1501, to uuike tike neoe«sary prepuntr 

Though thia substantial enterprise diverted hit 
attentiou from hm romantic expedition for the re- 
covery of the holy sepulchre, it still continued to 
haunt his mind. He left his manuscript collec- 
tion of reaearches among the prophecies, iu the 
lumds of a devout friar of tlie name of Gttopar 
Gorricio, who assisted to complete it la Febru- 
ary, also, he wrote a letter to Pope Alexander 
VII^ in which he apologizes, on account of inilis- 
peusable occupations, for not having repaired lo 
Rome, according to his originid intention, to give 
an account of his grand discoveries. After hriefly 
relating them, he ad<lB that his enterprises hud 
been undertaken with the mtent of dedicating ihe 
gains to the recovery of the holy sepulchre. lie 
mentions his vow lo fhrnish, within seven 3'ear8, 
fifty thousand iiMit and five thousand horte for 
the purpose, and another of like force witliin five 
succeeding yejirs. This pious inten^on, he lit- 
menta, had \>een impeded by the arts of the devil, 
and he feared withont divine aid would he en- 
tirely frustrated, as the government which had 
heen granted to him in perpetuity had been taken 
from him. He informs his Holiness of his Ix^ing 
about to embark on another voyage, and promiites 
solemnly, on his return, ifi repair to Itume with- 
out delay, to relate everything by word of mouth, 
Bs well as to present him with an oecoimt of hi> 
voyages, which he had kept from the commence- 


I the present lime, ii 
Comraenlaries of Cteaar.* 

It was about tliis time, also, tliat he 
letter on the subject of the sepulchre to the sov- 
ereigns, together with the collection of proph^ 
oies.* We have no account of the manner in 
which the proposition was reueii^ed. Fenlinand. 
with all bis bigotry, was a shrewd and worldly 
pruice. Instead of a chivalrona crusade against 
Jerusalem, he preferred making a padfic arrange- 
ment with the Grand Soldan of Egjpt, who hail 

1 XavareKe, Colec Viig., torn. ii. p. 1 

LKript V. 

of llie colleclion of prophcci 
in Ihe Cathedn] of Sovillf 
bu sesn oud examiDed it, ■ 
The tills and k 

!■ letter, anrj 
in the ColamtiiHn Littni?, 

r« ihe author of this wort 
pubiiibiiig the flrtt edition- 
a|^ of the vork are iu (be 
{ of Farnuido Colunibus. the main bodf of the 
work ij by a slrangB hand, probably by the Friar Ga«plr 
Goiricio, or some brother of hie ronveni- There are trifling 
marginal notes or correctionii, and one or two trivial additioni 
Id ihe handwriting of Columbus, upeciatly a paMage added 
after hi> return fhim bi> fouilh voyage, and shortly befbn bii 
death, alluding lo an eclipse of die moon which took plan 
during hi* eojoum in the Island of Jamaica. The huldwril- 
In^ of this 1b»[ passage, like most of the numuH'ripta of Co- 
lumbus, which Ibe autbor \a.t seen, is small and delicate, but 
wanle Ihe UrtDneM and d»1inclnes9 of hii earlier writing, bit 
hand having doubtless become unsteady by age and infirmity. 
This document is mlremely curious, as containio); all lb* 
pii3.iage!i of Scripture and of the worki of Ihe Kathera which 
had so powerful an influence on Ibe eathusiaslic mind of Oo- 
lumhus, and were conBtrued by him into myslerions prophe- 
ricr and revelationa. The volume Is in good preservUiDn. 
excepting lliat a few pages bare lieen cut out. The writing, 
though of the beginning uf the lilteenlh cenlnry, is very dis- 
tincl aud legible. The libraiy mark of the book is EatsnU 
Z.Tab. lS8,Na.9G- 


menaced the destruction of the sacred ediiice. 
He dispatched, therefore, the learned Peter Jlar- 
lyr, so distinguished for lus bUtoiical writings, as 
ambassador to Ilie Soldaa, by whom nil andent 
grievances between the two powers were satisfac- 
torily adjusted, and arraagements made for the 
conaervation of the holy sepulchre, and the pro- 
tection of all Christian pilgrims resorting to it. 

In the mean time Columbus went on with the 
preparations for his contemplated voyage, though 
but slowly, owing, as Charlevoix intdmates, to the 
artifices and delays of Fonseca and his agents. 
He craved pemiission to touch at the island of 
Hispaniola for supplies on his outward voyage. 
This, however, the sovereigns forbode, knowing 
that he had many enemies m (he lalanil, and that 
the place would be in great agitation from the 
arriviil of Ovando, and the removal of Bobadilla. 
They consented, however, that he should touch 
there briefly on his return, by which IJme they 
hoped the island would be restored to tranquil- 
lity. He was jiermitted to take with him, in this 
eipedition, his brother the Adelantado, and his 
son Fernando, then in his fourteenth year ; also, 
two or three persons learned in Arabic, to serve 
as interpreters, in case he should arrive nt the 
dominions of the Grand Khan, or of any other 
eastern prince where that language might be 
spoken, or piirtially known. In reply to letters 
relative to the ultimate restoration of liis rights, 
and to matters concerning his family, the 30ver> 
eigns WTiiie him a letter, dated March H, 1502, 
StwB Valeocia de Torre, in which they again sol- 

8i»i" >» Omma>»gBmm.otim mk IX^olI 

TUi WM tiK hit Itfler OiC CohnlM n- 
enrcd from the •overeJgB*, and the MMBiMeeB k 
contiffwd woe m ample aad alMiritiie n be oooU 
diain. Beowt drcuMtancta, however, lad a^*- 
nntljr rtaianA him dnbioiu of the bvaa. Dor- 
ing Uh! timn that he pcMcd b SeiSfe, pmimn 
to Itb (iRpartuK. be took meanma to Mcnre lua 
bme, ftu'l preserve ihe cUuma of bit taaalj, bj 
pUdiig thrin niiik-r the ga&rdiamhip of hia tta- 
livn ooiuiLry. Iln had cnpies of all the letters, 
gnuiU, sD'i privileges from the mverdgnsi. ap- 
pointing him admiral, viceroy, lud governor of 
th(i lodiei, copiod luid aulheoticsled before the 
atcaldi-« of Sisvillc Two sela of these were 
traiiMirllMid, toguUier with hia letter to the onrae 
of Prince Junn, conlaiiUDg a circumstaati^ and 
eloquent vindicalJon of his rights ; and two let- 
len tu tJiB Duuk of St Greorge, at Genoa, u- 
Nigniag to it the t«DiJi of tiia revenues, to be em- 
ployed in diministiing the duties on corn and 
Other provLiioiiit — a truly benevolent and patri- 
> Lh Cum, HUt Isd,, lib. U. op. 4. 


5uded for the relief of the poor 
of lus native dty. These two sets of ^ocu- 
meutfi be sent bj differeut indmdutds to bis 
friend, Doctor Nicolo Oderigo, formerly ambassa- 
dor fiom Genoa to the court of Spain, reqnesl- 
iDg him to preserve tbem in some safe deposit, 
and to apprise his son Die^ of the same. His 
dissatisfiiction at the conduct of the Spaiiish 
court nuiy have been the cause of this precau- 
tionsr; measure, that an appeal to tlie i«orld, or 
to posterity, might be in die power of bis de- 
soendants, in case he should perish in the course 
of his royage,* 

1 These docaoiCDts liv onknovD In tbe Oderigo bmily dd- 
tQ lflTO,vhcn Lorenia Oderigo presealed thsm la Iha goiirn- 
Duat of GeiHw, uid they were depoaited in tbe anshives. In 
lbs diitiiib«nc«» ud revulmions of after limes, one of Ibeie 
eopiu was taken to Paris, and the other disappeared. In 
ISIS the latter was discovered in the libniy of the deceated 
Count Hiehel Angelo Camblas). a Mnator of Genoa. It wa* 
pracored b^ the King of Sardina, tbea MvereigD of Genoa, 
■nd fina up by bim lo th* elly oC Oenoa in 18S1. A cattodla, 
or numument. was erected in that dty fbr it* preservation, 
BoppoitiDg ai 

bj ■ bull of Columbus. The docnmenM were depoaited in 
the um. These papers hare been publlahed, tO|;ether with 
■nhiitorical memoir of Columbiu, by D.Gio.BalliBtaSpolomo. 
Profaaor of £IoqBeace, etc., in the DnlTlnity of Genoa. 



59SI| GK wim rapidly making its advances 
WmO "'"*" Columlius wlipn he undertook Lis 
BSkI fourth and last voyage of discovery. 
lie hiid already numliered sisty-Bix years, and 
they were years filled with care and trouble, in 
which age outstrips the march of time. His 
cwnstitutioQ, origiaalty vigorous in the extreme, 
hai! been impMred by hardships and exposures in 
every dime, and silently preyed upon by the suf- 
feringK of the mind. His frame, once powerfiil 
and commanding, and retaining a semblance of 
strength and majesty even in its decay, was yet 
crazed by infinnities, and subject to paroxysms 
of excruciating pain. His intellectual forces 
alone retiuned their wonted healtli and energy, 
prompting him, at a period of life when most 
men seek repose, to nally forth with youthfiil ar- 
dor, on the most toilsome and adventurous of 


His squadron for the present voyage cousisUkI 
of four caravels, the BmaUest of fifty ions burden, 
the largest not exceeding seventy, and the crews 
amomttjng in all to one hundred and My mt-n. 
'With this iitUe armament and these flleuder barks 
did the venerable discoverer undertake the Btairch 
after a strait, whidi, if ibund, must conduct him 
into the most remote seas, and lead to a complete 
drcumnavigaiion of the globe. 

In this arduous voyage, however, he had a 
faithful counselor, and an intrepid and vigorous 
coadjutor, in his brother Don Bartholomew, while 
his younger son Fernando cheered him with his 
affectionate sympathy. He had learnt to appre- 
«ate such comforts, from being too often an iso- 
lated stranger, sun'ounded hy, false friends and 
perfidious enemies. 

The squadron sailed from Cadiz on the 9th of 
May, and passed over to Erdlla, on the coast of 
Morocco, where it anchored on the 13th. Un- 
derstanding that the Portuguese garrison was 
closely besieged in the fortress by the Moors, and 
exposc<I to great peril, Columbus was ordered to 
touch there, and render all the assistance in his 
power. Before his arrival the siege liud been 
raised, but the governor lay ill, having been 
wounded in on assault. Calumbus sent his 
brother, the Adelantado, his son Fernando, and 
the captains of the caravels on shore, to wait 
upon the governor, with expressions of friend- 
ship and dvility, and offers of the services of his 
squadron. Their visit and message gave high 
eatia&ction, and several cavaliers were sent to 



wail upon ihe wJiniral in return, some of whom 
were relatii'eB of his decensod wife. DoSa Pelippa 
Munoz. After this eichnnge of civilities, the 
Rdmiral made sail on the same day, aiid con- 
tinued his voyage.' On the 25th of M»y, he 
arrived at the Grand Canary, and renudned st 
that and the adjacent islauds for a few days, tak- 
ing in wood and water. On the evening of the 
25th, he tooic hia departure for the New World. 
The trade-winds were so fiivorable, that the lit- 
tle squadron ewept gently on its course, with- 
out shifting a sail, and arrived on the 15th of 
June at one of the Caribbee Islands, called by 
the natives Mnnlinino." After slopping here for 
three days, to take in wood and water, and allow 
the seamen lime Ut wash their clothes, the stjnad- 
ron passed to the west of the island, and sailed 
to Dominica, about ten leagues distant.' Colum- 
bus continued hence along the inside of the An- 
tilleij, to Santa Cruz, then along the south side 
of Porto Kico, and steered for San Domingo. 
This was contrary \o the original plan of the ad- 
miral, who had intended to steer to Jamaica,* 
and thence to take a departure for the continent, 
and explore its coast in search of the supposed 

1 Hbt dsl Alminnte, ei 

s (liis i 

preHDl iiitled Sant* LucU. From the dinlsnn 
■nd Dominiva, as etatcd b; FsraBado Colambiu, ii 
probably Ilie prsnnt Mvtin<ca. 

* Hiai. del Almirante, cap. 88. 

* I^llcr ol Oolumbiu ftom Jamaica. Jonnuil 
Mararrete, torn. i. 




fltrait. It was ctmtrary to the orders of the soT- 
er«igns also, probibitiiig him on his oiitwan] voy- 
age to touch at Hispauiola. His excuse was, 
that his prindpa] vessel sailed exU'emelj ill, could 
not cany aoy canvas, and coutinnally embfirrassed 
and delayed the re«t of the aqaadrou.' He 
wished, therefore, to exchange it for oDe of the 
fleet which had recently conveyed Ovando to liia 
government, or to purchase some other vessel at 
8an Domingo ; aod be w»s persuaded that he 
would not be blamed for departing from his or- 
ders, in a case of such importjuicc to the safety 
and success of his expedition. 

It is necessary to state the situation of the isl- 
and at this moment. Oviuido had reached Son 
IJomingo on the 15th of April. Ho had been 
received with the afcosttHued ceremony on the 
shore, by Bobadilla, accompanied by the principal 
inhabitants of the town. Ho was escorted to 
the fortress, where his commission was read in 
form, in presence of 4dl the autborilieB. The 
usual oatlis were taken, and ceremoniab oh- 
aerved ; and the new governor was hailerl with 
great demonstrations of obedience and satisfac- 
tion. Ovando entered upon the duties of his 
office with coolness and prudence ; and treated 
Bobadilla with a courtesy totally opposite to the 
rudeness with which the latt«r had superseded 
Columbus. The emptiness of mere official rank, 
when nasustained by merit, was showu in the 
case of Bobadilla. Tlie moment his authority 
was at an end, all his importance vanished. He 

1 Bill, del Alminnte, cap. SB. Las Casu, Uli. ii. cap. t. 

maaj wereairMted to be mft to SpM br tn^ 

fittencM of tfaor friendi in Sp^ to p«tMl ^ m , 
uid moay r«l jing on the wcAJaowa Safomiim 
at the Biibop of Foiwwa to fn«r al «te tal 
bmni oppoMjd lo ColnndMU. 

The fleet whicli haA bnm^ otf OvmAd, «m 
aoir nmdj for m*, and wh to Mke oat a maa^is 
r of the prindpal dfJinqnents, and mamy of Ac 
Idler* ami profligates of the tshad. BofcaBa 
iru to umlNtrk b the prittdpal ship, on boaxd of 
wliitJi )ui put on hmnenw amount of goU, the 
rtrium* ooUoded for the ctowu dnring Us go*- 
annnuiit. and whidi he ooofidentij expected woold 
abiiio fur oil hii faaltn. There was one wGd 
iniM of virgin gold on board of his ^lip. which 
U (nuioiu In the old Spauisb dironiclea. It had 
bci'ii found by a female Indian in a brook, on thr 
WtaU) of Fmnci»«> de Gamy and Miguel THai, 
and hud Imvh toki-ti liy Bobwltlla to send to the 
kliig, makJiiK thu onmeri) a suitable compeosatioQ. 
1 Lit Ci>i>. mm. IncU, nb. U. c«^ 3. 


I It was said to weigh three thousand 
I casttiUiuios.^ 

L^ge quantities of gold were likewise shipped 
I jn the fleet, by the fbllowors of Eoldan, uud other 
I «dveutiirers — the wealth gained by the sufferings 

■ of l]ie unhappy natires. Among (he various 

■ ^rsons who were to sail in the principal ship. 

8 the unfortunate Guarionex, the once power- 
fill cacique of the Vega. lie had been uontiiied 
iu Fort Conception, ever since bis capture after 
the WW of Higuey, and was now to be sent a 
captive in chains to Spain. In one of the ships, 
Alonzo Sanchez de Carvajal, the agent of Co- 

l-ltainbuE, had put four thousand pieces of gold, to 
|<)>e remitted to him ; being part of his property, 
I leilher recently collected, or recovered &oiu rlie 
I Wids of Bobodilla.^ 

The preparations were all made, and the (left 

frsras ready to put to sea, when, on the 29th of 

June, the squadron of Columbus arrived at the 

lOUth of the river. He immediately seut Pedro 

i Terreros, captain of one of the caravels, on 

ire, to wait on Ovaado, and explain to him 

t tbe purpose of his coming was to procure a 

sel in excliouge for one of his caravels, which 

9 extremely defective. He requested permis- 
a also to shelter his squadron in the harLor, 

Kju be apprehended, from various indications, an 

mproaching storm. This request was refiiseii by 

Tvando. Las Casas fhinltiL it pruliuble that he 

r bad instructions from the .sovereigns not to admit 

] Columbus, and that he was further swayed by 

' Laa Caue, cap. G. * lb. 


[iruik-iit cuniiiduralionB, m San Domingo «aa « 
lliut nioiuinit crowdixl with the dhm rindaC 
enrtmieB of the admiral, many of them ia ■ hi^ 
Rtatt? nf <'ia;!|)crutioii, frum recent proceednp 
wliidi biul uUieu place ugitinst tbem.' 

Wlieu Uie ungracioiu refusal of Ovamdo WW 
brou^lit to Columbus, tuid he fooitd all ibdlCT 
dfTiiii'd him, he nought at least to avert tfae daa- 
gi'r iif the fleet, nhich was about to siuL Btt 
wmt IwcJt the officer, therefore, to the gownotf 
eiilreiiliug him not to permit the fleet to put H 
etM fur H.'vera] days ; aesuring him that then 
WKiv indubitable sigiia of on itnpeiidiiig tempot. 
Tliis wtnond request was equallj fruitless witb 
till' fiwt. The weather, to- an inexperienced 
(!yi-, wna fair and tranquil ; the pilots and sea- 
men werii impatient to depart. They scoffed at 
the proilieUon of the admiral, ridiculing him as a 
falsf^ prophet, and they persuaded Orando not lo 
dittiiin tlm tteet on eo unsubstantial a pretest. 

It WHS hard treatment of Columbua, thns to 
be detiitnl tlie relief which the stale of his ships 
required, uiid to be excluded in time of distress 
from tiie very H,-irbor he had discovered. He re- 
tired iW)ai the river titll of grief and indignation. 
Ilis crew murmured loudly at being shnt out 
from a port of their own nation, where even 
atrangers, under similar droumslancea, would be 
admittoi). They repined at having embarked 
with a comnumder liable to such treatment ; and 
a:itiiiipat«Hl nothing but evil from a voyage, in 
whiuli they were exposed to the dangers of the 

1 Las Cusis, abi >up. 


of the 

Being confident, from his observations of tliose 
natural phenomena in which he w«8 deeply 
skilled, that the antidpated atorm could not l>e 
dialant, and especting it from the land side, Co- 
lumbus kept his feeble squadron close lo the 
shore, and sought for secure anchorage in some 
wild bay or river of the island. 

Id the mean time, the fleet of Bobadilla set sail 
from San Dotmngo, and stood out confidently to 
sea. Within two days, the predictions of Co- 
lumbus were verified. One of those tremendous 
hurricanes, which sometimes sweep those latitudes, 
had gradually gathered up. The baleful appear- 
ance of the heavens, the wild look of the ocean, 
the rising murmur of the winds, all gave notice 
of ila approach. The fleet had scarcely reached 
the eastern point of Iltspaniola, when the tem- 
pest burst over it with awful fiiry. involving 
everything in wreck and ruin. The sliip on 
board of which were Bobadilla, Roldan, and a 
number of the most inveterate enemies of Colum- 
bus, was swallowed up with all its crew, and with 
the celebrated mass of gold, and the principal 
part of the ill-gotten treasure, gained by the mis- 
eries of the Indians. Many of the ships were 
entirely lost, some returned to San Domingo in 
shattered condition, and only one was enabled to 
continue her voyage to Spain. That one, ac- 
cording to Fernando Columbus, was the weakest 
of the fleet, and had on board the four thousand 
. pieces of gold, the property of the admiral. 


Dnrii^ tk ewty part of this storm, the little 
I of Columbas remained tolerably well 
I 1:7 the IuhL Od the second (Uy the 
lim|iriil incrtttsed in rioknce, aud the nighl com- 
iBf^ OS with odosumI darkness, the ships lost si^t 
of «adi other and were aepsrated. The admiral 
dill k^ doae to the shore, and sustalued uo 
dam^e> The others, fearfiil of the land in such 
a dark aod Uusterooa nigbt, nn out for sea-room, 
and eocoiutlered the whole fiiry of the elements 
Fcv Beveral days thej were driven about at the 
mracy of wind and ware. fe.Krfiil efich moment 
of sUpwreck. and giving np each other as lost. 
The Adelantado, who oommanded the ship already 
meoUoned as being sctircely seu-worthy, ran the 
most imminent hazard, and nothing but his con- 
summate seamanship enabled him to keep her 
afloat. At length, after -rarions vieissitudes, they 
all arrived safe at Port Hermoso, to the west of 
San Ih>mingo. The Adelantado had lost his 
long boat ; and all the ressels, with the exception 
of that of the admiral, had sustAJned more or less 

When Columbus learnt the signal destmction 
that had overwhelmed his enemies, almost before 
his eyes, he was deeply impressed with awe, and 
considered his own preservstioa as Uttle less than 
nuracutoos. Bolli his bod Fernando, and the 
TCinerable historian Las Casas, looked apoQ the 
event as one of those awfiil judgments, which 
seem at times to deal forth temporal retribution. 
They noticed the circumstance, that while the 
i of the admiral were swallowed up by 


r the rn^g sea, tke onlj sliip of the fleet which 
s enableil to paraue her voyage, and reach her 
port of destination, was tlm frutl bark freighted 
with tLe property of Columbua. The evil, how- 
ever, ia this, as in most circumstances, over- 
whelmed the innocent as well as the guilty. In 
the ship with Bobadilla and Roldan, perished the 
captive Guarionex, the untbrtuiiate cacique of (he 



J OR serenil Anjs Columbus remained in 
Pan Uermoso to repair his vessels, and 
permit his crews to repose and refresh 
themsolTos after Uie late tempest. He had 
Bnuvely left tliis harbor, when he was obliged to 
take shelter fiTira luiother storm iu Jftcquemet, or, 
Bs it was called by the SpoaianlB. Port BraztL 
Hence he sailed ou the 14th of July, eteeriiig for 
Terra Finna. The weather &lling perfectly 
calm, he was borne away by the currents until he 
found himself in the -vidnity of aome little islands 
near Jamaits.* destitute of springs, but where the 
BCMnen obtuned a supply of water by digging 
boles in the sand on the beach 

The oilm continuing, he was swept away to 
the group of small islands, or keys, on the south- 
ern coast of Cuba, to which in 1494 he had given 
the name of The Gardens. He had scarcely 
touched there, however, when the wind sprang 
up from n (kvorable qaorter, and he was enabled 

I Sappoaed lo be tile Morant Keys. 


nutke sail < 

! cteBtlned i 

He ; 

'stood W the south-west, and after a few days ilis- 
covered, on the 30th of July, a small but ele- 
vftted island, agreeable to the eye from the 
variety of treea with which it was covered. 
Among these was a great number of lofty pines, 
from which circum-itance Columbus named it 
Isia de Pinos. It has always, howerer, retained 
its Indian name of Guanaja,' which has been ex- 
tended to n number of Bmaller islands surround- 
ing it. Tliis group is within a few leagues of 
the coast of Honduras, to the east of the greut 
bay or gulf of that name. 

The Adelautailo, with two launches full of 
people, lauded on the princijal island, which waa 
extremely venlant and fertiJe. The inhabitants 
lesemblecl those of other islands, excepting tiiat 
their foreheads were narrower. While the Ade- 
lantado wna on shore, he beheld a great canoe 
arriving, as from a dbtant and important voyage. 
He was struck with its magnitude and contents. 
It was eight feet wide, and as long as a galley, 
though formed of the trunk of a single tree. In 
the centre was a kind of awning or cabin of palm 
leaves, after ilie manner of those in the gondolits 
of Venice, and sufficiently dose to esclude both 
son and rain. Under this sat a, cacii^ue with lus 
wives and cliildren. Twenty-five Indians rowed 
the canoe, and it was filled with all kinds of ar- 
ticles of the manu&cture and natural production 
of the adjacent countries. It is supposed iluit 
this bark had come from the province of Tnot- 
'allcd in »MM of tb« ^igliib taxge B«mom. 


ua. wfatdi is about forty leagnes dieUDt from thu 

Tb« Indiaiu in lite canoe appeared (o have do 
fear of the Spaniards, and readily irent along- 
nde of the sdiniral's caravel. Columbus was 
ovt^rjoynl at thna having brought to him at once, 
wilboul trouble or danger, a collection of sped- 
mens of all the important articleB of this part of 
the Xi-w World. He examined, with great euri- 
outy uJid interest, the contents of the canoe. 
Among various utensils and weapons similar to 
thoMi alriiady found among the natlTes, he pcr- 
cvivrd utliers of a much superior kind. There 
were haldietc for cutting wood, formed not of 
atone but copper : wooden sworda, with channels 
on ea^ aide of the blade in which shaq) flints 
wore firmly fixed by oords moile of the intestines 
of fishes ; being the same kind of weapon aJler- 
warda found among the Mexicans. There were 
copper bclK and other aiticlea of the same 
metal, tng^ther with a rude kind of crucible in 
which to melt it ; various vessels and utensils 
nciitly formed of day. of marble, and of hard 
wood ; fclieets and mantles of cotton, worked and 
dyed with various colors; great quantities of 
cacao, a fruit as yet unknown to the Spaniards, 
but which, as ihey soon found, the natives held 
in great estimation, nsing it both as food and 
money. There whs a beTerage also extra<4ed 
fi'om maize, or Indian com, rambling beer. 
Their provisions consisted of bread ntade of maiie 
and roots of various ^nds, similar to those of 
Ilispanlola. From among these articles, Colnm- 



s collected Buch as were imporiant to send as 
Bpecdmens to Spain, giving tbe natives European 
triiikelfi in estrange, with which thej^ were 
highly satisfied. They appeared to manifeBt 
oeitlier astonishment nor alarm when on board 
of the vessels, and surrounded by people who 
must have been so stnuige and wonderfid to 
tliera. The women wore inaiitle!i, with which 
they wrapped themselves, like the female Moors 
of Granada, and tbe men had cloths of cotton 
ronnd their loins. Both sexes appeared more 
particular about these coveriogs, and to have a 
quicker sense of personal modesty, than any In- 
diuuB Columbus had yet discovered. 

These drcumstonces, together with the superi- 
ority of their implements and manu&ctures, were 
held by the admiral as indications tiiat he was 
approaching more civilized nations. He en- 
deavored lo gain particular information from 
these Indians aboat the surronnding countries ; 
bat as ihey spoke a difl'ereut language from that 
of his interpreters, he could understand them but 
imperfectly. They informed him that they had 
joBt arrived from a country, rich, cultivated, and 
iudustrioiu, situated to the west. They en- 
deavored to impress him with an idea of the 
wealth and magnifieence of tbe regions, and the 
people in that quarter, and urged him to steer in 
that directiim. Well would it have been for Co- 
lumbus had he followed their sdvic*. Within a 
day or two he would have arrived at Yucatan ; 
[he discovery of Mexico and the other opulent 

mtries of Mew Spain would have necessarily 


followed ; tbe Santbem Ocean would have been 
Ssdoeed U> him, and a SDCcession of splendid 
£scov(uie6 would have shed fresh glory on IiIe 
dedining ag«, imiead of its sinking amidst gloom, 
neglfvt. and disappointment 

The wlmiral'e nhok mind, however, waa at 
present ioteut upon discovering the strut. As 
the oonntries described bj the Indians lay to the 
we$t, he supposed that he could easily visit them 
at some future tone, by running with the trade- 
winds along the coast of Cuba, which he imag- 
ined most continue on, so as to join them. At 
present be was deiennined to seek the niain-Iand, 
the mountAins of which were viable to the south, 
and apparently not many leagues distant:^ hy 
koeping along it c^tead&stly to tlie east, he must 
at length arrire to where he supposed it to be 
seveped from the coast of Paria by an interven- 
ing strait : and passing through this, he should 
•oon make his way to the Spice Islands and the 
richest parts of India.* 

He was encouraged the mora to per^t in hia 
eastern coarse by information from the Indians 
that there were many places in diat direction 
which abounded with gold. Much of the in- 
formation which be gathertsi among these people, 
was derived from an old man more intelligent 
than the rest, who appeared to be an ancient 
navigator of these seas. Columbus retained him 
to serve as a gnide along the coast, and dis- 
missed his companions with many presenla. 

)f Coliini1>iu fnvi 


^^^^^^ CHR 

^^B Leaving the island of GuannjiL, he stooil soutb- 
^HiiBrdlj for the main-land, and after eiuUug a few 
leagues, discOTered a cape, to which he gave Ihe 
name of Caxinas, from its being covered witb 
fruit trees, so called by the natives. It is at 
present known as Cape Honduras. Here, on 
Sunday, the 14th of August, the Adelantado 
landed with the captains of the caravels and 
many of the seamen, to attend mass, which was 
performed under tbe trees on the sea-shore, ac- 
cording to the pious custom of the admiral, 
whenever circumstances would permit On ihe 
17th, the Adelantado again landed at a river 
about SAcen miles from the point, on the bank 
of which he displayeil the banners of Castile, 
taking posse-ssion of the country in the name of 
their Catholic Majesties ; from which circum- 
stance he named this the River of Possesaiou.^ 

At this place they found upwards of a hun- 
dred Indians assembled, laden with bread and 
laiuze, fish and fowl, vegetables, and fruits of va- 
rious kinds. These they laid down as presents 
before the Adelantado and his party, and drew 
back to a distance without ajieaking a word. 
Th» AdeLintado distributed among them various 
trinkets, with which they were well pleased, and 
appeared the next day in the same place, in 
greater numbers, with still more abundant sup- 
plies of provisions. 

The natives of this neighborhood, and for a 
considerable distance eastward, had higher fore- 
heads than those of the islands. They were of 
> Joanul of Pdou, NivanOs, Colcc, um. I- 



t bsgna^es. and Taried from each otber 
in tbnr decaratkms. Some were eotirely Dsked; 
and dieir bodies m&riieid bj means of fire with 
Hm figoiw of vaiiou:' aninuils. Some wore cov- 
erings about tbe luins ; oiLers ^ort cotton jer> 
kins without Bleeres ; some wore tresses of hair 
in front. TTte c^teAun* had caps of while or 
colored cotton. When amred for any ftstiral. 
they p«int«<d ibttr &cn black, or with stripes of 
Tarious mlors, or wtth cirdes round the eyes. 
The oKl Indian guide assured the admiral that 
many of them were cannibals. In one part of 
the coast the natives had their ears bored, and 
luiieoosly distended : whidi caused the Spaniardi 
to caS that K'^on ia Coita dt la Oreja, or, " the 
OmsI of the Ear." > 

Prom the River of PosseesioD. Colninbus pro- 
ceeded aiong nhat is at present called tbe coast 
of Honduras, beating against contrary winds, and 
struggling ttitb correBts, which swept from the 
east like the constant stream of a river. He 
often lost in one t«dc what he had laboriously 
gained in two, fmguentJy making but two leagues 
in a day, and oeyer more than five. At night 
he andiored under the laud, through f&ai of pro- 
ceeding along an unknown coast in tbe dark, 
but was often forced out to sea by the vio- 
lence nf the currents.' In aU this lime he ex- 
perienced the same kind of wejither that had 
prevailed on the coast of HispanioU. and had at- 
tended him more or less for upwards of dx^ 



days. There was, he eays, almost on incesBant 
tempest of ihe heavens, with heavy niiua. and 
such tboniler and lightning, that it seemed as if 
the end of the world was al haul. Those who 
Iciiow anything of the drenching rains, and rend- 
ing thunder of the tropica, will not thiuk his de- 
scriptioD of the stonns exaggerated. Ilis vessels 
were strained so that their Eeams opened ; tlte 
sails and rigging trere rent, and the provisions 
were damaged by the rtun and by tlie leidcage. 
The sailors were exhausled with labor, aiid har* 
assed with terror. They many times confessed 
their sinB to each other, and prepared for death. 
**I have seen many tempests," says C-ulumbos, 
''but none so violent or of such long duradou." 
He alludes to the whole series of storms for up- 
wards of two mouths, since he had been refused 
shelter at San Domingo. During a great part 
of this time, he had sufTered extremely from the 
gout, aggravat«d by his watchfulnesB and anxiety. 
His illness did not prevent him attending lo Jus 
duties ; he had a small cabin or chamlier eoU' 
Btructed on the stem, whence, even when confined 
to his bed, he could keep a look-cut and regulate 
the sailing of the sliips. Many times he was so 
ill he thought his end approaching. His anxious 
mind was distressed about his brother, the Ade- 
lantado, whom he had persuaded against his wiU 
(o come on this expedition, and who was in the 
worst vessel of the squadron. He lamented alw 
having brou^t wiih him his son Fernando, ei- 
posing him at so tender an age to such jwrils and 
' hips, although the youth bore them with the 


cuurngv and fortitude of a veteran. Often, too, 
his lliougbu reverted to his Bon Di^n, and tlie 
cu-os and perplexities ioUi which bis death m^t 
pluiigc him.' At length after struggling for up- 
wurds of forty daj« since leaving the Cape of 
Iloudums. to make a distance of Hboul ^reniir 
leagues, they arrived on the 14th of September 
at a cape where the coast, making an angle, 
turned directly south, so as to give Ihem an easy 
wind and free navigittion. Doubling the point, 
they swept off with flowing sails and hearts filled 
with joy ; and the admiral, to commemorate this 
sudden relief fh>m toil and peril, gave to the 
cape the name of Graeias a Dio», or Thanks to 

■ Lm Cutu, lib. ii. ragi. 'il. Iliil. del Almiranle, cap. 91. 


kS.^A FTER donbling C^e Gndas a IKos, 
RA^ (.'.'lumbus sailed ilirectly south, along 
2&k9I >*1i^[ is al present called tlie Mwqnilo 
shore. The laud was of varied diajacter, some- 
tinifs rogaed, vilh craggy promcinloriea and 
poiulfi ^treiching into the ^ea, at otheT plaoea ver- 
dant and fertile, and wat^Kid bv abundant slreaou. 
In the rirere grew immense reeds, soinetJinee of 
ibe thidoiesB of a man's thigh : the}- afaomided 
with fish and tortoises, and aUigatorg basked on 
the bauU^ Ax one |tlaoe C«Iumbui> parsed a 
duster of twelye email uilande. oti which grew a 
fruit resembUng a lemon, on which lunount he 
called them the LimooareB.' 

Afl^ sailing aboat sixtr-iwo leagues along this 
ooact, being greulv in waul of wood and wat«r, 
the Bqaodrou anchored on the 1 6th of September, 
Dear « oonioits mer, op which the boate were 

> FMer HartTT, decmd. ii 

sent lo procure the requisite supplies. As ibe; 
won iviuruing U> their ships, a suilden BWelling 
of tlw e««. ruling in uid encountering the nt{nd 
current of the river, caused a violent commotion, 
in which one of the boats was Bwallowed up, and 
all OD board perished. This melancholy CTeat 
ha.1 a gloomy effect npou the crews, atreadj 
di«[uriled and rart^wom from the hardshipe they 
had endured, aud Columbas, sharing their ctejec- 
lioiL. gave the stream the sinister name of El rio 
del Drtattrt, or the Rirer of IHsaster-^ 

Leaving this unlucky neighborhood, tliey con- 
tiiiiifd fur devi'rst days along the coast, until 
finding botli his ships and his people nearly dis- 
ahlvd by the luifletings of tlte tempests, Calumbos. 
on the SJth of StipiewlieT. laet anchor botweon 
a uuall iatand and the maiu-laud. in what appeared 
• commodious and delightful situation. The ]A- 
and was covonwl with groves of p«lm-tre««, co- 
uua-uut tn<es, Itananas, and a delicate and fragrant 
fhiit, which tile udmirul uoutioually mistook for the 
mirabulaiie of the East Indiea. The fruits and 
flowers, and odoriferous shrubs of the island sent 
forth grateful pcrfiimee, so that Columbus gave it 
the name of La Ituerta, or The Garden. It was 
called by the natives Quiribiri. Immediately op- 
posite, at a short league's distanoe, waa an Indian 
Tillage, named Cariari, situated on the bank of a 
beautiful rivor. The country around was freah 
and vt^rdaiit, finely diversified by uotile IuHb and 
forests, with trees of audi height tlial Las Caaas 
says tlicy appeared to reach the slues. 

1 Lv Cw, lib. ii. cap. 21. UiM. del Alminnle, cap. SL 

Joanml of Pomf. 



« bebdii ilir sUfK. \br-x 
! rami. tameA wiili hivtn 

to defend tiMPT dMtKi. Hie SpMiiani^ \ifmp\iK. 
made no «aemfit tu ubiI darit^ liuiT or the <imv 
■ceding day. but lenuuiinl qun-CJv uii bowril iv- 
f^^Z *^ alnp&. airin;: mkI drriiu; thi' (bnuurni 
jmnmn^. or repndng ircuu Ac fiiti^nins iif I ~ 
T iq rip!- "When [ht saTspK. pemdvpil Ut&i tbcM 
wondcritil bmp>. wiii> had arrivKl in iih<^ t^tivngA < 

prB(](niunntm]. They nude 
naooB ]Mcifi[^ sign^k. nmiuf Uit'ii niMitlts lihc 
iMUMn. and iD^mug tlit Spuiianis lo land. 
GrmriD^; Blill more bfJd, ihcy Kwrai W thi- ^hips 
uuBiJe^ and lanif^ of mtlnti. am) 
! of ihe inferior son of goli! fiUled 
guauiii. whiiiji tbfy won.' almui thuir ne^ifcs. 
Tlteee liiey offered it- tlii- Sjxuiiarrli'. "Hie «d- 
nuTsL iiowever. fivfaade all traflir. malcin^ Oitva 
presQiu. bnl taking miUun^ in exdian^ wiping 
to imprcsii ihieas witli h BtTorahle ktea of ihe lib- 
eraltn- and disinterestedness nf die whit^ mm. 
Tlu pridtr of iLe parages iras toadied at thr re- 
final of their profiered (nfU. and this siippimtd 
woten^E for their manu&rtuiv^ aod prodnrtjone. 
"They eudearvored to retaliate, hr pretending lifco 
On returiiiiLS to short, xhey li*d 
r all the Enropeaii articles wliich liad Viecv 
pven to tbem. without retaining the least trifle, 
and lefl tliein lying on the strand, where die 
~ ' It foond tlH'ni on a «ub^<eriiieiil day. 



•i U31 dedined to come on 
• tried iu every way to gain iheir 
MnMnoe, md di^d the dbtrost which their 

hnt TT-Tft'H ire tiae abore cMilionsly one day, in 
qVMt at tame Mde place ID procure wsOer, an 
■nriiiiH IndiBB. ot TmeriUe demeanor, iamied 
from UDoag tbe trees, boring « white banner on 
the end of a ttaff, and leading two girla, one 
•boat fourteen yean of »ge the other about ei^t. 
bninf; jewdi of goanin alMut their necks. Theoe 
be bro^fat to tbe boat and delivered to the 
SfMuiiarda, nwk j ng agas that ihey were to he de- 
tained as hiwtages niiile the stnngers should he 
on tbof«. Upon this the SpaaianU sallied forth 
with cMifidance and tilled thi^r water-msks, the 
Indians mnaining at n di^tanoe, and obaerving 
dw Mrideat care, neither by word uor movement 
to cause any new distrust. Wlien the boats 
were about to retarn to the Ehips, the old Indian 
made signs that the yomig girls should be taken 
OB hoard, nor would he admit of any denial. 
On entering the ships the girk showed no ugns 
of grief or alann. though surrounded by i^ial 
to them must have been uncouth and formidable 
beings. Columbus wns careful that the confi- 
denr« thus placml in him should not be abused. 
AAer feasiing tlie j-oung females, and onlering 
ibem to be clothed and adorned with various 
ornaments, he sent them on Bbonv Hie ni^t, 
however, had gJlen, and the coast was deserted. 
They lutd to return to the ship, where they re- 
mained all night under the careful protection 


' d»« udmiral. The tieil morning lie restored 
^czs to Uieir CHeudK. The old iDiiiua received 
om with joy, aud mauifeated a grateful buduo 
' th« kind trentmeat thef had experieucvd. 
n tJbe evening, however, when the haata went 
a shore, the young girls sjipeared, accompuiiie*] 
ly SI mullitude of their frieiidg, and returned lUl 
Jie presents they had receiTefi, nor could they be 
prevailed upon to retain any of thein, idthough 
tlwy must Lave bwn predoua iu ilieir eyes ; so 
greatly was the pride of these aavages piqued at 
toving their gifta reiused. 

On the iollowing day, ns the Adelnutado a^ 

proa<jhed the shore, two of the prindpal iububi- 

taote, «DtPTiiig the water, took him out of tlie 

boat in their arma, and carrying him to land, 

i*al«d him with great ceremony on a grassy liank. 

Dot Bftrtholumew endeavored to collect inforuia- 

l*™ from them respecting the country, and or- 

toed the notary of the squadron to write down 

ll"^ replies. The latter immediately prepared 

I*"* ink. and paper, and procee<led to write : but 

M xJoner did the Indians behold thia strange and 

I, nftteriouB process, than mistaking it for some 

I twoxunanlic spell, intended to be wrought upon 

[ ''•"'mhey fled with terror. After some time they 

ittUTiMl, cautiously scattering a fragrant powder 

a the wT. and burning some of it. iu snch a dj- 

on, [hat the smoke should be lionie towards 

pSpBoiards by the wind. This was apparently 

' d to counteract any balefiil spell, for they 

'n^gBded the strangers as fjeings of a mysterious 

lod lopemalurul order. 


"Dub sailore looknl upon these coaoteT'cfaaniw 
of tbe Induns with eijoal distmst. and appie- 
hended something of magic ; naj, Feraaado Co- 
Innibus, who was present, and records tbe Kene^ 
appeaxB lu doubt whether these Indiiuis wen 
not T«rsed in sorcery, and thus led to suspect it 
in otben.^ 

Indeed, not to conceal a fiuUe, which was 
mote <h»ncterisik of tbe snperetiiioQ of the age 
than of the man, Columbu:! himself eutprbsiined 
Ml Meat ijf the kind, lod assures the sovere^ns, 
m his letter from Jamaica, that the people of 
Cariari and its vionitj are great enchantera ; and 
he inbmaiee that ihe two Indian giris who had 
visited his ahqi. had magic powder concealed ttboiit 
&eiT persons. He adds, that the aailan attrib- 
uted idl the delays and hardships experienced on 
that coast to their being uniler the inflnence of 
H>me evil spelL woi^«d bj the wilfbcrafl of the 
tuUiTes, and thai they still remained iu that be- 

< Kiel, dri AlnumrM, emf. it, 

* LdWr Arm Jamuea. 

KoTM. — tt e 8nd iBMocw of tba suae kii 
ia Um vork oT Mates Polo, tad aa Cshnabn ouHidend tun- 
Hlf in (In ijcinitv of Ih* coaBtiia described br that at*- 
tlhtt b* BUT have be«D influeond ia Aia m pa c t by hla a■^■ 
latluiH. SpnkingafilM island «fS<iceoien ISoeolTB), Kano 
Pulo ubaartas: "Th* inhabitaacs il«al more in ■vnar and 
■iUbcraft than aaj otbcr people, allbongli ferbiddcn b)> iLeit 



For several days ihe Mjuadron remained iX 
flda plwx, during nhich tiine the ihip* were cx- 
ammed and repaired, and (lie crews enjoyed rtt- 
pose and the t^ataiiiin »i the land. Tlie Ad«> 
taniado, with a baitd of armed men, made rxmr- 
SODS at ehore to coOect inbnoalioa. There waa 
no pore gold to be met witk here, all their ontv 
motta were of gusnin ; bol (he nadvo* aawaJ 
the Ailpfawtifcs ihao, b puMnJng alnif Ihe 
coHt, the Mft vodd mm» anSte at a aa— tf/ 
where gold waa ■ gnat afcaadMWb 

' B <me of Ae Tila^., *e jUckB- 

VImh about Kt All. Columbus eeixed eeven of 
Uw> foufilir. t«u (if wliom, iip)NUVutly th« most 
■MM^gtMl. )m wlected to serve as goidw; the 
rM W nifl«f«d U dqwn. His lat« guide be 
hwl diUBHtnl with prasotiU at Oi|>e Grouuii » 
OioA. The inhahiWntr of Carinri manifested 
ttBVHwl MMuilulitT at tin' MJinre of tlieir oouu- 
ui[uwu. TIm^j tkroag«d to tbe shore, and mul 
off tiHU' of Uttar pnoci'iMl meii with preeeute to 
able skapi, iiiqilwiB( Uw relea:ie of the prisouers. 

The ailnural unred them that Im md; took 
tfc«ir AmpanwDa aa jpiides. &ir a short distance 
aktog itw cowtf and wdoM i«»(ore them soon in 
Mfrtj to their boDMb He ordered <i-aiiouji pree- 
««ita 10 hr ginm to the ambaMadotB ; bnt neither 
U» fnmMci uor giftt amid soothe the grief aai 
appR-hnkHon of the satitrM at beholding their 
frtcuit mrriiit airajr by beiaga of whom ihej' had 
•uch lujsieriou* apprehatMJoiia.' 

1 n. |{>>t. ilfl AInin 
Lmim it ColoatbiM ftva JanuUc*. 

e. cap- BL 



IX dte 5ih of October, ihe sqiudroD dfr- 
1 parted from Cariari. and saikd aloi^ 

J -mhat it at pnscnt called Oncta Km* (or 

Ac SiA Coail), fron die pM and nlTer nniwi 
Jbmd in afier }^sn "^"^ tta Koonlaou. *flfl r 
■wKng aboai twcntj-two taignea, die iliqw ab- 
dwmd in a peat' ba j, at»U sx k^ws is ki^ifc 
ndtlniee n bcaAk, foil of itiatidf. witli Aai^- 

thm or fc«r «MfM i f»» . It «m aOat hj Ac 

— li»ui. Caribwu,' and bad hem fomtiei «■ hy 

dw ■>!}*»«£ Cnari a* pbnufid in piU. 

Hm idaads -wa« lKaiiti6% V ' 

odeqi and true froa vdAb 
loag di^n. at if in canak in 

A Ae dopt- B^cd 
! KnrUt uf a dll7. 




ir miM. ilii cDcboriug. the 
) mr ef tb« Uaacb, wh«ro ihoy 
ITir pecfte wei* on ahoK 
Biiinf OKDwrngBd hj the In- 
» «tf Ckntfi «^ ifiwyiwiii lh« Spaaianls. 
*9 MHB rf» i« a «M MnUnoB. Mere, 6tr 
4w •» tkw M Am MHt, dn SfwniBrrk met. 
vWh nffMii»M tf !■>• ^rU : die nuivis wear- 

»yw<»m«w*= A?^ r itelikcwiaeof 

One of then 
1 » I^Hir flf s*U, «fMl in nine to ten 

OhAelAMi^ ^*e Wato ptmeeded lo 
^ wliU li I I M *» hMBM «r the l»T. The 
Bi^iia ^ mtimA «H Idfh aai r—g fc . and the ril- 
ka|fm WM« i^nwrtllj; |iimb«d «« tb« heigfate. 
IV^ ih4 aririi Ira iwaww «f laiiiiiii Ukv beads 

lhnMNl«r«A da«c«rtaMi Md l^qaiUaar 
lib*; «>««€*«■ 1^ H>Mi*«f goU abont 
*rir wobft, kM wIlHwi to r*>t wiA tben. IV 

g^Mwiwti tma^ nr* ^ llMn to the adiural 
to M«w m g Mi * . Oh kari a flats of pwe 
f«M vartk » »■«»» wt ihiawi. taaiKr an «^ 


cured, purticularly Veragua, which was about 
twenty-five leagues disUnl.' 

The cupidity of tlie Sponiurds wus greatly ex- 
dtfd, Had they would gladly havi< remained to 
barter, but the admiral discouraged all disposiliou 
of the kind. Uu barely souglit to collect epea- 
mens and information of Ihe riches of the eoun- 
tjy, and then pressed forward in quest of the 
great object of his enterprise, Ihe imaginary 

Sailing on the 17th of October, from this bay, 
or ratlier gulf^ he began to coast this region of 
re^uleil wealth, since called the coast of Veragua; 
and alter sailing about twelve leagues, arrived ut 
a large river, which his sou Fernando calls the 
Gualg. Here, on the boats being sent to land, 
about two huudred Indians appeared on shore, 
armed with clubs, lances, and sworda of palm- 
wood. The forests echoed with the sound of 
wooden drums, and the blast of condis (shells), 
their usual war signals. They rushed into the 
sea up to their W£ust«, brandishing their weajmns, 
and sphuhiiig the water at the Spaniards in 
token of defiance ; but were soon pacified by 
geatle signs, and the intervention of the inter- 
preters ; and willingly bartered away their or- 
naments, pving seventeen plates of gold, wortli 
one hundred aiid fifty ducats, for a few toys and 

When the Spaniards returned the aesl day to 
renew their traffic, they found the Indiana re- 
lapsed into hostility, sounding their drums aiid 
> Colombiu't LfiUeifroin Junaic*. 

' \ vt At timOj sMuiaos of Ifae 

MT «m frotB ikenkcxo^ hf tfae ^reat defer' 
(«tt «^ vliicit be w» utaMd, and br a mfling 
aUemiaB ftH to kos {MnoBal tnmAxt, b^ag pio- 
tDCtod froM a iboirwaf nia bf an inuaeiue leaf 
of a ime. He had a laige plue ef piM, whidi 
be raadOj gave ia eztftaii^ and pennitted Iub 
pet^ to do Ibe nae. ISaetoen plaies of pure 
gold wen procnred at ihu plam. U«re, for tha 
fint IJine in the Xew World, tbe Spaniards met 
with agns of solid archilectuM ; fiuding a great 



mass of stucco, fbnued of Ktone and lime, a piece 

of whiich waa retained by the aiimiral as » sped- 

• aten,' coofiidering it au iodication of his approach 

pto Ibe conntries where the arts were in a Ugber 

itate of coldTalion- 

He had intended to visit other risers along 
this coast, but the nind coming on to blow 
freshly, he ran before it, passing in sight of live 
towns, where his interpreters assured him he 
I might procure great quantities of gold. One 
kthe^ pointed out as Veragua, which has since 
- given its name to the whole province. Here, 
they sud, were the richest mines, and here most 
of the plates of gold were &bricated. On the 
following day, they arrived op])osite a village 
called Cubiga, and here Columbus was informed 
that the country of gold terminated.^ He re- 
solved not to return to explore it, considering it 
as discovered, and its mines secured to the crown, 
and being anxious to arrive at the supposed strait, 
which he flattered himself could be at no great 

In fitct, during his whole voyage along the 
r- coast, he hud been under the influence of one of 
■ lus frequent delusions. From the Indians met 
[•with at the island of Guanoja, jusl arrived from 
^'Tacatan, he had received accounts of some great, 
raod a« gu" as he ooold onderetjuid, dvilixed na- 

I the i 

This i 

Lijon hwl been 

keorrobo rated, as he ima^ned, by the various 

^tribes with which he hiul unce uotmnunicMed. 

< tlin. dil AtTainmlF. c*p.'9S. 



In II «ulNkH)U(Mit Irt.U-r to Uie sovereigns, lie in- 
fonn* ilii'ni thtit all Ow IiidiuuB of that coast 
cuncurmi iii <.'iloUui^ tlie niagnificents tif the 
onnnlrj- of ("idiiitriN sitiiiitod at l«i clays" journey. 
liy ImiiI, U> tlir weeL The people of that regjou 
Won> rrowii*, n»<l tiniceletA. imd enkleiA of gold, 
uiit ifMDH'nts (■inbrMdeiwl witli JL Thi'y used it 
for fill their ilniuMtie purposi.'s, even to the oraa- 
ntcnling aiul riubossiiig nf their Beats and tables. 
Uii U>iu^ fJuimi Mntl. the Indians dedored that 
tlie 'KMineii of Cip'nJ* wo"* hmda of it about 
(lieir hewit mhI uediff. Pepper and other epices, 
U'iiijj fihown ihiin. were eqiiidly snid to abound 
UiMv. Tlicy dejwril>eil it ns u cuuulry of com- 
nnreis with ftreai fkira and seaportd. in which 
shi|H> iUTi\-«l mukhI wiUi cannon. The i)eople 
wrv warlike, alsci, anued like the Spaniards wilh 
>«mnl», liuekirirs ruimsMM, and cross-bows, and 
|he_v nututili^) on horse*. Above all, Columbus 
unden.tiHMl fhim them that tlie sea eontiuned 
rwind ttt CVuarft. and that ten days beyond it 
wax lite <J Annies. 

Thiya' winy have liewi vague and wandering 
nimor» ninix'rninf; the distant kingdoms of Mex- 
iiM and I'eni. and many of the details may have 
biwn Ailed up by the imagination of Columbus. 
TlH'y HMdc, however, n strong impreission on his 
mind. He supposed that Ogmtre most be some 
province belonging to the Grand Khan, or some 
other en&tcrn [lOientMe, and, a» the sea reach(<d 
it. he eonelmled it was on the op|iosito side of a 
peninsula: beAriug the aune position witli iy~ 
^MCt to Vcnigua that Fontaralna does with Tor- 


a in SpaJB. or Piaa with Venice in Italy. By- 
proceeding &rtiier eaetward, therefore, he muEt 
soon arrive at a atrwl, lite that of Giliroliar, 
through which he ooold pass into another sea, 
and visit this country of Cignare, and. of cwnrse, 
amTe at the banks of the Gange«. lie ac- 
coonted for the drcomstance of his having arrived 
so near that river, by the idea whitii he had long 
entertained, that geographers were mistaken as 
to the drcDinfeivni-e of the globe ; that it ms 
smaller than was generally imagined, and that 
a degree of the equinoctial line was bnt fiAy-six 
mitee and two thirds.' 

With theae idea^ Columbus determine to 
prees forward, leaving the rieh country of Vera- 
gua nnexpJored. Nothing doold evince more 
de«rly hit generous ambition, than hurrying in 
this brief maimer along a coast where trtalth 
ns to be gathered at every step, for the purpose 
of mpvhing a BtTail which, however it mi^t pro- 
duce Tist benefit to mankind, ooold yield little 
dae to h™«Jf than the gtorr of the discovery. 

1 LMk if Ctdumbot inm Jmniaici. Nii-invK. Ctilec. 


IN the 2d of November, the squadron 
\ auchoreil in h spacious ami cuimnodi- 

1 hnrlwr, wliere the vessels could aji- 

proach doss to ibe shore wiLhout dunger. It 
was siimJunded by e,a elevated country; open 
ood cultivated, with houses within bowshot of 
each other, Burrounded by fruit-trees, groves of 
palms, and fields producing maize, vegeUblee, 
and the delicious pine-apple, eo that the whole 
ueighlMrhood had the mingled appearance of 
orchard and garden. Columbus was so pleased 
with the excellence of the harbor, and the sweet- 
ness of the surrounding country, that he gave it 
the name of Puerto Bello.^ It is one of the 
few places along this coast which retain the ap- 
pellation given by the illustrious discoverer. It 
is to he regretted that they have ao generally 
been discontinued, as they were so often records 

> Lu Cuu, lib, il. cmp. 13. tlitl. del .\lniiranlB. 


of his feelings, and of ctrcarngtances attending the 

For seven days they were detuned in tins 
port by heavy ruin iind etonny weatlier. The 
native8 repiured from aU quarters in canoes, 
bringing fruits and vegetables, and balls of cot- 
tun, hut there was no longer gold offered in 
traffic. Tlie cacique, and seven of bis principal 
chieilains, had small plates of gold hanging in 
their noses, but the rest of the natives appear to 
have been destitute of all ornaments of the kind. 
They were generally naked, and painted red ; the 
cadque atone was painted black.' 

Sailing hence on the 9th of November, tiey 
proceeded eight leagues lo the eastward, to the 
pouit since known as Nombre de THas ; but be- 
ing driven back for some distance, they anchored 
in a harbor in the vicinity of three small islands. 
These, with the adjacent oountry of the main- 
bnd, were cultivated with fields of Indian com, 
and various iruits and vegetables, whence Colum- 
bus called the harbor Puerto de Bastimentos, or 
Port of Provisions. Here they remamed until 
the 23<I, endeavoring to repair their vessels, 
which leaked eiceasively. They were pierced 
in all parts by the teredo or worm which abounds 
in the tropical seas. It is of the size of a man's 
finger, and bores through tbe stoutest planks and 
tiinbers. so as soon to destroy any vessel that is 
not well coppered. Afh'r leaving this port, they 
touched at another called Guiga, where above 
three hundred of the natives appeared on the 
1 Pdcr Marlyr, decsd. ilL lib. it. 



shore. Bome with provisrions, and some wiih 
golden omsmenU, which they offered m barter. 
Without making any stay, however, the adnural 
urged hiB way forward ; hut rough aiid adverse 
win<]n again obliged him to take shelter in a 
small port, with a narrow entrance, not above 
twenty paws wide, beset on each side with reefe 
of rockH, the sharp poiiils of which rose above 
llie Biirfiice. Within, there wa« not room for 
more than Ave or six ^ps ; yet the port was so 
deep, that they had no good anchorage, unless 
they approached near enough to the l&ud for a 
num to leap on Bhore. 

From the smailncBs of the harbor, Columbus 
gave it the name of El Helrele, or. The Cabinet, 
lie had been betrayed into this inconvenient and 
dangerous port by the misrepresentationa of the 
seamen sent to examine it, who were always 
eager to come to anchor, and have commujiication 
with the shore.' 

The adjacent country was level and verdant, 
covered with herbage, but with few treeji. The 
|Mirt was infested with alligators, which basked 
in the sunshine on the beach, filling the air with 
a powerful and musky odor. They were timor- 
ous, and fled on l>euig attacked, but the Indians 
affirmed that if [hey found a man sleeping on the 
shore, they would seize and drag him into tho 
water. These alligiilors Columbus pronounced 
to 1)0 the same as the crocodiles of the Nile. 
For nine days the squadron wns detained m this 
port by tcmpustuous wealher. The natives of 

1 LtB Cauu, lib. ii. cap. S3. Hist, del Almiraate, up. 99. 


Uiis placv were tall^ well proportioneil, aod grace- 
ful; of geutle aD<l frieuill; manners, and brought 
whatever they poi»ei<ficd to excluuige for Eiiro- 
peiui ti'iakets. 

Ab long us the admiml had coutrol over the 
actiona of his people, tlie ludians were treated 
with justice oud kindness, aud everything went 
on amicably. The vicinity of the ships to laail, 
however, enabled the ^eaineji to get ou shore in 
the oiglit without lireose. The natives received 
them in their dwellings with their accustomed 
hospitality ; but the rough adventurers, instigated 
by avarice and luat. soon committed excesses that 
roused their generous hosU to revenge. Every 
night there were brawls and fights on shore, 
and bIoo<l was shed on both sidies. The Dumber 
of the Indians daily augmented by arrivals from 
the interior. They became more powerful and 
daring oa they became more exasperated ; und 
seeing that the vessels lay close to tJie sliore, ap- 
proached in a great multitude \a attax;k them. 

The admiral thou^it at first to disperse tlieni 
by dischai^ing cannon without ball, but ihey 
were not iutimidated by the souod, r^arding it as 
a kind of barmleiis thunder. They repUed to it by 
yells unil liowlingB, beating their lances and cluhe 
again)'! the [re«8 and bushes in furious menace. 
The situation of the ships so close to the shore 
exposed them to aseaolls, and made the hi^tili^ 
of the natives unasually formidable. Columbua 
ordered a shot or two, thcpefore, lo be iK«Jiar]|^ 
among them, ^'htai they saw the havo>: nuidei 



o toxthei liostil- 

The . 

ttey Aed m (error, and oAbred i 

) of ctonnj wiixls from tbe 
kdditjon to tbe ntnsiant 
B <tf Ibe ciuTenis. disbeanened the <nii>- 
pMMoa of Cohnnbas, and tbej b^sa to tnunnot 
mpmsi aay fiiither praeecntioa of ibe vuy^e. 
"nw seamen iboo^ Uutt Mne hostile spell wat 

^ lo forrv their var in spite of 
i, with sh^M craied and worm-eaten, 
" r hi need of refMur. ^ew of \ea 
[['p'*"'* with Columbus in 
FBiT- Tbey were artnated 
Iqr man ffmtA modi^ and looknl budc with 
NflM •■ th« BCh eoMt tber had left belnnd. to 
f» IB *eai>t& d" an iwiagininr strait. It is prob- 
aUe that Cblnndna himself b^ian to doubt the 
ol tfw t of Ihs ea te tpria e. . If b« knew the detnk 
if ihe ranm Ttmige of Bastides. he most hare 
bM* svaie that he had arrivvtl from an opposite 
quMcr lo ahaot Ae phoe where the narigator'i 
axphtrmg 'mn^ finm the ea»t hinl lennioateil i 
fWHnpwnthr that ths« was bat Bttle proUaB^ 
of the existwoe of the strait he had b 


At all evente, he determined to relinquish the 
further prosecution of his vojoge eastward for 
the present, and to return to the coast of Vera- 
gua. M search for those mines of which he had 
beard so much, and seen so many indications. 
Shoidd they prore equal to his hopes, he would 
have wherewithal to return \a Spain in triumph, 
and silence the reproaches of his enenues, even 
though he should foil in the leading object of his 

Here, then, ended the lofty anticipations which 
had elevated Columbus above all mercenary in- 
terests ; which had made him regardless of hard- 
ships and perils, and given an lieroic character to 
tlie early' part of this voyage. It is true, he bad 
been in pursuit of a mere chimera, but it was 
the chimera of a splendid imagination, and a pen- 
etrating judgment. If he was disappoinied in his 
expectjUions of finding a strait through the Isth- 
mus of Darieu, it was because Nature herself bad 
been disappointed, for she appears to have at- 
tempted to make one, but to have aUempled in 

Though «».. of hi. 

texmtn hid reuh»d 

Spiin pwTion 


the wlJDg at CsIdki 

bus. uid hid girm ■ 


Tovigf. il i* doubtf 

1 wbdhw bt bid Iru 

iiDlU«d bu [..pen 

uu) diins. Ponti. 

rvige of Calnm 


sui«* thai Uirr arn 

ral «I the pUc* when the diKOvcriea of 



It Sin Doming 


IN [lie .'ith of Deccmlwr, Columbna sailed 
1 from EI Itetrete, and relinquishiiig his 
,rse to the easl, returnMl westward, 
in wMrcli of the gold mines of Ven^ia. On the 
Munn vvMua^ he anchored in Puerto Bello, about 
teti )fuf[uea dist&m: wheiiee depanin^ on the toe- 
deeding daj. the wind suddenly Tccred tu tlie west, 
utd be)caii to blow directly advene to the new 
coiinto he Imd Hdopleri. For three months he hwl 
liei'ii li>ii^iiig in vain fur such a. nitid. nnd now 
it ntutt^ merely to i!oiitradii.-t him. Here was a 
(eiu)>l«tian to resume hia route to the east, bat he 
did not daro Irurt to the continuance of liie wind, 
which, in thne pnrts. Appeared hut seldoui to hlnn- 
fhiro that niuirter. He resolveil, ihiTcfiire. In 
keep on in the preseut direction, trusting ihal thi- 
breexo would ^oon ohauge again to the eastward. 
In B little while the wind begnn to blow with 
drettdful violence, and to shift about, in soch cuui- 
ner as to baffle all seamanslup. Utud^ to randi 


Veiagna, the ships were ol>lige<I lo pat back to 
Pa«ito Bello, and when thej would have eoicred 
that harbor, a suddeu veering of the ^e drove 
ihcm. from the land. For nine days they were 
blown uiid to&^ed about, at the mercy of a fuii- 
oos tempest, in an unknown aea. and often ex* 
posed to the awfiil perils of a lee-ehore. It is 
wonderful that such open veagels, so crazed and 
decayed, could outlive sud) a commotion of iha 
eJemeots. Nowhere is a storm so awful a» be- 
tween the tropics. The sea, according to the de- 
scription of Columbus, boiled at times like a caul- 
dron ; at other times it ran in mountain waves, 
covered with foam. At night the raging bUlowa 
f«Mmbled great enr^g of flame, owing to thow 
luminouE particles which cover the sur&oe of the 
waters lu iliese seas, and ihrougbout the whole 
course of the Gulf Stream. For a day and nigfat 
the heavens glowed as a fiuiiace with the incewant 
fiaabes of lightning ; whole the load ciapfi of thuct- 
der were often mi«iaken by the affrig^ied maii- 
ners for signal gnns of distrese from their founder- 
ing compmiians- During the whole tine, says 
Columbus, it poured doim frxim the skies, not rain, 
but as it were a second ddnge. The leainen were 
almost drowned in their open vecaels. Haggard 
with to3 and afirighl. some gave themseJ^vt over 
&>r lost ; they confi^ssed their sins to each other, 
accordhig to the rites of the Ca^olic religiatL. and 
prepared themselves for de^tth : many, in their 
de^eration. called upon death as a welcome re- 
lief fnmi sndi overwhelming hijrrorfe. In the 
iMdrt of this wild tutnolt of the eleiiu:iu«, the; 


un Atm voTAOga of 

beheld n npiT ol^eot of alnrm. The mxaa m oat 
pUoo bocAtno stnuigrly agttnted. The water irae 
wliirlml up itiVi h kind n( pynunid ur luae. wliilr 
K livW cliiuil. Uiprriiig lo a point, lieril down to 
ini<ot il. Joining logvthor, they formed a vast 
mluiti4i, whieh mpiiily npproutlied tlie ships, ejan- 
iiiti]! lUiiiitf liif surltMW of tlie deep, and drawing 
up tho wakTs with k rushing sound. The af- 
ftiBhli«d nuuiiutrs whoii Uiey beheld this water- 
«|KUil uilviuifJug lownnb thiim, despiiired of all 
tiuntnii niiwiia to avert lu and began lo repeat pas- 
MijIM train St> John the Kvangeliat. The nater- 
B|iaat paMixl dn§c liy the ships without injuring 
tliMn. and (hit trembling mariners attributed th^ 
^nmpl^ lo the niiroculoiia efficacy of their ijuota- 
tioiw IVora the Scriptui-eB.* 

In l]iis taiuo night, they lost sight of one of 
thr> cnravi'K an<l t<>r thn-o dark and etormy days 
gitTU It up fnt VmX, At length, lo tlieir great k- 
Uef, it r^nincd the Hjuadron. having lost iu boat. 
Mid been obligi?<l to cut its cabk, in an attempt 
It) anchor nn a IwisttToiis coast, and havmg since 
Itwui drivi'ii to und fro by the Elonu. For one 
or two days, there was an interval of calm, and 
the lempest-toiscd moriuers hod Unie to breathe. 
T1u>y UMkvd ujKin this Iranqnillity. however, u 
dev^tAd, and in their gloomy mood, beheld 
ovM'ything with a doubtfUl and fbi-olxMling eye. 
Grtwt niuubere of Rharlu, so abundant and rav- 
enous in these latitudes, were seen eboat the 
ships. Tliu iviui cotistmed into an evil omen : 
fijr amiing the nuperstilions of the scas, it is be- 

I lat Cmu. lib. ji. up, it. IliM. del Almirmnle, c*|>. W. 



lieved \hax tlK«e vontdons fisb can emell dead 
bodies at a di^taace ; that they have a kind uf 
IireseDtimect of their prey; and keep about ves- 
seb trhicb have sick p<^rsons on board, or which 
are in danger of being wrecked. Several of 
these fish they cau^t, u^ng hirge hooks &at«ned 
to chains, and sometimes but«d merely with a 
piece of colored doth. From the mav of one 
fhey took ont a liring tortoise ; from that of 
another the head of a shark, recently thrown 
&om one of the ships, snch is the indiscriminate 
Toradly of these lerrors of the ocean- Notwith- 
standing their superstitioos &ncitjs, the seatnoi 
were glad to ni^ a part of these sharlu for food, 
being very short of proriskins. The lentjith of 
the Toyage had consumed the greater part of 
theb- Bea-slores: the beat and humidity of the 
dimate. and the leak^e of the ships, had dam- 
aged the remainder, and their lii^cujt was so filled 
with worms, that, notwithstanding ihedr htmger, 
they were obliged to eat it in the dark. lest their 
etomadis shoidd revolt at its appearand.' 

At length, on the 17th, they were enabled lo 
enter a port re^embting a great canaL where they 
enjoyed three days of repose. The natives of 
this vicinity built their cabins in trees, on stake^^ 
or poles laid ftoax one branch to another- The 
Spanianis supposed this to be through the fear 
of wild l)eo«t«. or of 6urpri«aU from neighboring 
tnbes : the difierent nations of these uoasts being 
extremdy hostile to one anoiher. It may have 
been a jtrecMilian against inundations caiu«d by 

> Bbt. dd Alininin>«. cap. 91. 



After learing Urn 
port. Acy w«i« drin-n harkwnnU and formnk. 
Iqp Ab duutgaaUe uu) trmpMtunaa winils, miil 
te <li7 ate Chriitmnni wlu-n they shelt^nd 
dRinMrfvM in •aothfT jian. whoiv ihcy remaineal 
UuUl ibtt Sil of JaniUTY, liiOH. repairing oiw of 
tho (univpU. will procurhi); wocxl, water, and & 
mipply <if ninbe or Indian com. Thest- mea^iues 
liriii;; n>i1ipl('lt^ they a^ili )>ut to ho*, and on 
tlu- duy >•( Kpipluiny, to their j.'rcut jny, iinchorMl 
ni ilio uitiuth of s river oaJIcd by the iiativee 
YclirH, within % lengu^ or ttro of ihc river 
Vi'Ta^ih and in Uw coantry aaid to be »> rich in 
niiucK. Tn thi-i rivttr, from arriving nt it on the 
dnv of EjiiphRnr. Ooluiubus gave the name of 
Ik-len or Bethk-ii>^in. 

for newly a uiontli he had en<ieHvoi«d to 
luitniipliiih th« voyagi^ from Puerto Bello to 
Vitroipio. ut n ilistiuinp of abotii thirty leag;nec ; 
find hwt oiimunt(<n<d so many troables and ad- 
vtintiliea, from ithiuifceabl^ winds and cnrreuti, 
nn<l l>niitt(^rous tompesls, that he gave this inter- 
lUHJiuIi' line of neahoard the name of La Cotia dt 
ln» i'uMitxutn, or Tilt" C-otui of Contradictions.' 

Ikilnnibiiv imnKiltiktely ordered the mouths of 
ihp lielen, and of its nrighboring river of Ver- 
Hgua, to b(i snunited. Th« hitler proved too 
Hhallow to admit liii wesela. but the Uelen woe 
•omowhal deeper, and it was thouglit they might 
«>nlnr it with iiafety. Seeing; a village on the 
IkuiIch of the Itelen, tlie atbniral sent the boats 
on sliore to procure informatiun. On their ap- 
1 llin. il«1 AtniinutB. ca|>. St. 


proach, the inhnbitants issued forth witli weapons 
in hand to oppose tlitir landing, Imt wert; readily 
pocitied. They seemed unwilling to give any in- 
telli^uce about the gold mines ; but, on Iteing 
importuned, dedared that they lay in the vicmity 
of the river of Venigua. To that river the lioata 
were disputched on the fallowing day. They 
met with the reception so frequent along its 
coast, where many of the tribes were fierce and 
WErlike, and are supposed to have been of Carib 
origin. As the boats entered the river, the na- 
tives sallied forth in their canoes, and others a»- 
sembled in menacing style on the sliorcs. The 
^sniards, however, had bronght with them on 
Indian of tliat coast, who put an end to tins show 
of hostihty, by assuring hifi counljymen tlutt the 
strangers came only to traHic with them. 

The various accounts of the riches of these 
parts appeared to be confirmed by what the 
Spaniards saw and heard among these people. 
They procured in exdiange for the veriest trifles 
twenty plates of gold, with several pij>es of the 
metal, and crude masses of ore. Tlie In- 
informed them that the mines lay among 
ritant mountains ; and that when they went in 
l^est of it tliey were obliged to practice rigorous 
fiuting and continence.' 

1 A*iip«nrtilioiia notion -nith respect to gold ippesrs I 
al«nl ■monjf lbs nilivM. Ttie Indi 
n'ld lbs unw privitiona wlien Ihtj 
ig from (bud and fniin bc: 
•comeil 1u locA upon gold as one or the «acm 

, lu obxirruicei among tht Spujurdi; cxboiting tbem ti 



I does not 

■, bringing great 
r atMnuded. 

Tho fiivarnblti ivport brought by the hoots die- 
tartnined the admiral to renuun in the neighbor- 
hood. Tho rivcir Uelen having the greatest 
dr|>th, Inn of thn mravrla entered it on tbe 9th 
of Jmiuorv. aad tlie two others on the I'allowing 
day at hijjh ti<l«^ which on tliat 
rim) abnvp half b &tiiani.' The t 
thiMU in the must frieuiUy :i 
qnaiilitlea of lish, will) wliiiJi that r: 
Tlir-v ItMiitiht also goldt^n omamenls to traffic; 
but ainli:iu<vl to oHirm that Veragua was the 
pliiru whfiK* ihi" ore was proomvd. 

Tho Adolanlado, with his usual activity and 
enlori»ri»(s wl off on the third day, with the boala 
wWl armnl. t4> uscttuil the Veragua about a league 
and a half, to tlic niKidpuiw of Quihian tlie prin- 
oifMtl oftci<)t»\ Tlie cliieftain. hearing of his in- 
tebtion, met him nmr tlie eutnwcc of the river, 
KUvndod by his sultj<-cta, in several canoes. lie 
vnu tall, of powerful frame, nnd warlike de- 
rouAnor: tlie iulernt^w was extremely amicable. 
Tlio cacique praenlcd the Adclantado with the 
gotdou omuncnts wliich be wore, and received, 
aa uinyuiHwut pn^seuts. a few £uni|ieaii trinkets. 
They (tarlul mutually well jileased. On the fol- 
lowing day, Quihian viiiiled the ships, where he 
in* hiispilahly cnlvrtniiied by tlie admiral. Thoy 
oould only (vmmnnit-ate by ugn», and as tlw 

pnriiy IhraiMilTM ht Ih* meuvh oT Ihc min« b 
piajw. anU clinaUlj;. tt b Ranaly necMMi? la 
bl* ii<lvl« WW liul Utile ittvailed ta by bit npa 
Nnaoil flillnnn. 
I Rift, ilxl .MioininK, cap. DG. 


And «iulJouB choracUr, 
ong duratiou. Colum- 
bus made him several presents ; the followers of 
ihe cacique exchanged many jewels of gold for 
(be usual trifles, and Quibiua relumed, without 

^ to his home. 
■ On die 24tli of January, there was a sudden 
5 of the river. The waters «uue rushing 
''from the inierior Uke a vast torrent; the ships 
were forced from their anchors, tossed from side 
to side, and driven against each other ; tlie fore~ 
most of the admiral's vessel was oirried away, 
and the whole squadron waa in imminent dauger 
of shipwreck. While exposed to this peril, in 
the river, they were prevented from running out 
hi sea by a violent siorm, and by the breakers 
which beat upon the bar- Tliis sudden rising of 
the river, Columbus attributed to some heavy fall 
of rain among a range of distant mountains, to 
which he had given the name of the mountains 
of San ChrisCoval. The highest o( these rose to 
a peak &r above the clouds.' 

The weather continued extremely boisterous 
for several days. At length, on the 6th of Feb- 
ruary, the sea being tolerably calm, the Adelau- 
tado, atteniled by sixty-eight men well armed, 
proceeded in the Itoats to explore the Veragun, 
and seek its reputed mines. When he ascended 
the river and drew near to the village of Quibian, 
sitnated on the side of a hill, the cacique came 
down to the bank to meet liiiii, with a great 
tnun of his subjects, unarmed, and making signs 
s, lib. ii. cap. as. HiM. del Almlnnte, cap. W. 

xjgpz sx» twcM^t* «r 

nc I wived 
: far (be U^. 
w^gWM. Md MM farM of tke latter, ud Us 
bA«rn - - - ... 


J ft nnmber of fai« men ta guard Uw 
hMM. dv AdeUnUdo departed on foot witL the 
remaiiider. Aft^r penetnuiDg into the inleiior 
aboat four leagues and a halC they slept for the 
first nighr on the banks of a river, whidi seemed 
to water the wbole countrr, with ha wiiidinga, as 
they had crowed it upwanls of forty times. Un 
the second day, ihey proctaled a league and a 
half Jnrther, and arrived among thiuk fortsts, 
where tlieu" guides informed them the mines 
were situaleiL In fiict, the whole boU appeared 
to be impregnates! with gold. They gndiered h 
from among the roota of the trees, which were 
of an immense height, and magnificreut foliu^. 
In the space of two hours each man had collected 
> fWar MartTT, dMuL iii. lib. iv. 


a liltle qnoiitiiy of goJil. gathei^ from the »ar- 
fiuv of the curth. Hence the guides took thu 
Adeliuitado to the summit of a high lull, aud 
showing him ftn ext«ut of country as fiir as the 
eye cuultl reach, asBured him that the whole of it, 
to the distance of twenty days' journey westward, 
aboiiiide<l in gold, namiug to Tiitn several of the 
priuci[tal places. •■ The Adelantado gazed with en- 
raptured eye over a vast wildernesB of I'lnitinued 
forest, where only here and tliere a bright column 
of smoke from amidst the trees gave aigii uf soma 
lavage hamlet, or solitary wigwam, and the wild 
unappropriated aspect of this gulden country de- 
lighted him more than if he had beheld it cov- 
ered with towns and ci^s, and adorned witli all 
the graces of cultivation. Ue returae<l with bis 
porty. iit high apirita, to iJie ships, and rejoiced 
the admiral with the &vorable report of his ex- 
pedition. It waa soon diseoverod, however, that 
tbn pt^tic Qnibian had deceived them. Ilia 
guides, by his insCructionB, had token the Span- 
iards to the mines of a neighboring cacique with 
vhom he was at war, hoping to divert them into 
the territories of his enemy. The real mines of 
Veraguo. it waa said, were nearer, and much 

The inde&tigable Adehmtado set forth again 
a the 1 6th of Febnwiry, with an armed band 
f fifty-nine men, marching along the coast west- 
i boat with fourteen men keeping pace 
with him. In this excursion he explored an 
extensive tract of country, and visited the domin- 
1 Letter U lh« Admirat from Junaica. 

fnak of ifc— diiMgaf goli; lUm nalife* gns^ 
aDj- weani^graM platea of it wmtfemied looad 
Aar necks t^ toooa confe. Thtve wen HbOs 
of bnd, abo, cnltmted with iDdiut com. — one 
of wUck oontinaed for the ertenl of sti leagnes; 
and the coontij aboonded with eicellenc fruils. 
He again Wood of a naliaa in die interior, ad- 
vaaoed m arts and anna, wearily doUung, aau) 
Mng armed IDw die Spunjud*. Either ibeee 
mre *agne and ezaggoaled nnoors concerning 
the |T«*t emfHre oi Pern, or the Adelantadu had 
Dusunderstood the signa ot his infonnants. He 
retnmed, after aa absenoe of Ecreral dav!. with S 
great qnanti^ of gold, and triih nninmring ao- 
ooonla of ihe cDnntij. He had found do port, 
however, equal to the river of Beleo. and was 
eoDTineed that gcdd was nowhere to be met with 
" 1 die district of V'ei^oa.^ 
I, cap. K. 


m ^ V ^V 


BEux. — anffipiKACT or xta SA-nrm. — auBftnoM 


I r^jucls uuuf^U to ConsuQif fnMB 
I ercry ade. of die w«aldi </ tbe sei^ 

■ ■ " the ^ciUes UMt rf iwoHjr 

daj^ joaxmej in extcni, ibowii to lii* Itfotlirr 
from dK — ™-"r"i ; Ibe nmon of ■ ri'ii aud 
rfriCnd onarity al no gml ditfttuw. «U •»»- 
TJMed Ih diM be li^ fMchod «oe of iLsaNit 
frnrad paott of tbe .AMtfie iiiMtiiiiiK 'fc^a 

He famed Un^tf M^wd M s fcw- 
wf ridwa. « «« <i/ Ibe aum r e a id dw 

d MiAth (J KJnS SdcoBiMt. ioMfduv 
oTibe itfWKlaa 
Ae puU for tlte buil<t' 
*i Ac «e«|ie rf Jiru— liMP UmI bum pru- 
d 5vn 11« smet of Ibe Aims OiemmoaiM. 
■■!■■ aniqiiMud tW nuuw uf Vtngua W U- 

■iHB. Tlvn- l>>r. M Im oljM«Ttid. - W)tliii> 
i^HC ififlatne fniBi Hm: fail: oud bwoi ■■«• 
i* Bid if tbe mlunnHlMti Wbidi be biMMi 



he bad rewli-ed rrum the Indisna was to be de- 
pended on, the_T were situated about the Huas 
duUliOQ front Iho Gaagea.^ 

Here, iht-n, it appennd to him, wns a place at 
which III ruuiid a colony, and eslaliliah a mart 
(hat should b(Mxini« iho emporium of a vast tract 
of minvs. Within the two flrM days aAer his 

I he V 

9 the a 

•if^na. lis had soea more signs of gold ihaa in 
Ilispauiota during four years. That island, so 
long tb« obji?cl of his pride and hopes, had been 
taken fmni him, and vras a scene of confusioD ; 
lilt) iKtarl coast of Paria was ravaged by mere 
adveiiiururs ; all lus plans concerning both had 
bocn deti-ated ; but hero was a &r more wealthy 
regiou ttuiu either, and one calculated to console 
him iar all his wrongs and deprivatiozts. 

Oa cousiilting with hia brother, therefore, be 
resolved immediately to commence an establlah- 
mout here, for ilie purpose of securing the poases- 
aiou of llie Douulry. Mtd exploring aud working 
the mines. The Adelantado agreed to reianiu 
with the greater part of tlte people, while tlie 
ailmiral »lmuld return to Spain for reinforcentenis 
mid Bitpptieii. The greatest dispatch was em- 
ployed in carrying this plan into immediate 
o|>eratiou. Eighty men were selected to remain. 
Thoy were sepanitKl into parlies of about ten 
each, aud comiueuued building bouses on a small 
eiiiijieuco. situated on the bank of a creek, about 
A bow-shot withiu ilie mouth of the rivet Beten. 
The liouKs u'l^ru of wood, ihntched with tha 
' Vmsm id Coliunbai ftom Jamtka. 


"leaves of pnlm-treea. One larger thnn tlie rest 
was to serve as n magazine, to receive tlieir am- 
munition, artillery, and a part of their provisionfl. 
The principal part was stored, for greater secu- 
rity, on board of one of the cai'avels, which was 
to be left for the use of the colony. It was trne 
they had but a scanty supply of European stores 
remaining, consiating chiefly of biscuit, cheese, 
pulse, wiue, oil, and vinegar ; but the country 
produL-ed bauauas, plantains, pine-apples, cocoa- 
nuts, and other fruit. There was also maize in 
abundance, together with various roots, such as 
were found in Hispaniola. The rivers and sea- 
coast abounded with fish. The natives, too, made 
beverages of vHrioua kinds. One from the juice 
of the pine-apple, having a vinous flavor ; another 
from maize, resembling beer ; and another from 
the fruit of a species of palm-trees,^ There ap- 
peared to be no danger, therefore, of suffering 
from famine. Columbus took pains to conciliate 
the good will of the Indians, that they might 
supply the wants of the colony duriug bis ab- 
sence, and he made many presents to Quibian, 
by way of reconciling him to his intrusion into 
his territories.' 

The necessary arrangements being made for 
the colony, and a number of the bouses being 
roofed, and sulficiently finished for occupation, 
the admiral prepared for his departure, when an 
unlooked-for obstacle presented itself. The 
heavy rains which had so long distressed him 
during thi^ expedition hod recently ceased. The 

Aliuirantc, cup. 96. ^ LuUer fi-om Jamaica. 



BccompMiioil by ouly five men, among wboin wh 
Itivgu Moiidu ; artleriiig the rest to oame on, with 
grtMil (vuliuii and Aecresy two at a time, and at a 
Jiaiauco rraii) I'uch clher. On the discharge of 
All nrquobuae, llioy were to Burronnd the dwetliiig 
mid BuHiir nu one to escape. 

An (he Adelniilitdu drew near the lioute, Qiii- 
bitiii (.Time I'orili and seating btm$elf in the portal, 
di-«ir()d llio Adi'laulndo to approach singly. Don 
linrtholurocw now ordered Diego Mendex and hie 
luiir com jMUi ions to rtimnin at a little dislani'e. and 
when lliey »huuld see him take the eaeiqiie by the 
OTDi. lo rush immediately lo his ai^slsiance. He 
thou advanced with his Indian interpreter, llirangh 
whom n sliorl converaatiun took place, relatire lo 
ihu Kurmiiudiiig rautitry. The Adelaulado tbcu 
Advened to the wound of the cacique aud pre- 
toudiuj to examine it, look him by the ami. At 
tlm concerted signal four of the Spaniards rushed 
forwurd, the til\h discharged the arquebuse. The 
cacique uttempled lo gel loose, but was Grmly held 
in the iron grasp of the Adelautado. Iteiug both 
luoti of great muscular power, a violent struggle 
i-Aauedi Dolt Bartholomew, however, mniutaiiied 
the inaslery, and Uiego Uendei and bis com- 
panions coining (o his ussistnneo. QuibJan was 
bound hand and foot. Al ibo report of ihc arque- 
buse, the iniuii body of tlie Spauianls surrounded 
■ he bouse, and seized niosl of lliose wlio were 
wilhiii, consisting of liAy persons, old and yoniag. 
Among these wore ihe wives and children ol 
ijuibiau. and soveral of his principal mbjectK. No 
one wnj wounded, for iheix- was no resistance, and 

Oted wwitoo Uoodsbed. 
e poor Mnga mw tbeir pnnce a captire, 
they Glied ilie air wiifa lameatatioDS ; imploring 
Iiis release, and oSenDg hr his ransam a great 
Ireasare. whidt tfaejr said laj oonoealed in a d^^ 
boring tonst. 

lite AdcJaDtado vas deaf lo ibeir bi 
and liKir ofiera. Qoituan was loo i 
foe lo be aei at llbenj ; as a priMoer, he vcmU 
be a hosta^ far the stmiiiy <£ the nctrVwfwl 
Aiixioo^ to eecore hii' prise, he deleraUBed lo 
send the c&dqoe and the oilief pnaooen on bosrd 
of the boats, wliile be remuned oo shore «ith a 
fan of his mui lo punue iLe Ibdiiuis <rbo had 
oaaped- Juan SaadMa, iLe priodjia] pilot al 
iba aqnadnML a powerfiiJ lun] Hpiriltiid iubil, rol- 
waoBtti to take charge of the oqjiiTes. Od cckd- 
■iuiug the diieftaio la liif care tlie Adelautado 
■ guard against auT at- 
Tlte Btnrdr fnlni re- 
fGed that if tlie cacique goi uui uf hi» iuuid-s. he 
voold give ibem Icare to plui^ onl lii» tioiiil, hair 
by hur ; witi liiis T»nm Ut- df^paoed. liearing off 
Qiutoim bomid Imnd and iuuL On arrrrji^ at 
the Ixjal, h« Becureil liiio bv n F^tmug curd tt> one 
of tbe bendtea. It <rae a dai^ tiigbt. As tito 
boaX froceeded down ibe river, ibtr cadque con- 
IJaJBBil luieooBl; of tbe puinfulness of his bocda. 
lie rongh bcw-. of Hie pikit wae touched witfa 
oca^iaaiBCiB, aud be kuseued iW cord W «hid 
QnibaaD wa£ lied to Hie beiicb, l«K]<itif the end 
of it in hi# baud. Tbe wilj Imliuj vmtdied bis 



opportBditjr, and when S«iidiez ms looking an- 
otber WKT. plnoged iato the water and dbappeared. 
So nidd«n and viideiit was kia plunge, iliat the 
pQat ImhI u> let go the cord, l&t be should be 
diswn in afi«r him. The darkness of the nigbl, 
and the biutle which took place, in prefenliiig the 
eaeape of (fae other priMaers. reud«^ it impoa- 
nble to punoe the cacique, or even to ascertain 
hb fiite. Juao Sanchez hastened to the ships 
with the reddne of the captire^ deeply mortified 
■I being thus outwitted hy a aavage. 

The Adelantado remaiaed all uight od shore. 
The following momiD^ when he beheld the wild, 
broketi, moontainoos nature of the couulry, and 
the scattered situation of the babitatiom. perched 
on difiereuC height?, he gave up the search aAer 
the Indians, and relumed to the ships with [he 
spoils of the cadque's mansion. These consisted 
of bracelets, anklets, and massive plates of gold, 
such as were worn round the neck, together with 
two golden coronets. The whole amoanled lo the 
value of three hundred ducats.' One fifth of the 
bootj was set apart for the crowu. The residue 
was shared among those concerned in the enter- 
prise. To the Adelantado one of the coronets 
was assigned, as a trophy of his explolL^ 

1 EquivaJenl lo ona Ihouatad two hundred vxA eigbt; «ne 
dollan u the prewnt day. 

* Hist del Alinirante, cap. 98. hms Cm*, lib- ii. c«p. 2T- 
Minv of th« particulu^ o( this chapter an frura a than aai- 
nlire giTEii by Diego Mendei. and inHrled in hii laat will 
") uritten in a strain of limple eEtitiBin, ai 
f u the principal uid almoM the sole K- 


II the ai 

DiaAarnia or tbi ^ettlehzxi. 


r wna hoped hy Columbne that the 
i vigurcius nieiL<iire of ihe Ailelftntado 
I would strike lerror into the Indians of 
the nci^hliarliiXHl, find prvrent any further desisna 
u|Kiii tbn Miik'Dient. Quibian had probably per- 
ished. If he surrived. he must be disheartened 
by the vnptiTity of his family, and several of hifi 
principal sabjeeta, and fearful of their being made 
mponsible fur any nets of violence on his part. 
T|ie heavy rains, thercfurc. which fall bo fre- 
quently among the mountains of this IsibiDUs, 
liaving again swelled the river, Columbus made 
hia final arrangroenta for the manHgemenl of tlie 
colony, and having giren much wholesome oauasel 
to the Spnnianla who were to remain, and taken 
an affectionate leave of his brother, got onder 
way with three of the earavels. leaving the (burth 
for the use ol' the seiilemeot. As the water waa 
»lill (hallow at the bar. the ships were ligUteoed 
of a j^ai part of their cargoes, and lowed oat 
by the boats in calm weather, grounding repeat- 


edly. Wlicn fairly released horn the river, and 
: cargoes re-sliipped, the}' niichore<l nitiiin a 
league of the sbore, lo await a favorable wind. 
It was the iuteniioii of (he ailmirnl lo [ouch at 
Hiapaniola, on hia way to Spain, oiid send tlience 
supplies aud reinforce inent«. The wind coniinuing 
adverse, he sent a boat on ehore on ihe Glli of 
April, under the couimand of Diego Tristan, cap- 
tain of one of the caravels, to procure wood and 
water, and make some com municut ions to the 
Adelantado. The expedition of (his boat proved 
filial lo iis crew, but waa providential lo tlie set- 

The cacique Quibiaii had not )«ri.slied as some 
had supposed. Though bolh hiindit and !\xl were 
bound, yet in the water he wai? as in hia nalura] 
element. Plunging to the buiiom, he swuni be- 
low the surface until sutficieutly distaut to be out 
of view in the darkness of tlie night, aud then 
emerging made his way to shore. The desolation 
of bis home, and the capiure of his wives and 
children, filled him with anguish ; but when he 
saw the vessels in which ihey were coutiiied leav- 
iug Ihe river, and bearing them ot!', he wiis U'ans- 
ported with liiry and dwpair. Deiermined on a 
signal rengeanoe, he assembled a great number 
of his warriors, and came secretly upon ihe eet- 
[ tlemenL The thick woods by which it was 
I nirTOUDde<1. enabled the ludiiins in approaeli un- 
' Been within ten paces. The Spaniards, thinking 
the enemy completely discomfited and dispersed, 
were perfectly off their guard. Some hwi strayed 
to the BBB-ehore, to t^ke a &reweU look at the 


me were on board of the caravel in the 
rirer ; otliera were scnilered aboul the boiuea : 
OH a sudden, tbe IndiaDs rushed from ibeir oon- 
cealment viih yelb and howIiDgs, launched their 
jnveliiis through the roofs of palm-leavei;, buried 
tliem in nt the winduw», or thrust tliem through 
th« crevices of lira logs which compoeed the walls. 
Aa the houses were sinalJ. several of the infaab- 
were wounded. On the first alarm, the 
AiWInnlodo seited a lauce, and sallied forth 
witli seven or eight of his men. He was joiued 
by Diegu Mendei aiid several of his compantons, 
and they drove the eoeinf ialo the forest, killing 
and woundiug several of them. Tlie Indians 
kepi up a brisk fire of darts and arrows from 
among the trees, and made furious sallies with 
their war clubs ; but there wns no witlistanding 
the keen edge of the Spanish weapons, and a 
fierce bloodhound being let loose npoo them eoio- 
ploled their terror. They fled howling through 
the forest, lenviiig a number dead on the field, 
having killed one Spaniard and wounded et^L 
Among the latter was the Adelantado, who re- 
ceived a slight thrust of a javeliu in the breast, 

Diego Tristan arriveil in bis boat during the 
DontesL, but feared to approach the land, leM 
the Spnninrds should rush on board in such 
numbers as to sink him. ^Vheu llie Indians had 
been put to flight, he proceeded up the river ia 
quest of fresh water, disregarding tbe wamiogft 
of those on shore, tliat he might be cut off by the 
enemy in tbeir canoes. 

The river was deep aitd nanow, shut in by 


high bank), and overhanging irees. Tlie fweets 
on e«ch «de trere ttiick ami iinpeueirable ; so 
that there was no Uodiug-plAce exc^iing here 
and there wher« a foot-path woimd down lo some 
fishiDg-^tT>aiid, or some place where the nalire* 
\epl ibeir tnaaee. 

The boat bad atcatied aboat a league above 
the vill^e. to a part of tlie irnr where it was 
eomf^Velj oTeialiadowed lij kAj bante and 
■pMMdiag trees. Sudden];, jelJe mad w«r- 
mboapt and UaMa of cootJ^ciMlIa roae ou every 
aide. Ijgfal canoei daned fcftb in ererj 
diRcdon fnao dai^ boUuir&, and overikauging 
tliiftjja, eacL dexienxielv muuiged b; a uugle 
gava^e, whiie othere stood up liruidiehiiig aud 
Iwifiiig tlMor laiioes. MifieUee were alao launcbed 
froca ^ banks of tbe river, and tbe braocbe^ of 
tbe treea. T^iere were ei^t sailijrB in the buai. 
and llnree MldierG. Galled and n-ouuded by dartti 
and ainiwa, coufoauded by ibt yelb and btaslc 
of oodcLe. aitd the bsekuIie wlaieii tliii^keited from 
eveij side, lbt;_v IohI all presence uf tnittd. 
Defected to use eillier oare or fire-aruM. ai>d 
oolj Bought lo ahelter themBelvee with tJieir 
backlen. Diego Tristan bad received several 
watiDde ; hul Blill displayed great inlrepidily and 
was eudeovoriiig lo aiiiuiau: bis men. wLeu a 
javeiin picroed his rigbl eye, mid elruuk him 
dead. The canoei- now closed upon tlie boat, 
acid 8 geueriLl maaaacre euHued. Bitl une Span- 
iard escaped, Juud de !Noya. a oooper of Seville. 
Having fallen overboard iu tlie audsi of Uw 
aetioB, be dived m tbe Uitunn, swam utider 


lined tkg buik of the river uDperceived, 
e Ua wmj ilown to liM sMlkomit. bring- 
p of ifas vmmmen of hm CB{>tain and 

Tha Spvcuuds «me comfdeuly disnuyetl, were 
Aw in aanber, sererml of tbetn were wiiumled. 
and ibev >«re in tbe miibt oT tribes or exn»- 
|i«t«Wd SKvagvs, Etf DXire tiercv Buil warlike than 
tkoM 10 whom ibey tuul been accmlomed. The 
nteirtl bein^ ijiinnuit of their mi^ortiiue^ would 
mI awaj wiiboat yieliiiii^ theu nssistfuice, and 
Aqr wvald bn kA lo sink beueatli the orer- 
iriMlnti^ fera of barliHrous foes, or to perish 
with hnager ob ikis inbo^piuible <x>a£L In Uieir 
dcepnir Ihej dMer nu ncd to lnk« the cnrarel which 
had bevn l«fi with th«m. and abandon the place 
allogelber. The Adflimtatlu remonstrated with 
iWui to vain 1 Doihiiig would content ihem bnt 
lo put to sea imiuediateljr. Here a new alartn 
Kwaited theu. Hie torreuts having subsided, 
tbe river was again efaallaw. and it waa impos- 
sible Ibr the cararel to pass over the bar. They 
now luok the boat of the caravel, to bear tidings 
of tbetr danger lo lb« adiuiral. and implore liim 
not to atiaiuloa them: but the wind was boialer- 
i high sea whs rolling, and a heavj suif, 
(umbling and brenkin^ at tbe mouth of the r~ 
prevented the boat from gelling c 
increased upon tbein. The mangled bodies c 
Diego Tristan and his men came floating down 
I. and drilUng about the harbor, with 
flights of crow^ and other cnrriou birds feeding 
1 hovering and screaming, and fight- 



ing about their prey- The forlorn Spaninrds 
contemplated litis scene with iihuddering ; it ap' 
peared ominous ofthtir own fate. 

In the mean time the Indians, elated by their 
triumph over ilie crew of tiie bout, renewed their 
hostilities. Whoops and yells answered ench 
other from various parts of the neighborhood, 
Tlie dismal sound of couchs aud war-drums in 
the deep bosom of the woods, showed thnt the 
number of tbe enemy wns continually augment- 
ing. They would rush forth occasionally upon 
Blraggling partiea of Spaniards, and make partial 
attacks upon the bouses. It woa considered no 
longer safe to remain in tbe seUlemenI, the close 
forest which surrounded it being a covert for the 
approaches of the enemy. Tbe Adelantado chose, 
therefore, au open place on the shore at some 
distance from the wood. Here he cnUKcd a kind 
of bulwark to be made of the boat of the [;Hravel, 
and of chests, casks, und similar articles. Two 
places were left open as embrasures, in which 
were placed a couple of falconets, or small pieces 
of artillery, in such manner as to command the 
neighborhood. In this lilile fortress the Span- 
iards ehut themselves up; its walls wi^re suffi- 
cient to screen iheni from the darts and arrows 
of the Indians, but mostly they depended on 
their fire-arms, the sound of which struck dismay 
into the savages, especlHlly when liiey saw the 
effect of the bulls, splintering and rending tbe 
trees around them, and carrying havoc to sucli a 
di.4lai)ce. The Indians were thus kept in clieck 
&r the present, and deterred from vealuring from 


«fi iJFS MKr> rorACi:s of colcmbus. 

Uw lhr«M ; Init the SpMiUnls, exhausted b; 
MWMam murhin^ and incessant alarms, antici- 
|«led «ll kindd oT ectl wlieu tlteir aniinnnition 
ahMM be oxImnMed, ur ilioy sbonld (le driven 
frMh t)y lim^iOT to nook for food.' 




1HILE iha Addanlftdo and his men were 
esposed to such imniinent peril on 
sliore, grent anxiety prevailed on board 
of ihe s1iip9. Day nAcr day elapsed without the 
return of Diego Tristan and hia pnny, and it 
was feared some disaster had bcfalleu them. 
Coloinbus would have sent on shore lo mnbe in- 
quiries ; but there was only one boat remaining 
for Ihe service of the aqnadron, and he dared not 
risk it in (he rough sea and heavy surf. A dis- 
mal drcumstance occurred to increase the ).-looni 
and uneasiness of the crews. On board of one 
of ibe caravels were confined the family and 
household of the cacique Quibian. It was the 
intention of Columbus to carry them to Spain, 
trosting that as long as they remained in the 
power of the Spaniards iheir tribe would be de- 
terred from further hostilities. They were shut 
up at night in the forecastle of the caravel, the 
hatchway of which was secured by a strong chain 



and piidlock. As seTeral of tbe crew slept upon 
the batch, and it was so high as lo be considered 
out of reach of the prisonera, they neglected to 
&8teii the chain. The IndiiiDB discovered Itieir 
negligence. Colleciing a quantity of stones from 
the ballast of tbe vceael, ihey made a great heap 
directly under Ihe hatchway. Several of the 
moBt powerful warriors mounted opon the (op. 
and bending their backs, by a sudden and simul- 
tuneous effort, forced up tbe hatch, flinging the 
seamen who slept upon it to the opposite side of 
the ship. In an instant tlie greater piul of the 
Indians sprang forth, plunged into the Nia, and 
swam for shore. SeTeral, however, were pro- 
vented from sallying forth ; others were seized 
en the deck, and forced back into the forecastle ; 
the hatchway was carefully cliaiiied down, and a 
guard was set for the rest of the night. In the 
morning, when the Spaniards went to examine 
the caplivcH, they were all Ibund dead. Some 
had hanged theraselTes with the ends of ropes, 
their knees touching the floor ; others had 
strangled ibemselves by straining the cord tight 
with their feet. Such waa tbe liercti unconquer- 
able spirit of these people, and their horror of 
the while men.^ 

Tbe escape of the prisoners occasioned great 
anxiety to the admiral, fearing they would stim- 
ulate their countrymen to some violent act of 
vengeance ; and he trembled for the safety of bis 
brother. Still this painflil mystery reigned over 
the land. Tbe boat of Diego Tristan did oot 

I Hist, dal Alinirante. can. 9S. 



Tetnrn. and the raging surf prevpntett nil rom- 
manic»[ioR$. At leiiglh, one Pedro Lr<ie>nnn, a 
pilot of Seville, a man of about foi'ly-fico jonr» 
of Age and of grent Btrenglh of body ntiil mind, 
offered, if the bont would take him to lliu udge 
tX the Burf, to Bwim to shore, and bring off new*. 
He bud been piqued by the achievemotil of the 
Indian captives, in swimming lo land at N 
leogae's dislance, in defiance of sea and oiirf. 
" Surely," he siiid, " if they dare ventiin) so much 
to procure their individual lilterttes, I ought lo 
brave at least a part of the datiger, lo navn ihA 
livea of so many compnnionn." His offer waa 
gladly Bccepled by the admiral, and was Ixtlrlly 
Hccorapllsbed. The boat approache<l with him aa 
near to the surf as safety would permit, whore it 
was lo await hie return. Here, Htripping him- 
nlf. he plunged Into ihe sen, and alUr buffeting 
for some time with the breiikem, Homt'iiine* riaiiig 
upon their surges, sometime* buried beneath tlient 
and dashed upon the eaad, he succeeded in rcAch- 
ing the shore. 

He Iband his conntrymen ohnl up in Iheir for- 
\an fbrtreM, beleaguered by savage foe*. Hnd 
Innit the Iragieal fate of Diego Trialan awl \M 
compaaiooa. Many «f the Hpaoiard', in tl>»ir 
b^ Ihmwn nff all uiUitAt- 
that Ihv) 
Ibb plaee. an>I thnn^ht 
of mOii^ btf taa^ Whaa U^ l>riwM L*- 
■mew e ir Hon tfct Mf^ ikmf mu- 


i abandon them on k coast wliere tbeir 
was inevitable. Thev were prepar- 
g canoes to take them to the ships, when the 
neather should tnodcrate, the bont of the cura- 

are tlmt. If the ad- 
1 board, they would 

ran as it could be ex- 
abandon themselves 

, rather than retnain 

1 forloni counttymeii 

vel being too small: and an 
miriil rel'tised to take them o 
embark in the cararel as soc 
iricaied from the river, an 
to the mercy of the sea 
upon that fatal coast. 

Having beard nil that h 
had to say, and commnnicated with the Adelan- 
tado and his oflicers. Ledesnut set out on bb per- 
ilous return. He again braved tlie surf and the 
breakers, reached the boat which was wailing 
for him, and was conveyed back to the ships. 
The disastrous tidings from the land tilled the 
heart of the admiral with grief and alarm. To 
leave his brother on shore, would be to expose 
him to the mutiny of his own men, and the 
ferocity of the aavsge.s. He could spare no re- 
inforcement from the ships, the crews being so 
much weakened by the loss of Tristan and bis 
companions. Ratlier tlmn the settlement should 
be broken np. he would gladly have joined the 
Adelanlado with all hb people ; but in such 
case how could inteliigeDce be conveyed to the 
sovereigns of this important discovery, and how 
could supplies be obtained from Spain ? There 
appeareil no alternative, therefore, but to embark 
all the people, abandon the settlement for the 
present, and return at some future day, with n 
ibrce competent to lake secure possession of the 



country.^ The atate of the weather rendered 
the practicability even of this pinn doiiblfiil. 
The wind continued high, the sea rough, and no 
boBt conld pnss between the squadron and ihe 
land. The situatioti of the ships wn9 itself a 
matter of extreme solicitude. Feebly manned, 
crazed by alonns, and ready to fall to pieces from 
the ravages of the teredo, ihey were anchored on 
K lee shore, with a boisterous wind and sea, iu a 
climate subject to tempest?, and where the lenst 
augmentation of the weather might drive them 
among the breakers. Every hour increased the 
anxiety of Columbus for his brotiier, hia people, 
Biid his ships, and each hour appeared to render 
the impending dangers more imminenL Days 
of constant pertarbation, and nightfl of sleepless 
' anxiety, preyed upon a constitution broken by 
age, by maladies end hardships, and produced a 
fever of the mind, in which he was visited by 
one of those mental linllucinations deemed by 
him mysterious and supernatural. In a letter to 
the sovereigns he gives a .solemn account of a 
kind of vision by which he vrns comforted in a 
dismal m'ght, when full of despondency aud toss- 
ing on a couch of pain : — 

" Wearied and sighing," says he, " I fell into a 
slumber, when I heard a piteous voice siiying to 
me, ' fool, and slow to believe and serve thy 
God, who ia the God of all ! What did he more 
for Moses, or for his servant David, than he hae 
done for thee ? From the time of thy birth he 
has ever had thee under his peculiar care. When 
' Tetter or Columbus froiu Jnmiiicii. 




be saw tliee of a Suing age he made thy 
moand cnuTTekiufily throughout the earth, and 
thoQ nert obe7e<l in ninny Unda, and didst acquire 
hononihle fame amoug Christiaiia. Of the gnies of 
the Oceaii Sen, ehut up with such mighty chains, he 
delivered thee the keys ; the ludies, those .we«lihy 
regions of the worlJ, he gave Uiue for ihiue own, 
aijil erapuwered ihee to dispose of them to others, 
ftcconiiiig to thy pleasure. ^Vhal did he more 
for the great people of Israel when he le<l ihem 
forth from Egypt? Or for David, whom, frora 
being a shepherd, be made a king in Judea? 
Turn to him, then, and acknowledge thine error; 
his luercy is intinite. He has many and vast in- 
heritances yet in re.'terve. Fear not lo seek them. 
Thine age shall be no impediment to any great 
itndertaking. Abraham was above an hundred 
years when he begat Isaac ; and was Sarah 
youthful ? Thou urgest deapondingly for succor. 
Answer ! who halh afflicted thee ko mnch, and so 
many times 'f — God, or the world ? The privi- 
leges and promises which God halh made thee he 
huLh never broken ; neither hath he aaid, aner 
having reeeived ihy services, that this meaning 
was difl'erent, and to be understood in a different 
sense. He performs to the very tetter. He ful- 
fills all that he promises, and with increase. Such 
is his custom. I have shown thee what thy 
Ci'eator hath done for ihee, and what he doth for 
all. The present is the reward of the toils and 
perils thou hast endured in serving others.' 1 
heard all this," adds Columbus, " as one almost 
dead, and had no power to reply to words so true. 





excepting lo weep for my errors. Wlioever it waa 
that spoke to me, finisljed by sayiug, * Fear noi ! 
Confide I All theite tribulations are written in 
marble, and not witliout ciiuse." " 

Such is the eiugular etaieinent which G>lum- 
biw gave to the sovereigns of his supposed vision. 
It hxs been suggested tliat tliis was a mere ingu- 
nious fiction, adroitly devised by bim to convey a 
lesson lo his prince ; but such an idea is inoon- 
Bistent with liis charocler. lie wub loo deeply 
imbued with awe of the Deity, and with revtir- 
enoe for his sovereign, to make socli an artifice. 
The words here spoken to him by llie supposed 
T(Hce, are truths,'Which dwelt upon his miud, and 
grieved his spirit during his w»kiiig hours. It is 
natural that tliey should recur vividly and coheav 
ently in bis feverish dreants ; and in recalling and 
relating a dream one is uuciitisciously apt (o give 
it a liltte coherency. Besides, Columbus had a 
solemn belief that he was a peculiar instrument iu 
the liands of Providence, which, together with the 
deep linge of superstition, common to the age, 
made him prone to mistake every striicing dream 
for a revelation, lie is not to be meaaored by the 
same staudai'd with ordinary men in ordinary cir- 
eumslances. It is dilBcult for the mind lo i-ealize 
lu9 situation, and to conceive the exulialiona of 
Spirit to which be must have been subjected. 
The artless manner in which, in his letter to the 
sovereigns, he mingles up the rhapsodies and 
dreams of his imagination with simple facts ^md 
Bound practical observations, pouring them forth 
.with B kind of sariplnrnl solenmiiy auU poetry 



of hngiuge, is ooe of tbe most strikit^ iQa*- 
iraiions of a character richly compootiiJed of 
exiraorrlinary aiul sppftreailj ccmlradlciorj ele- 

Immediately al\er his Eappoeed vision, utd 
after a duration of nine days. tJ»e bocsleroos 
weather aubaided. the sea becsoie calm, and tbe 
communicatioD nhh the laud was restored. Ii 
wad foiutd impoa»ible to extricate the t 
eararel Ehim the river ; but every e 
nude to bring off ihe people, and the proper^, 
belbre there ahoald be a return of the bad weubo^ 
III Ibid, the exertioDS of the zealooa Di^o Meo- 
dez were emineatly efficienL Ue had been for 
tome days preparing for such an emei^ncy. 
Cutting up the saib of tbe caravel, be mode great 
Mcks to receive the biiKuit. He lashed two In- 
dian canoes together with spars, so that they 
ooold oot be overturned by the wares, and made 
a plalform on them capable of sttslouiing a great 
borden- Tbia kind of raSt wa^ ladea repeatedly 
with the stores, arms, and ammanillou nhich had 
been left on shore, and with the tiimitore of the 
caravel, which was entirely dismantled. When 
well treighied. it was towed by the boat to tlie 
ehipe. In this way. by constant and sleepless ex- 
ertions, In the space of two days almoai every 
thing of value was transported on board the 
squadron, atul little else left ihau the hull of (he 
camvel. stnuided, decayed, and rutting in the 
river. Diego Meadez superintended the whole 
embarkation with nawearied watchfulness and ac- 
tivity. He, and five < 


to leave ibe Bbore, remaining all night al 
perilous poet, and emliarking id ilie momiiig with 
the last cargo of efl«cl^ 

K'otliing M>ald etjoal the iraosports of the 
SpaniurdB, when they fonod themselves ont-e 
more ou board of the ships, and saw a <>pace of 
ocean between them and those forests which hail 
latdjr seemed destined to be their graves. The 
joy of their comrades seemed little inferior to 
their own ; and the perils and batUshtpa whi«h 
had snrTounded them were forgotten for a lime 
in matual congrataiations. The admiral was n> 
much impressed with a sense of the high serrices 
rendered by Diego Hendex, thronghoat the late 
time of danger aitd disMster, that lie gave him the 
comtnand of the caravel, vacant by the death t»f 
the nntbrt&nate Dic^ Tristan.' 

t. del AlminBU, of. M, tOO. Las Cuts, tib- 

(heir ^H 




trinii Rt Iciigib becoming favomble. 

IG>lunibu9 ?ei sail, towards llie eiid of 
April, from ihe disastrous coasi of Vera- 
gua. Tlie wrelclied conditioti of tlte Bhipci, the 
enfeebled slate of llie crewsi. and the scarcity of 
provuions, delerminad him lo make the best of 
bU way lo Ilupatiiola, where lie might refit his 
vessels and procure the necessary supplies for the 
voyage to Europe, To the surprise of his pilot 
niid crews, however, on making snil. he stood again 
along tlie coast to the eastward, instead of steering 
north, which ihey considered (he direct route to 
Hispaniola. They fancied that he intended to 
proceed immcdiaiely for Spain, and murmured 
loudly at the inadiiesa of attempting so long a 
voyage, with ships destitute of stores and con- 
sumed by worms. Columbus and his brother, 
however, hwl studied the navigation of tliose seas 
' Willi a more ohacrvant and experienced eye. They 
comidered it advisable to gain a considerable dis- 


o the east, before standing across for tlis- 
poniolii, to avoid bcitig swept awnj fur below llieir 
destined port by ihe strong currents setting arm- 
itantly to the wesL^ The (ulmiral, however, did 
not impBTt his reasons (o llie pilots, being anxious 
to keep the knowledge of his routes aa much to 
himselfas possible, seeing tbut there were so many 
adventurers crowding into the field, and ready to 
fcllow w\ his track. He even took from the 
norisera their cbarls," and boasts, in n letter to 
the sovereigns, that none of his pilots would be 
able to retrace the route to and Tram Ventgini, 
nor to describe where it was situated. 

Disregnrding the murmurs of hi» men, itiere- 
IIh«, lie continued along the ccwsl eastward bs far 
» Puerto Bello. Here he was obliged (o leave 
«» of the caravels, being so pierced by wormd, 
thai it was impossible to keep her aikMl. All tlie 
crews were tiow crowded in two caravels, and tlie«e 
were little belter llwu mere wreck*. The uinUMt 
flxertkma were neeesaary to keep them free from 
mUer ; while ibe incessunl labor of the pumpa 
bora hard oa neo euJe«Ueil by Maoty diet, and 
dejected bjr rariDo* hardabips. Coolinntng oo- 
ward, tbey paved Port Becnde, aial a uumb^ of 
ilhadii to which the aJmiral gave tbe name of 
JUa BartMa, now termed tbe Uolatas, a little be- 
yond Point Km. Her« he supposed that be had 
animdnt the pravinon of Uoi^ in tbe ternlonea 
of il» Onnd KhM, doeribed hf Marao Polo aa 



niliotiting to Cftlhny.' He continued ou about 
Itni teaguaa fiiriher, nntil he approiLchdd tlie ea- 
(nioce of wliat ie lit presout called the Gulf of 
Itarien. Here lie hfid & eon^ultalioii with bis 
(Vtfitnins nni) pilot-S wlio reiuonslraled at bis per- 
NiAting in tins slmg^Ic agiu'nst contrary winils and 
cunvnts reprasentiiig the lameotable plight of 
the «liip». anil the infirm state of the erevis^ Bid> 
dinf> fnrcwil, therefuT«> lo the niiiin-tanil, he sUxA 
nni-ihwdnl wi the IM of May, in quest of His- 
paniitla. \i the wind wa." easterly, with a strong 
ciinvnt itelling to the west, he kept as near the 
wind as {xissiMe. So little did bis pilots know of 
ihetr situaiiu[i, that they sup{io9ed thoniselves to 
Iho oast of lite C^aribbee Islands, whereas the ad- 
miral i«arcd that, vith all hi^ exertions, he sbonid 
&II to the am«(wanl of Hispaniola.' Hi» appre- 
bomiiins prored to bo well founded ; tor ou the 
10th of the month, he came in sight of two small 
low islands to the nonh-west of Htsjiauiola, to 
which, from the great quantities of tortoises seen 
about them, he gave the name of the Torlugas ; 
they are now known as the Cayniaiia. Passiag 
wide of these, and continuing directly north, he 
fiinnil liimiwlf, on the 30th of "iHxj, among the 
cluster of i^ods on the south side of Cuba, la 
which he bad formeriy given the name of tlie 
QiMBn'a Gardeas — liaving been carrii^d between 
it of his destined port. 

* T«alMMn]r of ftdis dl Ladatnu- Pleiio di las Coloaca 



L Here he cnsl anclior near one of llie Keys, Rbout 
ten leagues irom the mnia island. His crews were 
tatTering excessively through scanty provisions 
aod great latigue ; oathing was left of tlie sea- 
etores but a little biscuit, oil, aud vinegnr; aud 
tbey were obliged to labor incessantly at the 
I ^mpB to keep the vessels afloat. They had 
' scarcely anchored at these islands, when there 
came on, nt miduighi, a auddeii tempest of such 
violeiiee. Ihat, according to the strong expression 
of Columbus, it seemed as if the world would dis- 
solve.' They lost three of their anchors almost 
immediately, and the caravel Bermuda wixs driven 
with KUch violence upon the ship of the admiral, 
that the bow of the one aud the stem of tlie other, 
were greaily shattered. The sea running high, and 
the wind being boisterous, the vessels chafed and 
injured each other dreadfully, and it was with 
great difficulty that they were separated. One 
anchor only remained to the admiral's stiip, and 
this saved him from being driven upon the ixjcks ; 
but at daylight the cable was found nearly worn 
Hauder. Had the darkness contimied an hour 
I longer, he could scarcely have escaped shipwreck.^ 
[ At the end of six days, the weather having 
moderated, he resumed hia course, standing east- 
ward for Hispaniola: ''his people," as he says, 
" dismayed and down-hearted; almost all his an- 
chors lost, and hia veasels hored as full of holes as 
(t hooey-comb." After struggling against contrary 

1 Letter fnim .Inmmca. 

* Hilt, dal Almiruite, cap, 100. LelMr of Coluiubiu from 



side. Tbe^ soon iilleil with water to tbe deckg. 
Thatched cabins were then ereeled nt liie prow 
find stern for the nccommodatioii or tlii.- crewa, 
and the wreck was placed in the best possible state 
of defense. Thus castled in the sea, be trusted 
to be able to repel auy sudden attack of the 
nativeii, and at the same lime lo keep liis men 
frnm roving about the neighborhood and indulging 
in their usual excesses. No one wn-s allowed lo 
go on shore without especial license, ami the ut- 
moat precautioa was taken to prevent any odeuse 
being given to the Indiana. Auy exasperation 
of litem might be final to the Spaniards in their 
forlorn situation. A fire-brand thrown into their 
wooden Ibrtress might wrap it in Hames, aud leave 
^^m defenseless ainidal hostile thousands, 


of anf enterpriee thai gave iodividual distincdoii. 
He reqneeltnl of the cacique iwo Iiiditins to aO- 
oompitny him to the end of the islaud ; one 
to carry hi:i provisioos, oiid tiie other to bear 
the hammock or cotloD net iii which he slept. 
These being granted, he pushed resolutely for- 
irard uluiig the coa'l, until he reached ihe 
eastern cxlremily of Jamaica. Here be found a 
powerful cacique of ilie name of Ameyro. Men- 
dez hnd buoyiuit .ipirils, great addrese, and an in- 
gratiating ninnaer ivitli the Bavages. He and 
the cacique became great friends, exdiangt>d 
names, which ii a kind of token of broiherbood, 
aod Meiidez engftged him to furnish proviaious 
lo the ships. He then bought an excellent canoe 
of the cacique, for which lie gave a splendid 
brass huaiu, a short (rock or cnasock, and one of 
tlie two shirts which formed his stock of linen. 
The cacique furnished him with six Indians to 
navigate his bark, and they parted mutually well 
pleased. Diego Meodez coasted his way back, 
touching at* the various places where bo liad 
made his arraugements. He found ilic Sponiab 
agents already arrived at them, loaded his canoe 
^^'ith provisions, and returned in tiiumph to the 
harbor, where he was received with acchimalioos 
by his comrades, and with open arms by the 
admiral. The provisions he brought were a 
most seasonable supply, for the Spaniards were 
abwlutely lasting ; and thenceforward Indians ar- 
rived daily, well laden, from the marts which be 
bad established.' 

1 Seliciuii i>i)r Diego JlanJez. NsTnrrele. torn. L 




The immediate wants of tiis people being thus 
provided for, Columbua revolved, i " " 
mind, the means of getting from this island, 
ships were beyond the possibility of repair, 
there was no hope of any chance sail arrtvio 
his relief, on the shoi-es of a savage it^lnud, ii 
unfrequented sea. The most likely measure 
peared to be to send notice of liia siiuatioi 
OvBodo, the governor at San Domingo, etiti 
ing him to di:i:paich a vessel to hb relief. 
bow was this message to be conveyed ? 
distanee between Jamaica and Hispaniola was 
forty leagues, across a gulf swept by coulrnry 
currents ; there were no means of tmiisporting 
a messenger, except in the light canoes of the 
Mvages ; and who woidd undertake so hazardous 
a voyage in a frail hark of the kind ? Suddeuly 
the idea of Diego Mendez, and the canoe lie had 
recently purchased, presented itself to the mind 
of Columbus. He knew the ardor and intre- 
pidity of Mendez, and bis love of distinction by 
any hazardous exploit. Taking him aside, there- 
fore, he addressed hitn in a manner citlculated 
both to stimulate his zeal, and Hutter his self- 
love. Mendez himself gives on artless account 
of (fais interesting conversation, which is lull of 

" Diego Mendez. my son," said the venenible 
admirul, "none of lliose whom I have here under- 
stand ihe great peril in which we sre placed, 
excepting you and my^ielf. We are tew iu 
nuiiiVr, and these savage Indians are many, and 
of lickle and irritable natures. Ou the least 




provocation ihey may throw firebranda Trom the 
shore, and <.-oiisunm us in our straw-t hatched 
cabins. TLe Hiraugeraeut whith you have tnnile 
with ihtin for provisioiiB, and whicli at present 
they fulfill so cheerfnlly, to-morrow they may 
break la iheir caprice, and may refuse to bring 
us iinytliiiig ; nor have we the means to compel 
them by force, but are entirely at ibeir pleasure. 
I have ibought of a remedy, if it meets with 
your views. In this canoe which you have pur- 
chased, some oue may pass over to Hispaoiola, 
and procure a ship, by which we may all be 
delivered from this great peril in'o which we 
liHve fallen. Tell me your opinion on the 

" To this," says Diego Mendez, " I replied : 
' Sefior, the danger in which we are placed, I 
well know, is litr greater than is easily conceived. 
As to passing from this island la Hispauiolu, in 
M) small a vessel as a canoe, I hold it not merely 
difficult, but impossible ; since il is necessary to 
traverse a gulf of forty leagues, and between 
islands wlLcre the sea is extremely impetuous, 
and seldom in repose. I kuow not who there ia 
would adventure upon so estreme a peril.' " 

Columbus made no reply, but from his looks 
and the nature of his silence, Mcndez plainly 
perceived himself to be the person whom the ad- 
miral had in view; "Whereupon," continues he, 
" I added : ' Sefior, I have many times put my 
life in peril of death to save you and all those 
who are here, and God has hitherto preserved 
me in a miraculous maimei'. There are, never- 




Iheless, tnurmuTera, who say that jour Ki:cel- 
loncy intrusta to me aU affaire wherein lioiior is 
to be guineil, while there afc others in your com- 
poay who would execute them as well hs I <lo. 
Therefore, I beg that you would sumnion all the 
people, and propose ihis enterprise to ibem, to 
Bee if atnoDg them there is auy one who will un- 
dertake it, which I doubt. If all decline it. 1 
will then come forward and risk my life in your 
service, as I many times have done.' " ' 

The admiral gladly humored the wishes of the 
woriliy Mcndez, for never was simple egotism 
accompanied by more geoerous and devoted loy- 
alty. On the fallowing morning, the crew was 
assembled, and the proposition publicly made. 
Every one drew back at the tliougUls of ii, pro- 
nouncing it the height of rashness. Upon this, 
Diego Mendez stepped forward, " Seiior," said 
be, " I have but one life to lose, yet 1 am will- 
ing to venture it for your service and for the 
good of all here present, and I trust in the pro- 
tection of God, which I have experienced on so 
many other occasions." 

Columbus embraced his zealous follower, who 
immediately set about preparing for his expedi- 
tion. Drawing his canoe on shore, he put on a 
blse keel, nailed weather-boards along the how 
and stern, to prevent the sen from Lrcakltig over 
it; payed it with a coat of tar ; furnished it wilh 
ft mast and sail, and put in provisious for hiui- 
■elf, a Spauidh comrade, and six Indians. 

In the mean time, Columbus wrote letters to 

■ Relitcion pur D'wi'v ilmidei. Navurete, Colec, torn. i. 


Ovando, requesting that a ehip might be imiM- 
(liatelj sent to bring him and his mea to Hispon- 
iola. He wrote a letter, likewise, to the Bore^ 
eigns ; for, nHer fulSlliug his missinn nl Son 
Domingo, Diego Mcndez was to proceed to Spain 
on the ailmiral's affiiira. In a letter to the mt- 
ereigus, Columbus depicted hia deploi-abic atoi- 
tion, and etitrenled that a vessel might lie di*- 
patched to Hispaniola, to convey iiimself and bii 
crew to Spain, He gave a comprehensive aooooiit 
of hia voyage, most particulars of which hftre 
already been incorporated iu this history, and b( 
insisted greatly oii the importance of the diiCDt- 
ery of Veragiia. He gnve it as his opiuioQ, tlal 
here were the mmes of the Aurea CherganesiR 
whence Salomon iiad derived such wealth for ito 
building or the Temple- He entreated tlial tlia 
golden eoast might not. like other places *ludi 
he had discovered, be abandoned to adveuturen. 
or placed under the government ol' mea wbo 
felt no interest in the cause. " This i» IMI « 
diild,* he Hdds, "to be abandoned to t step- 
mother, I never think of Hispaniola and PmU 
without weeping. Their case is de^^perate, ttA 
past cure ; I hope their example may cauH ll)i* 
region to be treated in a diflerent manner." Ui« 
imn.ginaiiou becomes heated. He magnlfiw Ux 
snppcLted importance of Veragua, as iranKeading 
all his former discoveries ; and he alludes to hi) 
favorite project for the deliverance of tht) Ixil; 
sepulchre : " Jerusalem," he says, '■ and Mooot 
Sion are to be rebuilt by the baud of n Chris- 
tian. Who ia he to be ? God, by tbe mouth cf 



the Prophet, in the fourteenth F?a!m, declares il 
The Abbot Joachim ' says that he ia l< 
of Sp&in." [lis thoughts then revert to the an- 
cient Blory of the Graiiil Khaii, who hiid requested 
that sages might be sen! lo Instruct him in the 
CbiisliaQ fflith. Columbus, thiiilting that he luid 
been in the very vicinity of Cathay, exchiiras 
with suadeu zeal, " Who will offer himself for 
this task '( If our Lord permit me to return to 
Spain, 1 engage to take him there, God helping, 
in safely." 

Nothing is more characteristic of Columbus 
than bis eameat, artless, at times eloiineut, aud 
at times almost incoherent lellers. What ati in- 
alance of soaring enthusiasm and irrepressible 
enterprise is here exhibileJ. At ihe time that 
be wa« indulging in these visions, and proposing 
neir and romantic enterprises, he was broken 
down by age and infirmities, racked b; pain, con- 
fined to his bed, and shut up in a wreck on the 
coaH of a remote and savage island. No stronger 

I Joachim, native at ttai- bniftb of Celico. ati CoasatM, 
fmtUsI in (be Uotj l..*iiit. Kclnnune lo Calabria, he tuok 
Iba habit of the CiatcrdaBi in tin ■DaoaMvn o( Cnraiio, nf 
•KbiA he beCBine prior and abbot, and attciwantf ruw to 
higher monailic importanu. He died ID 1!»2, barinfc at- 
Uhied Til year* of a^, leaving a gnal anaiber of warkt; 
•mosg the DKiM known an commenUriee on luiah. Jtre- 
laiah, and the Apooiljtve. There *n aiw propheciei by hUn. 
"whieh," («7> III* Uictionnain Hinoricjue,} " during hit Ufe. 
nwdc him Id lie admired by fnob, aod dtspiwd by men 
«f ttOMt 1 Bl preamii Uvs latter Kalinient preraila He was 
dthcf ttrj tceak, or very pronmpiuoun, la ftuter him«4r 
tkathehad Ibe kt\-t of Ihhtsfi of which God »en» the 
- bicL Hilt. ICNn. «. CWn, 1TB». 


Ue£ ASD vox AGES OF 

fiietBre eaa be given of bb i 

whMi irhorttj foilowi ihb t 

chcownt, wben, «ilh one of Im i 

lioM of thou^hl. he ftwateoa, m ii wcf^ to %m 

aGtaiO cDfxIiiiob. 

" Hitherto," »»j% he, " I bare wept fir otbns; 
but tmw, liave pitjr tipoa me, IleaTeii, aad wicy 
ft^r iDt!. O urtb '. In my leinpcitml coocem^ wilb- 
ODt a fanbin); la ofibr Sat *, nwn ; CMt amy 
here in the Indira : mntntoAtd br emel ud* 
biMiile MVHge* ; isolated, inBrm, expecting cnek 
Any will be mj but : in i piritoal ooacerne, sqar- 
aled frurn tbe bolj Mcmmenta of tbe Cbonk m 
l)wt mj Koul, if parted l^ere (rvni mj body, bmM 
Iw forever lost! Weep for me, whoerer baa 
cliHril}', Inilli, And justice ! I came not ou tbit 
vojrngu (o gnin bonnr or estate, tbat i» moat eer- 
lain, for all bope of ibe kind was already dead 
witbin me. I came to serve jonr mnjesiiea, wilh 
n soiitid intention anil ou bone»l leal, and I qieak 
iKf GiIscIi'XkI. If ii »|jonld pleaJie God lo deliver 
me hi.-ni:ii, I humbly supplicate your mujeaties to 
pt-rmit me lo repair to Rome, and perform other 

The despatches being ready, and the prepara- 
tions of the cniioc completed, Diego Mi>ndex em- 
barliL-d, vrlili his Sp»ijislj comrade nnd his six In- 
dians, and depsrled idoug the const to the easl- 
wnrd. The vovitge whs toilsome and perilous 
Tliey bad to miike iheir way HgidnsI strong cur- 
rctif'. Once they wore taken by roving canoes 
of Indians, but niadti their encape, and at length 
arrived at the end of the island, a distance of 


thirty-four leagues from llie linrbor. Here they 
remniiied, wailing for culm wealher lo venluro 
upon the broad gulf, when ihey WL-re suddenly 
surrounded nnd taken prisouers by a number of 
hostile iDdintis, who cHrried ihem off b diatnuc'e 
of three leagues, where they determined to kill 
them. Some dispute arose about the division of 
the spoils taken from the Spaniards, whereupon 
the savages agreui] to settle it by a gikme of 
chance. While ihey were ihns engaged, Diego 
Mendez esmped, found his way to bis canoe, em* 
burked in ii, and relumed nioiie to the harbor 
sfler fifleeii days' abaeuce. What became of his 
companions ho does not mention, beiug seldom 
apt lo Bpenk of any person hut liimHclf. This 
account is Inkeii from the narrative inaerled in 
Ilia last will and lesIamenL 

Columbus, though grieved -at the failure of hie 
message, was rejoiced at the escape of the faithful 
Mendez. The latter, nothing dauuted by the 
perils and baitlships he had undergone, offered to 
depart immedintely on a second attempt, provided 
he could have persons to accompany him lo the 
end of the island, and protect him from the natiTea. 
This the Adt-lantado offered to undertake, with a 
large party well armed. Bartholomew Fiesco, a 
Genoese, who had been captain of onu of the 
caravels, was associated wilh Mendez i]i this 
second expedition, lie was a man of great worth, 
strongly attached lo the admiral, and much es- 
teemed by him. Each had a large canoe under hia 
command, in which were six Spaniards and lea 
iodjans — the latter were to serve 


The cAnoea were to keep in company. On reaclt- 
ing Hisponiolo, Fiesco was to return immedioEeljr 
ti> Jamaioi, to relieve the anxiety of the admin] 
aiid liis crew, by tiilings of tlie safe arriral of 
their messenger. In tlie menn time, Diego Mendes 
Wftg lo proceed to San Domingo, deliver his letter 
to Orando, procure and di$pal«li a ship, and then 
depart lor Spain willi a letter t« the aivereigns. 

All arraugements being made, the ludians placed 
in the canoes their frugal provision of cssearit 
bread, and each bis calabash of water. The 
Spaniards, besides their bread, hod a supply of 
the tlesh of ulias, aod each his sword and target. 
lu this way they launched forth upon (bcir long 
and perilous voyage, followed by the prayers of 
tlieir countrymen. 

The Adelantado with his armed band hept pace 
with itiem along the coast. There was no attempt 
of ttie natives to molest them, and they airived in 
eatety at the end of the island. Here they remaiued 
three days before the sen was suffideiiily calm for 
them to venture forth in their leeble barks. At 
length the weather being quite serene, they bade 
farewell to their comrades and committed them- 
selves lo the broad sea. The Adelantado remained 
watching them, until they became luere »pecks on 
the ocean, and the evening hid them from his 
view. The next day he set out on bis return lo 
the harbor, slopping at various villages on the 
way, and endeavoring lo confirm the good-will of 
the nalives.1 

' Hist, del Alminmlg. up. 101. 


light have been thought that tlie tid- 
fortune which hdd po long per- 
aeculed Columbus was now exhuusted. 
11)6 en^y which had once sickened nt his glory 
luid prosperity, could scarcely have devised for 
bim a more forlorn heritage in the world he had 
diacovenrd. Tlie tenant of a wreck oa a snvnge 
coast, iu an uutraveraed ocean, at the mercy of 
the barharoun liordes, who, iu a momeul, from pre- 
carious friends, might be transformed into ferocious 
enemies -. afflicted, too, by exi^rueiating miihidies 
which confined him to liis bed, and by the pains 
mod infirmities which hardships and anxiety had 
beaped upou his advancing age. But he had not 
jet eshauHled his cnp of hilterness. He had yet 
Id ezperieuce an evil worse than storm, or sbip' 
wreck, or bodily anguish, or the violence of savage 
liordes, — the peiiidy of those iu whom he confided. 
Mendez and Fiesco had not long departed when 
the Spaniards in the wreck began to grow sickly, 


partly from the lolls anil exposures of ihe recent 
voyage, partly from being crowded in narrow 
qnarters in n moist and lultry climate, and portly 
from want of Ibeir itcciiaioroed food, for iliey oould 
uot bftbituate ihemBcIres lo the vegetable diet of 
the Indians. Their maladies were rendered more 
insupportable hy mental suffering, by that suspense 
which frets the spirit, and that hope deferred 
which corrodes the hearL Accustomed to a Ule 
of bustle and variety, they had now nothing lo do 
but loiter about the dreary hulk, look out Upon 
tlie sea, watch ibr the canoe of Fiesco, wonder at 
ila protrncied abeence, and doubt its return. A 
long time elapsed, much more than sufficient for 
the voyage, but nothing was seen or huard of the 
Fears were entertaijied that llieir me»- 
r had perished. If so, how long were they 
'a here, vainly looking for relief whicli was 
r to arrive? Some sank into deep despond- 
ency, others became pcevbh and impatient- Mur- 
murs bnike forth, and, as usual with men in dis- 
tress, murmura of the most unreasonuble kind. In- 
tjlead of Bympathizing with their aged and infirtn 
luder, who was involved in the same <»lami- 
ty, who in suffering transcended them all, and yet 
who was incessatitly studious of their welGire, ibey 
began to rail agiiinat him as the cause of all their 

The factious feeling of an unreasonable multi- 
tude would be of little importance if left to itself 
and might end in idle clamor; it is the industry 
of one or two evil spirits which generally directs 
it lo an object, and makes it mischievous. AmoDg 

Iwo brothers, Fran- 
TLey were related 

^^ thei 

officers of ColnmbiiB n 
id Diego (ie Poirafl. 
to the royal treasurer Morales, who liad married 
their sister, and had made interest tviih ihu ad- 
miral to give ihem some employment iu the ex- 
pedition.^ To gnilify the treasui'er, he had ap- 
pointed Fmiicidco de Porrna captain of one of 
the caravels, and had obtained for his brother 
Diego the situation of notary aud accountant- 
general of the squadron. He bad treated them, 
as he declares, within the kindness of reliitives, 
though both proved incompetent to their situations, 
uThey were vain and insolent men, and, like many 
[Mhers whom Columbus had benefited, requited 
'Itia kindueas with black ingratitude.^ 

These men, finding the common people in a 
highly impatient and discontented stale, wrought 
npon them with seditious insinuations, assuring 
thera that all hope of relief through the agency 

~ Mendez wa» idle ; it being a mere delusion of 
admiral to keep ih^m quiet, and render them 

ibservient to his purposes. He had no desire 
Q return to Spain ; and, in fact, 
w«8 banished thence. Hispaniola was equally 
closed to htm, as bad been proved by the exclu- 
sion of his ships from its harbor in a time of 
periL To him, at present, all places were alike, 
and he was content to remain in Jamaica until 
his friends could make interest at court, and 
procure his recall from banishment. As to Men- 
dez and P'iesco, they had been sent to Spain by 

■ Letter of Cplumbua < 

<a Diego. NtTinete, (^olso. 

ColDtabiK OQ hb own priTnte affiura, not to 
procure a a\up for the relief of his followers. If 
* this irere Dot the case, wtijr did doI llie ships 
arrive, or why did not F'ltaco return, aa hnd been 
promised ? Or if the cniioes had really been 
gent for succor, the long time that had elapsed 
wilhoul tidio)^ of ihem, gave reasan^ to beliere 
tliey Irnd perished by tlie way. In sndi ca.->e, 
their only nllernative would be, to take (he 
canoes of the Indiana nnd endeavor to reach Uis- 
pnuiola. There was no hope, however, of per- 
suading the admiral to such an undertaking; be 
was too old, and too helpless from the gi>ut, to 
expose himself lo the hardships of such a voyage. 
What then? were they lo be sacrificed to his 
interests or his iiifii'niitiea ? — to give up their 
only chance for escape, and linger and perish 
with him in this desolate wreck ? If Ibey suc- 
ceeded in reaching Iliflpaniola, they would be the 
better received for having lefl the admiral behind. 
Ovando was secretly hostile to him, fearing that 
he would regain the governmctit of the island ; 
on their arrival iu Spain, tlie bishop Funeeca, 
from his enmily to Cohinibus, would be sure to 
take their part ; the brothers Porraa had power- 
ful friends and relatives at court, to couiiierHCt 
any representations that might be made by the 
admiral; and they cited the ca^e of Boldan's 
rebellion, to show that the prejudices of the 
public, and of men iu power, would always be 
against liim. Nay, they insinuated, that the 
sovereigns, who, ou tliat occasion, hud deprived 
him of part of his dignities and privileges, would 

CBBiaTOPSEJt coLUifsas. 


' T^oice at n pretext of stripping him of tlie 

Columbus wns aware that the minds of his 
people were imbittered against him. He had 
repeatedly been treated with indolent impatience, 
Hud reproaclieil with being tlie cause of their 
disasters. Accustomed, however, to the unreason^ 
nblenesa of men in aiiversity, aud exercised, by 
many trials, id the mastery of his passions, he 
bom with Iheir petulance, soothed their irritation, 
and endeavored to cheer their spirits by the 
hopes of speedy succor. A hlllc while louger, 
and he trusted that Fieseo would lurive with 
good tidings, when the certainty of relief would 
put an eud to all these ckmors. The raiscliiuti 
however, was deeper than he apprehended : a 
complete muiiny had been organized. 

Od the 2d of January, 1-504, he was in his 
Bmall cabin, on the stern of his vessel, being con- 

I fined to his bed by the gout, which had now 

I rendered him a complete cripple. 
minating on his disastrous situatioi 
de Porrus suddenly entered. Uis 
agitated manner betrayed the evil n 
visit. He had the flurried iinpudenc 
about to perpetrate an open crime 
forth into hitler complaints, at their 
week after week, and month atler month, 
perish piecemeal in that desolate plac 
BCcnsed tlie admiral of having i 
return to Spain. Columbus suspected nomelhing 
eiuisler from this unusual arrogance ; he mtun- 

While ni- 
I, Francisco 
abrupt and 
ature of his 
e of a man 
; kept, 

> lli>^ di 




tAlhod, howover, hiB cnlmneaa, and, raiting hini»el( 
In hii twd, endenvured lo reason wlih Porraa. 
II0 polntud out the impomiljilily of departing un- 
til lliow wliu had gone to Higpanialii should seud 
tlinin vuiuHiU. IIu ntprtwentcd how much more 
ui^iit iiiUHt Iw liU desire lu depart, since he bad 
iiot merely liis own safety to provide for, but was 
ncGoiinlnblo to God Bud hiu sovereigns for the 
wdlfiti'v of all wliD had been ooninillled to hia 
chargu. He reminded Porraa that he had 
always cuiuulted with them all, aa lo the 
meofuro* to Iw taken for the eoratnon safely, and 
that wliHt ))<< hiu) done had been with the 
genei'iil a|iprobalion ; alill, if niiy other nieusure 
nppunrud ndviitablu, he reeomiueuded that they 
aliuuld aMC'inblo together, and consult upon it, 
and adopt whatever course appeared moet ja- 

The incHiiures of Pomw and his cotnmdes, 
however, wei-u already concerted, and when meu 
ara dulonniucd on mutiny, tliey Hfe deaf lo 
rv>u<nii. Ho bluntly replied, lliat there was no 
timn for further ninsullatiuns. "■ Einbnrk imme- 
dialely, or remain in Gud'a name, were the only 
ullemaiivev." *■ For my part," said he, turning 
bis back upon the admiral, and elevnijng his 
voice M that it msounded all over the vessel, 
" I ain for CWlile ! lltoae who choose may follow 
me I " Shouts arose immediately from all sides, 
" I will Rdluw you ! and I ! and I ! " Numbers 
of the crow sprang upon the mo$i conspicuous 
IHU1S of the ship, brnndishing weapuus and uttei^ 
iug miugled thraiits and cries of rebellion. Some 




called upon Porras for orders what to do ; otliere 
Aouled "To Castile! to Castile!" ivbile, nmidst 
flie general uprour, tho Toicea of !iome ilei^per- 
kdoes were heard menacing ihe life of the 

Columbus, hearing the tuniiill, leaped from hU 
bed, ill and inSrm as lie was, and loitered out of 
tlie cabin, stumbling and railing in the exertion, 
hoping by his presence to paeifj the mutineers. 
Three or four of hia fuitliful ndherenis, liowever, 
fearing some violence might be offered biin, throw 
themselves between him and the throng, and 
taking him in their arms, compelled him to 
return to his cabin. 

The Adehinlado likewise sallied furlli, but in 
B different mnod. He planted biniMtlf, with 
lance in hand, in a siiualioti to take the whole 
brunt of the assault. It was wilh the greatest 
difficuUj tliat several of the loyal part of the 
crew could appease his furj, and prevail upon 
bim to relinquish his weapon, and retire lo ibe 
cabin of his brother. Thej now entreated Porraa 
and his companions to depart peaceably, since no 
one sought to oppose them. No advantage could 
be gained by violence ; but should ihey cause the 
death of the admiral, they would draw upon them- 
Velves the severest punishment from the sover- 

These representations moderated the lurbnlenoe 
of the mutineers, and they now proceeded b> 
cany their plans into execution. Taking ten 

' Li> Cuv, Hisl. Ind.. lib. u. cap. 32. Hist, del Alniiniila, 

oKDoe* whleh the ndmiral bad pnrchased of ihe 
IndtMM. they embnrkeil in tbem witli as much 
nnilutiau ns if («rbiiu of imtnedinlelj' landing oo 
the ahnree of Spain. Ollient wbo hoi not bt«n 
oonaeruii] in the inDiinj, w«iiig eo large a force 
departing, and fearing to remain beliind, wben so 
rraincnd in nunilnr, hnslilj* collected tltdr effroK 
and nntcmd likcwiim inrn the rnnoes. lu lliis 
way furty-Mglit nbandonod the admiral. Many 
of tliow who ntmaiiipd were only delainet) hj 
aicluipss. for, had lliry heeii wtll, most of ihem 
wanld have aaainipanied the deserlere.' Tins 
few who rainainMl faithful to ihe admJrHl, and 
llie siok. who orftwied forih from itieir cabins, 
aaw the dqiartnra of the mntiueera wilh tears 
and lamoniHiion!!, pving Ihemselrea np for lost. 
Norwitli^lniidinf: his malady. Columbus left bis 
bed. minpling among those who were loyal, ami 
visiting ihow who w#w ill, endeavoring in evety 
way to rhm^r and rtimfon them. He entreated 
ibom lo pill their triuii in God. who would yet 
relifre ihem : anil he promii^ on his reinrn to 
Sjmin, til throw hinwielf at the feel of the quecD, 
n.'|)na«iit their loyally and ronsianry. and obtain 
for iliain rewards thai ahonld compcnBBie for all 
their sufferings.' 

lb the mean time. Francisco de Poms aod 
his followers, in their squadron of canoes coasted 
the island to the eastward, following the roale 
taktm by Mcndex and Ftaoo. "WTtererer they 
landed. Ihey oommlued outra^vs upon iLo lu- 
> irti^ a*I Mnfitmla, tap. IM 


dians, robbing them of iheir proTisiona, and < 
whfttevei- they coveted of their effects. They 
endeavored to make their own critnes redound to 
the prejudict! of Columbus, pretending to net 
under his aulhuriiy, and affirming lital he would 
pay for everything they took. If he refusetl, 
tliey lold the natives to kill liiro. They repre- 
sented him as hii implnuible foe to the Indians ; 
m one who had tyrHiitiized over other islands, 
causiiif; the misery and death of the native.'', and 
who only souglil to gain a sway here for the pur* 
pow of inflicting like calamities. 

Having reached the eastern extremity of the 
Maud, they wailed until the weather should be 
perfectly calm, before they ventured to cross the 
gulf. Being unskilled in the management of 
Canoes, they procured several Indians to accom- 
pany ihem. The sea being al length quite 
smooth, tbey set forth upon their voyage. 
Scarcely had they proceeded four leagues from 
land when a contrary wind arose, and the wavea 
began to swell. They tunied immediately tor 
shore. The canoea, from their light structure, 
ttnd being nearly round and without keels, were 
easily overturned, and required to be carefully 
balanced. They were now deeply freighted by 
men nnaccuslomed to them, and as the sea rose, 
Ihey frequently let in liie water. The Spaniards 
were alarmed, and endeavored lo lighten them, 
I9 throwing overboard everything that could be 
■pared ; reiainiitg only iheir arms, and a part of 
their provisions. The danger augmented with 
, ^ wiud. They now compelled the Indians to 



Imp inlo ilie «e«, esc«ptuig eacb as were abm- 
lutel^ necessary lo nnrigate Uie cftnoes. If they 
liMilMlvd. ihejr drove ihem overboard witli the 
edg« of lite swonl. The Iiidiuiis were Ekillful 
Bwimreere, but ibe dislnnce lo laud was tuo grent 
Ibr Iheir streogth. They tcpt nboul the caooee, 
thenrun?, bikiiig Itold of them oocaaiounll^ to rest 
lliein»clvQ» atid retover breHtlt. As llieir weight 
dL«lurbfd lh<« bnltinn.- of ilie ouiws »<i<i endan- 
gered ibeir overturning, the Spauianls cut off 
ihtir hdiKla, aiKl st«bb«d them wiib their eworda. 

Some died by the weapons of these cruel ineo. 
(ilhers «vere exhaiisliid And sank beiieiillt the 
waves 1 ihiM eighleen perished miserably, nnd 
noue survived but such as had been rclaitied to 
Bioiuifitf the niKM^ 

Wlmii iho Spaniards got back to land, different 
Opinions Kro»e as lo what course they eliould 
Doxl pursue. Some were for crossing to Cuba, 
for which isUind the wind was faTOmble. It was 
thought itiey miglit easily cross tlieiice lo the 
end of Hispautoln. Others advi^ that [Jtey 
sliuuld return, and make their peace wilh the 
nilniiral. or take from him what remained of 
arras and stores, having thrown almost every- 
thing Dvcrbounl during ihclr Inie dauger. Others 
ixiunselled another aliempt to cross ovtr to Uis- 
pniiiola, as soon as the sea should become tran- 

This Inst ndviee was adi^led. They remained 
fcir a uiouth at an Indian village near the easiem 
[MiinI of tlie island, living on the eiuhsiauce of 
the luttives, and treating tbeoi in the most ortn- 



traiy and capridotts manner. When at length 
the wenther l>ecame serene, ihey made n eevoDd 
Rltempt, but were ngain driven back by adverse 
wtnd». Losing nil pntience, therefore, and de- 
spairing of ihe enterprise, they abandoned their 
I, and returned westward ; wandering from 
village to Tillage, a dissolute and lawless gatig, 
■npporling themselves by fair raenns or foul, ac- 
cording as they met with kindness or hostility, 
and passing like a pestilence through the island.' 
I Hisl. del Atmiruile, cap. 103. Laa Cues, lib. ii. cap. 33. 




JIIILK Porras and Lie crew were ranging 
nbont with that desperate and jobless 
licentioDsuess which attends the abon- 
doniueut of principle, Columbus preseuied the op- 
poBile picture of a man true to others and true id 
himseir, and supported, amidst hnrdfihips and diffi- 
cullitis, by conscioua rectitude. Deserted by the 
healthful and vigoroui portion of his garrison, he 
exerted himsell' to soothe and encourage the in- 
firm and desponding remnant which remained. 
Begardleas of hts own painful mulailiea, lie was 
only attentive to relieve their sufferings. The 
fcw who were lit for service were required to 
mount guard on the wreck, or attend upon the 
sick ; ihere were none to forage for pronaions. 
The scrupulous good faith and amicable conduct 
lutuulained by Columbus towards the natives had 
now their effect. Considerable supplies of pro- 
visions were brought by them from time lo time, 
whicli lie purchased al a reaaoiiable rate. The 
most palatable and nourishing of these, together 

vs. 456 

witi) tlie small stock of European biscuit that 
remained, lie oi-i]ered to be appropriated to the 
Biietenance of the infirm. Knowiug how much 
the body is affected by the operations of the 
mind, he en'lenvored to rouee the epirits and an- 
imate the hopes of the drooping sufTerers. Con- 
cealing his own uuxiety, he maiulained a se- 
rene and ereu cheerful countuD»iice, eucoumging 
his men by kind word:), and holding forth con- 
fideut aniicipationB of speedy relief. By his 
frieitdly and careful treatment, he soon recruited 
both the health atid spirits of his people, and 
brought them iutu a condiiiou to contrihute to the 
common safety. Judicious regulations, calmly 
bat firmly enforced, maintained everything in 
order. The men became sensible of the advan- 
tages of wholesome discipline, and perceived that 
the restraints imposed upon ibem by their com- 
mander were for their own good, and ullioiately 
productive of their own comfort. 

Columbus had thus succeeded in guarding 
against internal ilia, when alarming evils began 
to menace from without. The Indians, unused 
I to lay up any stock of provisions, and unwilling 
I to subject themselves to extra labor, found it 
difficult to furnish the quantity of food daily 
required for bo many hungry men. The Euro- 
pean trinkets, once so precious, lost tlieir valuB) 
in proportion as they became common. The im- 
portance of the admiral had been greatly dimin- 
ished by the desertion of so many of his fol- 
. lowers ; and the malignant instigations of the 

^^K rebels had awakened jenlou^y and enmity in 




several of itw viUnges, which hsd been w- 
custauied to furnish provisions. 

By dugreea, therefore, ihe supplies fell off- 
The nrmugements for the ilarly delivery of 
of ceriniu quantities, madu by Diego Mcnh*. 
were irregularly attended to, hi id n[ liiDglli 
ceased entirely. Tlie Indinns no longer ihnmge^ 
to the harbor with provisions, and oflea rofuxd 
them when applied for. The Spaniards were 
obliged ta forage atKiut the iieighborhoo<l forlbcif 
daily food; but found more and more diScolt; in 
procuring it ; thus, in uddition to their other cwse* 
for desiwndcncy, they began to entertain honilto 
apj)reli('nBioDs of fMniue. 

The admiral heurd their melancholy foreboiliDgOr 
and behdd the growiug evil, but was at a low *^ 
a remedy. To resort to force was au altenuiiv^ 
full of danger, and of but temporary efficacy. I* 
would require all those who were well euougli t** 
bear arms to sally forth, while he and the rwt »» 
the infirm would be left defenseless on booH oX 
the wreck, exposed to tie vengeance of the iwIite^ 

In the mean time, the scurctty diuly incrauo^- 
The Indians perceived tie wants of the white iw'**' 
and had learnt from them the an of making te^"" 
gains. They asked ten times the former qoautit^ 
of Europeau articles for any amonnt of prorisioiis • 
and brought Uieir supplies in scanty quantitiei, t^ 
enliaiice the eagerness of the hungry Spantwi*' 
At length even this relief ceased, and there w** 
ail alwolute distress for food. The jealousy 0* 
the iiiitives had been universally roused by Pom^ 
and liis tbllowers, and they withlield all provinCBSv 



i either of starving the admiral and faia 
buple, or of driving them from the island. 

In this extremity, a fortunate idea presented 
Columbus. From his knowledge of 
tetronomy. he ascertained that within three days 
there would be a total eclipse of the moon in the 
early pirt of the uighL He sent, therefore, au 
Indian of Hispaniols. who served as his interpreter, 
to summon the principal caeiqnes to a grand con- 
ferencc, appointing for it the day of the eclipse. 
When all were assemlded, he told them by his 
interpreter, that he and his followers were wor- 
shipers of n Deity who dwelt in the skies, who 
f&vored sueh as did well, but puuished all trans- 
greaaors. That, a» they must all have noticed, he 
had protected Diego Mendez and his companions 
in their voyage, because they went in obedience 
to the onlers of their eonunander, but had visited 
PorroB and his companions with all kinds of af- 
Aictious in consequence of their rebellion. Tliis 
great Deity, he added, was incensed aguinat the 
Indians wlio refused to furnish his &itlitul wor- 
shiperH with provisions, and intended to chaHtlse 
them with famine and peadlence. Lest they should 
disbelieve this warning, a signal would be given 
that night. They would behold the moon change 
its color, and gradually lose its light; a token of 
the fearful punishment which awaited them. 

Many of the Indians were alarmed at tiie pre- 
(Uction, others treated it with derision — all, how- 
ever, awaited with solicitude the coming of the 
irighL When they beheld a dark shadow steahug 
~ ■ ion. they began to tremble ; with the 

_-«:,."" :*.:^^^^ 




■IGHT tnoutha had m 
n departtir 

I out Huj tidings of their falB, For a 

g time the Spaniards hod kept a wistful look- 

t upon the ocean, flattering tliemaelves that 

f Indian canoe, gliding at a distaoct-, might 

1 harbinger of deliverance. The hopes of 

t sanguine were now fast sinking 

aidency. What thousand perik awtuted 

!i &ail barke, and so weak a party, on an ex- 

i of the kind ! Either the canoes had 

L swallowed up by boifiterouB waves and ad- 

D currents, or their crews had perished among 

rugged mountains and savage tribes of His- 

tbeir despondency, they 

i informed that a vessel bad been seen, bot- 

ti upwards, drifUiig with the currents along ibe 

ast at Jamaica. This might be the vessel sent 

"r relief; and if so, ail tbeir hopes i 

Upwrecked with it. This rumor, it is affirmed, 

uid circulated in the island by the 

4C* urx Aso roTACMS or 

Rfe^AiC ftH^ reach tk tan at tbme wbo 
BOHHMdfealUBl to Ac adHinl, aad radoce them 
» ^^hJ It BO dcwb fad its eflrd. I.c^iig 
iS bfc <tf mi fron » ifittUMC, and (unsiJering 
fciiiliii iliMiiliiBiiT mad fargoacB by ibe irorl£ 
■■■T p«w «U and < m»eirt e in their pUnt. 
. fctiuud by ooe Bernardo, 
f of Talewis. aith tiro oonfedenitCB, 
■d Pedro de MDMoro. 
Tkr dea^ed to mud npon dte rennimng ca- 
aoK*. mtd Kcfc dw waj to Hw^aniofa.' 

nc aHHj «i* OB the *cit point of hrealdiig 
•■t wkea «■« ««csH^ tD«wdi diek. a nil wm 
mm «HifaE iMnph Ike harbor. Tie iraiu- 
fatm at fc paor ^ankida maT be more etjSij 
■■■iiii Am desaibed. The tv«k1 ins of 
■Mfl oe; k kept ool la sea, bnt leDt iu boat 
ta riat ikfr ift^w- E<«*t ere me eagerly bent 

t. thejT descried in 
ft D^> 4* brobar. a BMB iriko had been ODS of 
Ac ^iBi aOive cn afe de r atea of RoUan in faie lo- 
Wfioa, vko h*l beta «ockli»uied to death tmder 
a td Cblmubas. and pardoned by 
There was boil umen in 



e of the rhxpi, Escobar pat ■ 

ir am board froaa Omida. ^wrrux of Hispan- 
1 of wine uud a side 
to ihe admiral. He 
a Jkaw at, aod talked with Colmobus from a 





distaiice. He told him that be was sent bv the 
governor to express his great conoeni at hi$ mi»- 
ibrtunes, and his regtel at not having iu |>ori a 
vessel of saSdent size to bring ofi* himself and 
people 1 but that he nodil seud one as soon 
ae possible. Escobar gave the ftdmiml assurances 
likewise, that hia concerns in Hispaniola had been 
^thfiill; attended to. He requested him, if lie 
had any letter to write to the governor in reply, 
to give it to him as soon as possible, as he wished 
to retnm immedialfly. 

There was sometliing extremely aingoliir in 
this toisHion; but there was no time for com- 
ments : Escobar was urgent to deport. Colum- 
bus haste Ded, therefore, to vrri(£ a reply to 
Ovando, depicting the dangers and distresses of 
hiB situation, increased as they were by the reliel- 
lion of Porras, but expressing his reliance on his 
promise to send him relief^ confiding in wliich he 
should remain patiently on board of his wreck. 
He recommended Diego Mendez and Barthol- 
omew Fiesco to his favor, assuring him that they 
were not sent to San Domingo with any artful 
design, but simply to represent his perilous situa- 
tion, and to apply for succor,' Wheu Escol>ar 
received this lettor, he returned immediately on 
board of his vessel, which made all sail, and soon 
disappeared in the gathering gloom of the night. 

If the Spaniards had hailed the arrival of this 
TBuel with transport, its sudden departure and 
mystorious conduct c 

less wonder and 

lie had kept 

I LuCmi 


ibeir wel&ie or •jB^wtbj 

He «!^7 MUgltt. 
iherHbrei, to diip«-l their n«|nacau, profawipg 
hiiiMelf •Bliitfied with the oonummiQUioiu re u etrtd 
frum Ovaado, and awn ring then that TCwdt 
wuulil nuou srriTe ta take them all away. In 
conAilfnce of ihia, he utd, be had ileclined t« 
(iejnirt with EEcohar. because his vessel wa« too 
■mult bo take tho whole, preferriug to remain 
Willi tliHin aDd Hhue iheir lot, and hod di«patdied 
(he lau^vel in sndi haste that no tiooe might be 
lo« in expediting the necessarj ships. These 
aMurnnrei, and the certalutr that their situation 
wa« known in San Domingo, ehcered tlie hearts 
of the people. Their hopes ag;uQ revived ; and 
tho connpiraey, which had been on the point at 
breaking forth, woa completely disooDeert«u.L 

In Meret, however, Columbus w»» exceedingly 
indignant at the conduct of OvaudOt He had 
left him for many montiis in a state of ttie ut- 
most danger and mont distressing unoertAinty, 
ox[)oKed lo tlie hostilities of tlie aatires, the se- 
ditions of his men, and the suggestions of his 
own Uoflpair. He had, at length, aent a nier« 
tantnluing message, by a man known to be one 
of his bitterest enemies, with a present of food, 
whidi, fWim its scantineBs, seemed intended to 
moek their ueoBBsities. 

(.'«lunil>iiA believed that Ovando had purposely 
npglccted liim, hoping that lie might perish on 



the iaUnd, being apprehensive thai, should he re- 
turn in safety, he would be reinsuted in the gov- 
emment of HiKpaninla ; anil he considered V.&'xt- 
bar merely aa a spy sent to uiicertajQ the state of 
him and his crew, and whether they were yet in 
exisleni'e. Las Casas. who was then at Sun Do- 
mingo, expresses similar suspicions. He eaya 
that Escobar was chosen because Ovando waa 
oertajn that, from ancient enmity, he would have 
no sympathy for the admiral. Thai he was or- 
dered not to ^ ou board of the vessels, nor to 
land, neither wa£ he to hold conversation with 
«ny of the crew, nor to receive any letters, ei- 
I npt those of the admiral. In a. word, that he 
nw a mere scout to collect information.' 

Others have ascribed the long neglect of Ovando 
to extreme caution. There was a mmor preva- 

l that Columbus, irritated at tlie suspension 
(tf his dignities by the court of Spwn, intended 
to Dander his newly-discovered countries iuio the 

ida of his native republic, Genoa, or of some 
Other power. Such romors had long been cor- 
rent ; and to their recent drculation Columbus 
lumself alludes, in his letter sent to the sovereigns 
by Diego Mendez. The most plausible apology 
^en is. that Ovando was absent for several 
months in the inlerior, occupied in wnrs with the 
natives, and that there were no ships al San Do- 
mingo of suffideni burden to take Columbus and 
his crew to .Spain. He may have feared that, 
ritoold they come to reside &r any length of time 

Lai CkMU. RisL lad., lib. iL cap. 113. Hiat- dd Alminiitg, 


in pabGc a^ra. a 
im tmnr ; or ihM, ■> eo— cuimw ot the uvmber 
«r Wt old tuKuatt (tai naidat tfaen^ fanm 
Mean t4 he6on and tartialeiiae m^A be re- 
fifcd.' bi the sMrna tine, tbe aMOion of Co- 
hunbos in Jaawca, while il fipoaed of ban 
qnieilf ontil roHeh ■bonkl amvc frooi Spm, 
oDoU noC he maj hare tbon^tt, be huaHom. 
H« bad ndBdent E^ree aad anna Bar defenoe, and 
he had made """^"M" airai^meDts with tbe ■»• 
ttna for the *an>l7 of proTkioitt, a* D>%o Men- 
dec, who had made thote arrangement*, had no 
doabt inCanned bnn. Sodi maj hare bMA ihe 
reaionlng by which Orando, under tbe real inlto- 
enc8 of his interest, maj have reconrilcd hia 
enmidence to a measure which excited the ■ 


and 1 

linu^l tu (Iraw upon him ihe Biupioons of ■ 


B proper to give here some accoiint of 
■ ' n of Diego Mepdee and Rar- 

[' iholomew Fiesco, and of the drciim- 

Ktaiii?es nhich preventetl the Inttcr &om returning 
to Jamaica. Having taken leave of the Adelan- 
tBdo at Uie east end of tlie island, they continued 
all da_v in a direct course, auimatinf; the Indiius 
wbo navigated their canoes, and who frequently 
paused at iheir labor. There was uo wind, the 
sky was without a cloud, and the sea perfectly 
CaIui : the heat was iutoleruble, and the rays of 
tlie sun. reflectol from (he surface of the ocean, 
B«£mod to scorch their very eyes. The ludiang, 
exhausted by heat and toil, would often leap into 
tbe water to cool and refresh themselves, and, 
after remaining lliere a short time, would return 
with new vigor to their labors. At the going 
fewn of the sun they lost sight of land. Dur- 
^^ the night the Indians took turns, one half 

^ to row while the others slept. The SponiardB, 

^^Toi_ a, so 

'! Tbe«i 

Umj pemitlcd T 
■ dHj took die fddlM and abucd 
tlwlr uQib Bnt bbor and bt^ve wen Mmi fbf^ 
foUM in * neir aoonw (rf toSbing. Daring ibe 

preceding mltry daj mnd Dighl, the Induiu, 
perdwil and fati^ed, had drunk up *ll the wsier. 
Th*'j uciw Ijrgau to experience the lomentit of 
tbirnL III proportion tu the day advanced, their 
Uiint increfued ; the calm, which fiivored the 
iiaviKHlioi) of the csnoe*. rendered this miscrj 
ifau more int«nwt. Tliere was not a breeze lo 
6ui thi! air, nor oonnleract the ardent rays of a 
tropical iuu. Their Kufferings were irritated by 
tlie proii>ect around them — nothing but water, 
whiltt tlidy were pcrinhing with thirst. At mid- 
ilny thi'ir «lrr.iigth failnl them, and they could 
trni'k no longer. Kurttuiitttrly, at thin time the 
oommui'l^rN of ihu innoes found, or pretended to 



I find, two small kegs of wiiter, which they had 
perhapt secretly reserved for sach an extremity. 
Administering the precious conlfnts Iroin time lo 
tiine in sparing moutlifuls lo their companions, and 
pOFticularly lo the laltoring Indians, they enabled 
a^m Vo resume their toils. They cheered ihem 
with the ho[i«s of soon arriviug al a small island 
colled NavBsa, which lay directly in their way, 
and was only eight leagues from Ilispaniola. 
Here they would lie able to procure waier, and 
might take repose. 

For the rest of the day they continued faintly 
and wearily lalforing forward, and keeping an anx- 
ious look-out for the island. The day passed 
■way. the sun went down, yet there was no sign 
of land, not even a cloud on the horizon that might 
deceive them into a hope. According lo their cal- 
culations, they had certainly come ihe distance from 
Jamaica at which Navosa lay. They began to 
fear that they had deviated from their course. If 
so, they should niiss the island entirely, and perish 
vith thirst before th^y coidd reach llispouiola. 

The night closed upon them without any sight 
Qf the island- Tliey now despaired of touching 
U iU for it was so smaU and low that, even if tliey 
were to pass near it, they would soarcaly be able 
lo perceive it in [lie dark. One of the Indians 
sank and died under the ac;cmnulated sufferings 
of labor, heat, and raging thirst. His body was 
thrown into the sea. Others lay panting and gasp- 
ing at the bottom of the canoes, Their companions, 
troubled in spirit, aud exhausted in strength, feebly 
cWDtinued their toils. Sometimes they endeavored 



to cool Unot purlwH polatn bf Uking R*-«^er 
lo (hnr month*, bat ita briny amBonj nther m- 
cmued thirif thitW. Now anl iIkk, Ntt rat; 

wparitif^y, thcT wen aHoired a drop at water Ckmk 
tbu ki-gn : hnt thii wan onlj io chcs irf ibe oimMl 
extmnitr. na') prinnpallj Ui ifaner who w«re am- 
plojnl In rowing. The tu^t bad &r admioed. 
hut ihoM whoM Uirn h wa« lo tske repose were 
unnhlr tn iilr«p, from the intenuty of ihrir tbirM; 
or if ilu-y ili^pt, it wn> bnl lo be tmntnlixed with 
rlrciiruo of uul ruunuim ftiid runaing hrooki. and 
lo awaken iu realoctbled tormcDt. The last drt^ 
of wnt«ir had been rlealt ont lo the Indian rowers, 
but it only iicrv»l tit irrilatc their antTerings. Thef 
Warue coiilil move the ir podilles ; one afler onolber 
jpiTd np, nni] it MMtmed iropOHsible tbej shoald lire 
to readi Hiiponiob. 

I'he CMtiimanflera, by admirable manageioent, 
hail luUiortii kept up this weary struggle with *nf- 
fttrii))! Mill despair : they now. loo, bej^an to des- 
pond. Dlej^ti Mendea Mt watching the horiEon, 
wliieli WAX gradually lighting up with those t^t 
niyn whirh prowdo iho rising of the moon. Aa 
tluit pianist riiMt, he. perceived it to emerge &om 
tiefaind miiw dark masB elevated above the level 
of the oeean. He immediateJy gave the animating 
cry of " land ! " I Ii« almost expiring companiona 
wuR! roiiHxl by it to new life. It proved to be 
the Island of Navuaa, hut so small, aud distant, 
[hnt hnd it not l>eoii thus revealed by tiie rising of 
tliti iiiiwn, lliiiy would never have discovered it. 
'I'liit I'rnir in their reokouiug with respeot to the 
islunil, liad iiriseu from miscalculating the rate of 


Buliiig of tlie csaoes, utd from tiot tuukui^ vuf* 
ficioit tUJowanoe for the Ikljgue of "Cm ruwen nud 
the o{^<o^liuii of the correuL 

rigor was now diffiiited tlurjugliout LLe 
Tiicj ex«rl«d thtaii«elveij wiUi ffvcmili 
bj Ute dawQ of diiy ther ruidujd Uie 
1, apringiiig cm ghure, rutui'xied Liuitiki> Vi 
rad) signu] delivenuioe. Tbe ikliuitl wuc 
maw (rf* mvk&, lialf & leu^ut in csirutuL 
ae iiMlher tre^. uor itlirub. uur \tat\mgi, 
tUB' stream, uur foimuiu. Uurryiug aljuuU livw- 
enr, wilh anzioae seardi. tiier iuuiid tu lUuirju; 
mbimdance of rain-wiOer in Uu^ liuUuwt ul' liic 
nxfa. £itgerly scooping it up wiUi Uu^ii' ualit' 
fasriieb. dunr qaendied tLuir buruiu^ ibii-m by \a^ 
modoHU^ draughts, lu roiu the mure pruduut 
warned die ottien of Cbeir diui^^r. 'JIm' Spitu- 
iardi Mere in name degree ivstrMiiutI : biil the pwur 
lai&ata, wluwe tuil* Iwd iu'7cui>ed tltc Icvur uf 
dKB* ttnrsL guve wur tu u kind uf ti'iuiiu.' iudul- 
gcnoB- Beiurul died upuii Uie a[Mn. mid ollMn 
fidl dongoxiiuiT il]-' 

Hsrin^ aliuTed Uitar tlursu titer tntm IuuIumI 
iJKnit ID eeari^ of tbod. A tew ■l^li'tub w«re 
loBBd tJuUg Ibe ilion:. wid Uie^u Meljdex. «trill- 
B^ » i^n. luiti ^Utertij^ hrill-«u<i'l. Uiey w>m: 
buil ttKni. imd u> mok*- u delieJuUs 
AU day tbey nsiuuued n:)iuMU^ tu lite 



■liade of tbe ndca, refreiluiig Umnselre^ aflor 
tbedr iniolersbte suSerings. and gazing npoa Hi»- 
paniola, nhi>»e mouDUins rose above tbe boriuni, 
■t eight leagues distanoe. 

In the cool of the erening tliey once more em- 
barke'L invigorated by repose, and arrived safely 
at Cnpe Tibniym on the tbllotring day. the fourth 
nnce tbeir departure frara Jamaica. Here tbry 
Undi>d oD the bonks of a beaatifiil river, where 
they were kindly received and treated by iba 
natives. Such are tbe partietdars, collected from 
dtlferent aonrces, of thi« adventurous and intereat- 
ing voyage, on the preauTOOs iiicc«as of wbtdi 
depuiidiid tbe deliverance of Columbus and lua 
crewn.' The vovi^ri remained for two day* 
among the hospitable nauves on the banks of tlie 
river, to refresh themselve*. Fie«oo would have 
returned to Jamaica, a«^)rdiiig to promiiie, to give 
aasuranee to ihe adnuraJ and his compnnioiia of 
tbe Hafc arrival of their messenger ; but both 
Spauiardfl and Indians bad suffered so much dur- 
ing the vovAf^, that nothing could induce ttiem to 
encounter the perils of a return in tbe canoes. 

Parting trilh his cumpauious, Diego Mendea 
took six Intlians of tbe island, and set off n>ao- 
Inlely to const in bis canoe one hundred and thirty 
leagues to San Domingo. After proceei^ng for 
eighty leagues, with infinite toil, always againat 
the currents, and subject to perils from the native 
tribes, he was informed that the governor had de- 
parted for Xaragim, My leagues distant. Still un- 




daunted by fatigues aR<l diffiuiil lie's, be nbandoaed 
bvs canoe, and pruct^ded aJone uud im foot tliruugh 
fbrestB and over mountains, until he arrived at 
Xaragua, achieving one uf the most perilous ex- 
pediiJons ever undertaken by a devoted follower 
for the safety of liis comiuaader. 

Ovftndo received him with great kindncsB, ex* 
pressing the utmost concern at the unfortunate 
Hituation of Columbna. He made many promiseg 
of sending immediate relief, but eufiercd day afl«r 
day, week atler week, and even month aft«r month 
to elapse, without currying his promieea into effe^^ 
He was at that time completely engrossed by wars 
with the natives, and had a ready plea that there 
were no ships of sufficient burden at San Domingo. 
Had he felt a proper zeal, however, for the safety 
of a man like Columbus, it would have been easy, 
within eight months, to have devised some means, 
if not of delivering him from his situation, at least 
of conveying to him ample reinforcements and 

The fiuthful Mendez remained for seven months 
in Xaragua, detained there under various pretexts 
by Ovando, who was unwilling that he should 
proceed to San Domingo ; partly, as is intimated, 
from his having some jealousy of his being em- 
ployed in secret ageuey for the admiral, and partly 
from a desire to throw impediments in the way 
cd' his obtaining the required relietii At length, 
by dally importunity, he obtained permission to go 
U> San Domingo, and await the arriral of certain 
ehips which were expected, of which he proposed 
to purchase one on the aooount of the admiraL 


Hi> iiimie<]iat(-ly $et out on foot a distance cf 
seventy leagues, pai-l of his toilsome journey lying 
through forMt« aud .-uuoDg mouutaius infcdtod by 
bMtile anii pjauperatol Indinii^. It was nfter hia 
drpMtuiv tlint Ovantlo dispatched the caravel com- 
manded by the pardoned r«bel Escobar, on that 
Bingular and oquivocAJ visit, which, in the eyes of 
Columbus had the air of a mere scouting expe- 
dition to spy into the camp of an enemy. 



" [1503.] 

I^P^IIEN Coltunbus had soollied llie dia- 
hVmJJ iippoiQlmenC of his men ot thi> brief imd 

I^Ugyj iinsaUs&clory yisit and sudden departure 
of Escobar, he endeuvored lo turn the eveat to 
some advantage with the rebels. He knew them 
to Ite disheartened by the inevitable miseries at- 
tending a lawlras and dissolute life ; that many 
longed to return to the safe and qni«l path of duty ; 
and that the most malignant, seeing how he had 
foiled all their intrigues among tlie natives to pro- 
duce a Ikmine, began to fear his ultimate triumph 
and consequent vengeance. A favorable oppor- 
tunity, he thought, now presented to take advan- 
luge of these feelings, and by gentle means to bring 
Ibem hack to their allegiance. He sent two of 
his people, therefore, who were most intimate with 
the rel>els, to inform them of the recent arrival of 
Escobar with letters from tlia Governor of Ilia- 
paaiola- promising him a speedy deliverance from 
_the island. He now offered a free pardoO] kind 



e vilb htm in ibe exjei^ed 
■blpi, on ocnxliiim wf ibeif hmnwliiite nuim to 
oboifienoA. To aOBTince Uwn of the arriTal of 
th« vntM>), Imi neat them % (len of the bacon whidi 
hw) Im-vd hrrniglit by Escobar. 

On llie upjironch of these nmhoggadora, Frui- 
taiiicn <!(.' PorriM came forth U> moec tlien. accom- 
paiiiwl Miiely liy a few of the ringleadera of his 
pnrty. Hn imagined that there might be some 
)in)[Ki*il:iiiia from the admiral, ami he was fearful 
of Uuiir iHiing beard by the mat* of his people, 
whu, \u their dusatiahed snd repentant mood, 
would bo likely to desert him on tlie lea^^t pros- 
pect of pardon. Having listened to ihe tidings 
unil overtures brought by the tnesaengers, he and 
luN luiifidi-Jitiiii CO II federates consulted fur some 
lime l4igotlier. Perfidioua in their own nature, 
tJiey Niuiieuted tlie sincerity of the admiral : aiid 
coiiHtriuu'i of the extent of their offenu^s, doubted 
hiH hfiving the uoagnauimity to ptinton them. 
lltiliTiniiied, therefore, not to confide in hia prof- 
tvreil uninesty, they replied to the messenger, that 
tlx'y liiul no wiflh to return to the ships, but pre- 
ftirred living at large about the island. They 
olIei'Ml to HUguge, however, to conduct themselves 
ptiucoiibly And amicably, on receiving a solemn 
pnmuMi from the adminJ, that should two vesseU 
arrive, tlit^y Hhonld have one to depart in; shonid 
bm one arrive, that half of it should be granted 
to thum ( and that, moreover, the admiral should 
shiin^ with them llie stones and articles iif IniUan 
triitlii' ri'tiuuuiug in the ships, having lost all that 
they hiid, iu tlie t-eu. These demands were pro- 



rBonnoed extravugniit and madmiHsiblc, upon whi<A 
thej replied inM>l»iiilv. th^ii. if they w<-ru not 
peaceably conceded, iliej wwiiM take lli'.-m by 
force ; and with this menace tlicy diiitiiitHKd Um 

This coaference was not oonductHl *a [iri- 
vately, bnt that the rest of the rebeU luarut tlw 
purport of the mi^aion : and tb« offtfr of pardon 
and detireraDce ooeasioned gnat t4iiDalt and w^ 
Waaa. Poiras. tearful of their ilnertion, ••• 
■nred them thai the«e cA«n of (Im; ttlatiniJ wera 
all ikceitiii] ; thai he wm natoralljr and mmI 
TindioiTe, and only m^^ tv gM tlH* lUo M* 
power to wreak on than Ma wigitiM Hs«x> 
harted thtn to pome a their appariciM to Ui 
snmM&K Ik"-. A^ t^Me wW ImI 

Mrad Ib^ Am Oej ari^ do *e aanv; aid 

8|M^ Ikn*^ Ae : 

the night. HaH it boen a real cnvd, ifae c 
wonM baff •nii^t Ig talk with diieir ermntirnM* ; 
llae admini]. hU aon, and brotfaef, wooU bare 
Bugetij (rmliurlurd uii Ixisnl, and il MtnUd at anjr 
rate luve n-inaiii^i a litilo while id port, asd not 
hav(! vaniiluvl no »u<lileolf ami mytUnomls^ 

Uy ilutw, aui! nmilar deloHoiu, F«r 
cectW In worlutig upuu the feelings and « 
of hlft folluwera. Fe&rfiil, however, i' 
might yield to afler rr^flection, and to futber 
offf-n from the a>lmirnl. he determined to involfB 
them in wimu nil of violence which would oom- 
mlt llii^ni lieyond aJl hopes of foi^Mieti!!. He 
laarcluM] liieni. tlterefure, to an Indian viU^e 
culled Muimo,^ about a qnarter of a league from 
tlie ihiiM, ititondiug to plunder ibc stores remain- 
ing on IxHird Uie wreck, and to take the adnural 

ColniiilniB had notice of the designs of the 
reboU, and of their approaclu Bdng confined 
by hilt iiiflrmiticM, ho sent his brother to endeavor 
with mild words to perauadc them from their 
pnrpriw', niid win them to obedience; but with 
iulhcieul force to resist any violence. The Ado- 
lontjido, who was a man rather of deeds than of 
words, took with hira litty followers, man of tried 
resolution, and ready to flght in any cause. They 
woro widl armed and full of courage, though 
many wore pale and debilitated from recent sicJt- 
ne»« and from long 

> H\H. del Alminiite, cap. 
' At prsannl Uamme« Bay. 
* Ulit. d<jl Alminuit«, ubi i 

lOS. L&8 CaMU, lib. ij. op. ii. 


F'Araviag on the side of a bill, within a bow-shot 
of the Tillage, the Adelantado discovert^! tho 
rebels, and dispatched the snJne two mcsgengera 
to treat with them, who bad already lurried them 
the offer of pardon. Porras and hu ftiUow-Ieitd- 
ers, however, would not permit thein to approach. 
T^j ooufided in the Eoperiority of llii^ir iiuui- 
hers, and in their men being, for ihu luoHt part) 
hardy eailorB. rendered robiwl and vigorous bjr 
(be roTing life they had been leading in tlu; for- 
ests and the open air. They knew that woi'if 
of those who were with the AdelautiMlo were 
men bronghi up m a softer mode of We. TTiey 
pcnnted to their pale connlenanoes, and pcrsuadod 
their followers that they were mere household 
men. &tr-weather troops, who conld never stand 
beibre the-m. They did not refle-:! that, with 
snch men, pride and lofty spirit olten more tlian 
supply the ptui-e of bodily force : and they for- 
got that their adTersaries had the iu calculable 
advania^ nf JURU<^ and law upon tb^ side. 
Ddaded by thi^ words, their followers ynxe el- 
ated lo a transient glow of eoHmge. and bran- 
<fiBhtwg their weapoua, refnsed to lislcn to the 

Six of tlie stoniest rebeU made a league to 
•und br one auo^er and attack ihe AdelimtMlo ; 
bt. be bctng killed, the r^^ would be eadly de- 
ftMed. The main body fanned tbeuiselm iuie 
B •qnadnm. drawing Uieir swordr' and i 
dietr '-»"» They did i 
bat. aaaia^ efauuu and i 
dM aaeVT. Tb<^y wav m> well rooemid. 1 


•ver, liiM at the Gnt ahock four or fiT« were 
killed, moM of Ukem the aw&dentts who had 
Id^pMid to atadt, the Addaolado. Tha kiter, 
with hii uwn hand, kOled Jaan Sandiec. the 
nine poverfiJ mariner who had carried off ibe 
otdqne Qiiibian ; and Juan Barber t^aa, who had 
fint drawn n swurd i^inst l)ie admiral in this 
Kb^iuu. The Adtilaulado with his usoiU vigor 
aii'l ouurage wa« d^diog hli blows alx>ut him in 
the thickest of the affiny, whtre aevejul Uy 
killed and woonded, wlieu he was assailed by 
Fnuidsco de Porraa. The rebel with a blow of 
his sword deft the buckler of Don Bartholomew, 
and wounded the bai>d which grasped ii. The 
swurd remained wedgcl tn Uie shield ; and be- 
fore Porras could withilraw it, tlie AdelanUulo 
closed upuD him, grappled him, aod being aasitlad 
by others, after a severe struggle, took hini pri»- 

When the rebela beheld their leader a tsptive, 
their tr.uisient courage wa« at an end. aud [hey 
£ed in confusion. The Adelaiitado would have 
pursued them, but was persuaded lo let litem ea- 
cape with the punishment they had rectaved ; e»- 
pecially as it was oeeesKary to guard agaiud tha 
possibility af an atlJick from the Indians. 

The latter had taken anus and drawn up in 
battle army, gating with aslAoishment at this 
fight between while men. but without taking part 
on cither side. When the battle was over, they 
app^iiached the field, gaziug upon the dead bodiei 

1 Hill. At\ Alminnte, cap. lOT. Lu Cuu, Hitt- lad., lib. 
U.c«{>. lib. 


of the beings they bad once fonded immortal. 
They were curious iu exanmiing the wounds 
mode by the Chmtian weapons. Among the 
wouD(Ie4 insurgente was Pedro Lcdesma, the 
liajne pilot who so bravely swam ashore at Vera- 
gna, to procure tidings of the eolouy. He was a 
man of prodigiouB muscular force, and a hoarse. 
deep voice. As the Indians, who thought him 
dead, were inspecting the wounila with wbich he 
was literally coTered, he suddenly utu-red aii 
ejaculation iu faia tremendous voice, at the sound 
of which the savages tied in dismay. This man 
having fallen into a cleft or ravine, was not clis- 
oovered by the whit« men until the dawning of 
the following day, having remained all Chat lime 
without a drop of water. The number anil se- 
verity of the wounds he is said to have received 
would seem incredible ; but they are mentioned 
by Fernando Columbus, who was an eye-witness. 
and by Las Casas. who had the accouut from 
Ledesma himself. For want of proper remedies, 
his wounds were treated in the roughest manner ; 
yet, through the aid of a vigorous constitution, he 
completely recovered. Las Casas conversed with 
him several years afterwanls at Seville, when he 
obtained from him various particulars concerning 
this voyage of Columbus. Some few days afler 
this conversation, however, he heard that Le- 
desma bad tkllen under the knife of an assassin.' 
The Adelantado returned in triumph to the 
ships, where he was received by the admintl in 
the most affectionate manner ; thanking him as 
1 Us Cisu, HiM. lad., Ub. iL op. 3G. 


Liff: ANU \-orAute OF 

hi* tleBverer. He hron^t Poma ind serenl of 

bb followm prlwiKTu. Of his own pttnjr obJj 
two liBil bppii wnnnded ; himself in the hand, 
jutd thf oilinmirji oUrifiinl, irhr) harl receit^ an 
apjmri' nligtil wound with a Urnce, e<|ii^ to 
tMK of llii^ riKiit iniignificaDt of those with which 
f^lrama WM cavered ; yet, in spite of carefiil 
trenimetit, ho diwL 

On the npit ilnj, the ^Oth of Uaj, the fiigi- 
tivM M^i apr.titioii to the odtninl. agyu-A with all 
Uwlr iinme*, !ii whkh, wfi Loa Ouait, thej coa- 
fenieA all their nu«iee«l«, and cruelties, aiHi eril 
inteiitiniiH, mpptii^tiiig the admiral to hmve pitj 
on tlicm ntid [Hirdnn them for th^ rebellion, fiir 
wbi<'Ii n»il Imd ulreudy punished them. Thev of- 
fered to rettini \o their obedJeoce uid to serre 
him faithfully in fiiture, making an oath to ihtu 
tKtvl upon a cross and a missal, accompanied by 
U) lnijirecatii>n wortJiy of brfng recorded ; " They 
hopc<i, should they break tht'ir oath, lliat no priest 
nor othor Christian might ever confess them; 
that rejKtilance might be of no avail -, lliat they 
mitflit Iki deprived of the holy sacnunentB of tiK 
(.^urrh 1 tlint at their death they might receivn 
no iK'TicIlt n'om bulU nor indulgences ; that th«r 
biHlii-'ii mif^Iit be uist out inbi the fields like 
those of heretics and reoegadoes, instead of being 
bnripd in holy ground ; and that they might not 
retviv<i nbrnttulion from the pope, nor from mrdi- 
nal!i. nor aruhbiabops, nor bishops, nor any other 
ChrisUan priests." ' Such were ilm awful iin- 
prvcations by which lh«»e men endeavored to 

1 [ Cuu, Hkt. Init, lib. ii. cap. 3i. 



add validity to an ooth. The Trorthtes.sD«3s of a 
tnaji'a word luaj always be knoivD by the ei- 
iravagant means he nses to enforce it. 

The admiral saw, by the abject nature of tbla 
petition, huw completely the spirit of these mis- 
guided men was broken ; with his wonted magna- 
nimity, he readily granted their prayer, and jiar- 
doned their otfenses ; but on one condition, that 
their ringleader, Frauciaco Forras, should remain 

As it was diflicuH to mnint^ so many persons 
on board of the Hliips, and as quarrels might Uka 
place between persons who had so recently been 
at blows, Colnmbutt put ttie late followers of 
Forms under the command of a discreet and 
fiiithliil man ; and giving in his charge a quiLDtity 
of European articles for the purpose of purebas- 
mg food of the natives, directed them to forage 
about the island until the expected vessels should 

At length, after a long year of alternate hope 
and despondency, the doubts of the Spuniurda 
were joyfully dispelled by the sight of two vessels 
standing into the harbor. One proved to be a 
ship hired and well victuolled at the expense of 
the admiral, by the faithful and indefatigable 
Diego Mendez ; the other bad been subsequently 
fitted out by Ovando, and put under the com* 
mand of Diego de Salcedo, the admiral's agent 
employed to collect his rents in San Domingo. 

The long neglect of Ovaudo Xa attend to the 
relief of Colimibus had, it seems, rmised the 
public indignation, insomuch that onlmadversioua 



hod been mode upon hia conduct even in the 
pulpits. ThU b afiiniKd bj Ias Cas»s. who was 
ai San Doa:iingo at tlie lime. If the guvemor 
had really ent/^nained hopes that, daring the de- 
lft; of relief, Columbus migbt perish in ihe island, 
the report brought back by Escobar must hare 
completely disappointed him. No time was to be 
lost if he wished to claim any merit in bis delir- 
er&nce, or to avoid the disgrace of having totally 
ne^eded him. He exerted himself, therefore, at 
the eleventh hour, and disput4;bed u uaraTel at the 
same time with the ship sent by Diego Mendex. 
The latter. ha%ing fiuthfiUly dischargt^d this part 
of bin mission, and seen the ships depart, pro- 
ceeded lo Spain on the further concerns of the 

1 Some briEf notice of ths farther rortaaei of Dicga Men- 
dai maj be iDlemtJBg to the raider. When King Ferdiiuod 
hecrd of hu faiths fterHcts, bavi OriedD, he bestowed n- 
wd* npon SIcndez. and permitled him to be«r * canoe in 

devoledlv altiehed to the idminl. »TTtDg htm xeAloualy 
after hi* rvium to Spuin, lad during hii lul illaen. Culius- 
blu reUioed the mint graldul end affeclioniile Mnie of hit 
Gdeliiy. On his death-bed he promised Mendu Ihat, in re- 
ward Ibr his sercfcps, he nhould be appoinled prinrrpit Algna- 
Eil of the it[aad of Hispaniola ; an mgagemeni wbich the ad^ 
miral'i son, l>on Uiego, who was piewni, cheerfully uudartmik 
to perfonn. A lew rears anerHards, shen Ihe latter (dc- 
ceeded (o the office of bis father, Uendex reminded hiM 
of (he promise, but Don Dieffo infonnFd bim thai he bal 

I. boveTer. that 

MeiiJcz shrewdly replied, i 
be given In Don Ba 
according lo agreemi 


nnperfomiFd, anl Diego MenJii unrewarded. He iru afler- 
w»rrt* fns»Bed on voyige* of discorery io rawU of his own. 
but m«t wilh minj Ticiaaitadea, end ippeus to bive dleit in 
inipav«riih«) circmnaUnFe*. Bia lul vUl, from vhieh thcH 
puticulan un piincipilly gathireil, <ru d«ted in V■1Ud(^1i(f, 
the 19th of Juna. lasn, br whkh it is erident tbil hi muM 
have been in (he prime of life tx Ibe lime of his to)-«iw "'ilh 
th« adoiirsl. In ibis will he requefted IhU the reward which 
bad been promised to him ahould be paid to hi> childnn, \iy 
making his eldeit mn principal Alguaiil for lift of the city of 
San Domingo, and bit other ion llouteuant to Ibc admiral for 
the umc city. It does no! apposT whether tbie reqnett was 
complieii with under (he nucewsors of Don Diego. 

Ill another clause of his will, he desired (hat a large gloiie 
should be placed upon his Bepulebnj, on which should ba en- 
gtared. " Hera lies the honorable Cavalier Diego UendcE, 
who <erred greatly the royal crown of Spain, in Ihe conquest 
of the Indies, with Ibe admiral Don Christopher Cnlombua, 
or glorious memory, who mads Ibe discoTery; and afterwards 
by himself, nilb ships at his own eoat. He died, &«., Ikt, 
Bestow in charity a ralemoster, and an Ave Maria." 

Re ordered that iu the midst of this stone Ihtn should b« 
carved an Indian canoe, as given him by (he king for amiorial 
bearing! in memorial of his voyage from Jamaica to His- 
paninla, and abore it should be engraved in Isr^-u lett«rti, the 
word " CANOA." He enjoined upon his heiia to be loyal lo 
the admiral (Don Diego Columbus) and his lady, and gave 
them mnch ghoslly counsel, mingled with pious benedictions. 
As an heir-loom in his family, he bequeathed his libraty, con- 
sisting of a few volumes, which accompanied him In bis 
wanderings: vis. "The Art of Holy Dying, by Erasmus; A 
Sermoa of ibe same author, in Spanish; The Lingua and 
the Colloquies of the same; The History of -losepbua; The 
Hon] t>hi1osophy of Aristotle; The Book of (he Holy Land; 
A Book called the Contemplation of Ihe Fsasiun of uur 
Saviour; A Tract on the Vengeance of the Deatti of Aga- 
memnon, and Mveral other short ireodees." Tliii curious 
and characteristic testament Is in tlie archives of tlic I'uke of 



ipEgiF.FORE relaling the return of Columbia 
Z ^^ to Hi-spaniola, it is proper to notice some 
^1^^^ of tlie principal occurrences which took 
plnce ill ihfit t^laii<] uuder the govenirnetit nf 
Ovnudo. A greut crowd of Bdveniurere of rBn'oaa 
ranks had thronged his fleet — eager spec nJators, 
cri'dubus dreamers, and hroken-down gentlemen 
of deaperate forluiies; all eKpecting to enrich 
themselves suddenly in an island where gold was 
to be picked up from the surface of the soil, or 
gathered from the mountain- brooks. They had 
scarcely lauded, says Las Casas, who accompanied 
the expedition, when they all hurried off to the 
mines, about eight leagues distance. The roads 
swarmed like aut-hills, with adventurers of all 
classes. Every one hod his knapsack stored with 
biscuit or flour, and Ins raining implements on bis 
shoulder. Those hidalgo-s, or gentlemen, who had 
DO servants to carry their burdens, bore them on 

UFE asb r^TACts or fW-VMnrfK Mk 

tbar on tadts. and Imc^t <in>» h« vrtrtt tM<l » 
hone ftw ihe jwirneT : he nxMiM Iw iiWe M Vning 
bM^ ih« gmwr lo«] of m«Min^ Hwv nU wt 
ODt in liigh spirits, mg(>r nitn *tntiilil nf^l iww-h 
Ihe golden land: tliinkiuji ilioy htui Ixit li* ni'i'irw 
M tlie mines, ami colled riditw i " ftir llipy Inm-iiol," 
snys Los Casus, ''timt )ptlil wim Io lie pikllipiwl no 
easily and remlily iw fruit I'mm the ir«ee." When 
they Btrived, howuver, tlmy (liccorewrt. lo Ihetf 
diamay, that it waa niicviM«ry In dig pnirihiHj Inttt 
the bowela of the earth — n kbor lo tvhlch inuit 
of them had never been iuyii»1oii)P«l r Ihnl ll to- 
quired experience nnd nnftntrity Ui d»l<iO( tliP vpImS 
of ore ; lh«t, in fact, the whrilc pT'if«M» rrf tniiiltTf( 
iTBS exceedingly toilvtme, drimnniM *m( fintiMicfi 
and mudi experience, ami, aftnr nil, wiu fnll nf 
BncertaiDty. Tbey rfiggei] enjE^rly frir a fitnP, 
bat foanl of» ore. They jpvw hmv^y. (hfew liy 
their implemeoM, aw flown to wrt. nM rfltnfniyl ifi 
work. It wiB aJl in vnin. " Th"ir khfir," «ny« 
I.aB Caau. " ^*« Them a keen ippntife nnrl r^rk 
" ' o gi>ld." Tliey fiartn (-ntimmM tlmir 

i thw pfHieiiw, cor-M rtielr 
anil in moltl Haya oel '^ rfrcnrily ">■ 
iftAietlun ohiag^tlie rrMwl* thny hnH Intxly tn>r1 
■I exultiDf^y. 'IWy mrfrwl nt Ann Dwninjfif 
iritfaoni au aanr«<>r^oM, iHttf-femi*!!"!, itnrri^fn^l, 
and de»piiirfng.i Snph J* lort oft^n [ho i-r'O "f 
thoas who ignorantly ens*<se ifl "tininij — of nil 
ilie mmrt farilliaitT, prrmi'inff, iffii! 

manly Men Ml upon ihfM u ib p iWW^ tflfti. 

'. ihaf. iBif.. im. n. e 



Thef exIuHWtHi ilw) liule propeHj bnmgiu 6a«i 
Hpaio. Hbiij' naffKrv) cxiremeljr fn»a banger, and 
were obtiged to exch«inge even tbetr apparel tor 
bmul. 8omc fonnetl aimtecliom with the oU 
Mllier* •)( llm island ; but the greater part wen 
Kite men UmI and bewildered, and jnsl awakened 
from a dream. The mi»Grie» of the mind, aa 
Dinnl, heigblened the sufferiDg§ of the bodj. 
Home WMted away und died broken-bearled ; otb- 
eni were Imrricd off bj raging fei-era; so that 
there foon perished upwards of a thousand men. 

Ovanilo was reputed n man of great prudence 
»nd sagacity, and he ccrlainly took several judi- 
eiiiw nioai>iireB for tliu regulation of llie island, 
nnd the relief of the (fllonlsts. He made arrango- 
muiili for distribniiug ihe married persons and 
the families which had come out in his Seel, in 
lour towns in the inlurior, gmntitig them imporumt 
priTtlegeR. I to revived the drooping zeal for miu- 
ing, by rocliKiing the royal share of the [irodncl 
from iiue hull' to u third, luid shortly aAcr to a fiflh ; 
bill ho empowered the Spaiiiards to iivuil thcm- 
ix'lvi'", ill the nuMit opprowive mnnner, of the Ubor 
III' Uie titilinppy natives in working the mines. The 
L'linrge of trtwiiitg the natives with severity had 
been one of those chiefly urged against Columbus. 
It is proper, therefore, lo notice, in this respect, 
ihi! conduct of his successor, a man chosen for 
Kin prudence, and bis supposed capucily lo govern. 

Il will be recollected that, when Columbus was 
ill It niHnnor compelled to assign lands to the rebel- 
lious tbilowsts of Francisco Boldtui in 1499. be 
bad mndo an nmuigenient, that the caciques in 


their vidnity i>hoiilij, Id lieu of tribute, fui'nish a 
nuiuber of iheir subjects to atisist them in culti- 
vating their estates. This, as has been observed, 
was ihe coniineiicemciit of the disastrous system 
of n^parlimieDlos, or distributions of Indiaae. 
Wheu BobadiJla administered the government, he 
ounstrained the caeiques to lumish o. number of 
Indians to each Sfiutiiard, for the purpose of work- 
ing tlie mines; where iliey were employed like 
beasts of burden. He made an eniimurution of 
the natives, to prevent evasion ; reduced them into 
classes, nud distributed tliem among the Spanish 
inhabitarits. The enormous oppressions which ea- 
Baed liHve been noticed. They roused the indig- 
Dation of Isabella ; and wheu Ovando was seal out 
to supersede Bobadillu, in 1502, the natives were 
proooUQoed free; they immediately refused to la- 

the D 

Ovando represented to the Spanish sovereigns, 
in 1503, that ruinous conaeqnences resulted lo 
the colony from this entire liberty granted to the 
Indians. He stated that the tribute could not 
be collected, for tlie Indians were lazy and im- 
provident ; that they could only be kept from 
vices and irregulcu-lties by <iceupatian ; that they 
now kept aloof from the Spauianls, and Irom all 
instruction in the Christian faith. 

The last representation hud an iuHueuce with 
iBabellu, and d^e^v a letter from the sovereigns 
to Ovando in 1503, in which he was ordered ta 
spare do pains lo attach the natives to the Span- 
ish nation and the Cittholic religion ; to make 
them labor moderately, if absolutely essential to 


(•WD good, but to temper Butliorit7 with 
I and kindness ; to pfty them 
krly ftnd fnirly Tor llieir labor, and to have them 
iaatructed in religion on certsiu days. 

Ovaiiilo availed bimaelf of the powers given 
him by this letutr to their fullest esieat. He 
luaigned lo eacli CiUlilian b eertain number of 
Imlians, aocunliDg to llio quality of the nppli- 
ouit, the unture of the application, or his own 
pkitsnre. It wa.-! arranged in llie form of an 
order on n cnciijne for a certain number of In- 
dians, who were to be paid by their employer, 
and instrnoled in tlie Catholic ikilh. The pay 
wns so small as to be little better than nomitud ; 
the instriielinn was little more thnn the mere 
ceremony of bnptism; and the term of labor was 
at lii^i six mootlis, and then eight monllu in 
the year. Under cover of this hired labor, in- 
tended Ibr the good both of their bodies and their 
souls, more intolerable toil was exacted from them, 
and more horrible cruelties were iullicied, than 
in the worst days of Bobadilla. Tlicy were 
separated often ibe distance of aeverni days' joor- 
ney from tlieir wires and children, and doomed 
to intolerable labor of )ill kinds, extorted by tiie 
cruel infliction of the lash. For food they had 
the cassava bread, an nnsubstontial support for 
men obliged (□ labor : sometimes a scanty por- 
tion of pork was distributed among a great 
number of them, scarce a mouthful to each. 
When the Spaniards who auperin tended tha 
mines were at tbeir repast, saya Las Cum, Uie 
famished Indians scmmbled under the table, lik« 





dogs, Tor auj bone thrown to tbeni. AAer they 
bad ganwol oud sucked il, they pounded it be- 
fitone?, Bud mixed it with their cassava 
brea<), that nothing of so preciciiis n morsel might 
be lost. Ab to those who labored iu the fields, 
tbey never tasted either tiea\i or fish ; a. little cas- 
sa.vii brend and a few roois were ibeir supporU 
Whilu the Spaniards thus withheld ilie aouriah' 
ment necessary to auataia their health and 
strength, they exacted a degree of labor eutficient 
to break down the most vigorous man. If the 
Indians fled from this incessant toil and barbarous 
coercion, and took refuge in tlie mouDtains, ibey 
were hunted out like wild beasts, scourged iu the 
most inhuman manner, and laden willi cbaitis to 
prevent a second escape. Many perished long 
before their term of labor bad expired. Those 
wbo survived their term of six or eight months, 
were permitted to return to their homes until the 
Sext term commenced. But their homes were 
«ften forty, sixty, and eighty leagues distaut. 
They had nothing to suslaiu them through the 
journey but a few roots or agi peppers, or a Ultlt? 
uassava bread. Worn down by loug toil and cruel 
hardships, which their feeble coustiiutions were 
incapable of sustaining, many had not strength 
to perform the journey, but sank down and died 
by the way; some by the side of a bnmfc, 
others under the shade of a tree, where they 
had crawled for shelter from the sun. " I have 
found many dead in the road," says Las Casus, 
" otlieri gasping under the trees, and others in 
the pangs of deatli, faintly crying Hunger! hun- 


ger!"* Those wlio reached their homes most 
commouly round them desolate. Ouriog ih« 
dgbt months they hud beeu absent, their wives 
aud children hiul eitlier perished or wandered 
away ; the fields on which they depended (or 
food were oremin with weeds, and nothing was 
lell them but to lie down, exhausted and despair- 
ing, and die at the threshold of their habitations.^ 
It ia impossible to pursue ruiy further the 
pii;ture drawn by the venerable Lbs Casas, not 
of what he bid heard, but of ivhal lie had seen; 
nature and humanity revolt at the details. Suf* 
fioe it to eay that, so intolerable were the toils 
and sufierings iuUieted upon this weak and un- 
offending raee, llial they sank under ilicm, dis- 
solving, as it were, from the face of the earth. 
Many killed tbemHelTes in despnir. and even 
mothers overcame the powerful insliucia of na> 
ture, ani destroyed the infants at their breafits, 
to sparu them a life of wretchedness. Twelve 
years hiid not elapsed since the dlseovery of the 
island, Hiid several hundred tliousand of its native 
inhabitanis had perished, miserable victims to the 
ETaaping avarice of the white men. 

> r.u Clsu, UitL Ind., lib. ii. cap. 14. US. 

J HE RufieringB of the natives under the 
civil policy of Ovando have been briefly 
shown ; it remains lo give a coticise 
view of the military operaliona of this com- 
mander, BO landed by cerlaiD of the early biato- 
rians for his prudeoi^. By this notice a portion 
of the eventfal history of this bland will be re- 
coimled which is connected with the fortunes 
of Columbos, and which oompriBCa the ihorougb 
subjugation, and, it may almost be said, eztermi' 
nation of the natire inhabitouts. And Rnt, wo 
mu£t treat of the disasters of the beautiful prov- 
ince of Xaragua, the seat of lioBpilalily. the ref' 
age of the suffering Spaniards ; and of the fate 
of the female cadijue, Anacaoua. onoe the pride 
pf the island, and the generous friend of whi(« 

BeJiecbio, the ancient cainque of this proviuce, 
being dead, Anacaona, hit netcr, had succeeded Lo 
the goTenunent, The mariit^ panialiiy which 
1 tor tbe Bpaiiiwd* l^d beeo 



gretitlj weakened l>y the geueral miseiy 1 
had produced ia her cwmlrj, and bj the t 
pnfligitcy exhibited in her immediale dominlODS 
hj the fullnwers of RoldBn. The unhappy storjr of 
ihe loves of her beautiful daughter Higiieniunota 
wilh the 3'oung Spaniard Kernando de Guevara, 
had abo caused her great affl-iciion ; and, tinally. 
the various and enduring hardships inflicted on 
ker once happj subjects by the grinding systems 
of labor onforced by Bobadilla and Orando, liad 
at length, it is said, coaverted her fnendsbip into 
abeolule detestation. 

This disgust was kept alive and aggraviitcd by 
(he Spatiinrds who lived in her imtnediate neigh- 
borhood, and bad obtained grants of land there ; 
A remnant of the rebel faction of Roldan, who 
retained the gross licentiouanesa and open prof- 
ligacy in which they hod been indulged under 
the loose misrule of that commander, and who 
made themselves odious to the inferior caciques, 
by exacting services tyrannically and capricionaly 
under the baneful system of repartimientos. 

The Indians of this province were tinifbrmly 
represented as a more Intelligent, polile, aud 
generous-spirited race than any others of the 
islands. They were the more prone to feel and 
resent the overbearing treatment to which they 
were f'ubjecled. Quarrels sometimes took place 
between the caciques and their oppressors. 
These were immediately reported to the governor 
as dangerous mutinies ; and a resistance to any 
capricious and extortiouate exaction was magni- 
fied into a rebellious resistance to tlie authority 



\ of governnieiit. ComplaiiKs of lliii kiml wuru 
motiuiuilly pouring in upon Ovitiiilii, iiiilil hv 
B perauiulEil by some HlnitniHl, or Mtniii iluitiKii- 

' iDg iniscbief-maker, tliiit llierti WM n il(in|i-]i>iil 

I ooDapirnc/ Hmong the Iiidiiiua uf tliU [in)vliii.'u U> 

I rise upon the S|)uiiiBr<Ii. 

Ovaodo immediatelj' net uut for Xitnigiiu ml 
tbe bend of itiree liunilreil lbut-«uLliurM, itriiKiiJ 
wilh Bn-ords, nrquebuHad, utul nruM-buw*, MWJ 
seveotv boreemeii, witL cuiruMe*, buckUr*, tnui 
loaces. Ue preieailed llmt lie whh g'/ing uu « 
mere TiaJt of frieudsliip u> AiuKwuia, uul u> iiiitk^ 
■iru^eaKntB about iJm: fuyauiiu <A Iributv. 

Wben AiuicKfua htmxA iM' Uw UiIhiuIuiI viMt, 
tbt Munmoued sU b«f uibuiwy iwi-jiui*. wid 
praac^tt] Kohjecbs to uwetublt; tU Iw^r (owu, 
^al t^C7 mijEiu [it«biv<: Uie ixuuuuukIit *4 tlw 
SpMitUArd£ wrtb btaixituuii: Uuuuufc uud <UaiuuUuiu# 
A« OvHudu. Ml liw lunird uf liu lilLU' uruii. «)>■ 
fMilliwi tint w«iil fiirtL lu UKxH liiui, iv^^jr'iuig 
to tke tniBtoii] of lun- iiatiuu. HUniKixtt bj a );riM 
tnia at lier oumi duliuguiiibnd mUiJo;!*. lutiUi 

»and Semidt -. whu, im ku Umu btdun <(Uvn«d. 
WuiL nulMi titr auj^Hfiur giuw mmI UmuIj'. 
Vier RMraveal tbe b|»iiiard* Willi tbnir pupuW 
■RnrtMb llwir idttMUnl Buufpi; Un: yuuiif WwutuU 
VKnag (Bliiii famwUk iiwl (liujciiif- bolijrt Uimh, 
in Am mmf tbn lad •« b*mL cWtIwhI Uir loUuw- 
0s of tlir AJ^*>l%^fTf*f^■ fju Lot iim x'iMti u> ^^ 

BHUd tiir ffMDnMtf Wait titan itM- 

■> mm) ilifiuij Iwr fflwei) mIk aw* 

• pirr him Uh: iBijciQd bwaun 



ia the place for his resideoce, and his people 
were quartered in the houses adjoining. For 
several days the Spaniards were entertained with 
all the natural luxuries that the province af- 
fbrded. National eonga and dances and games 
were performed for their fiaiuaement, aud there 
was every outward demonstration of the eame 
hospitality, the Game umity, that Auacaona had 
uniformly shown to white men. 

NotwithstaDiiing all this kindness, and not- 
withstanding her uniform integrity of conduct, 
and open guneroBity of character, Ovaado was 
persuaded that Anacaona was secretly meditating 
a mdssacre of himself and his followers. His- 
torians lell us nothing of llie grounds for such a 
belief It was loo probably produced by the 
misrepresentations of the unprincipled adventur- 
ers who infested the province. Ovando should 
have paused and reflected before he acted upon 
it. He should have considered the improbability 
of such an attempt by naked Indmis agtunst so 
large a force of steel-clad troops, armed with 
European weapons; and he should Live reflected 
upon the general character and conduct of Anac- 
aona. At any rate, the example set repeatedly 
by Columbus and his brother the Adelantado, 
should have couvinced him (hat it whs a saffinent 
safeguard agmnat the machinations of the natives, 
to seize upon tlieir caciques and detain them as 
hostages. The policy of Ovando, however, was 
of a more rash and sanguinary nature ; he acted 
upon suspicion as upon conviction. He deter- 
mined to anticipate the alleged plot by a coun- 


artifice, and to overwiielm this defenselesB 
^ple in an indlBcriminatti and bloody venge- 

Ab ttie IndinQB hail enterUined tlieir guests 
f Witli various national games, Ovando iuvi(»l them 
in return to witness certain gomes of lus tnimtry. 
Among these was a tilting mat^h or joust with 
reeds ; a chivalrous game whidi the SpanLirds 
had learnt from the Moors of Granada. The 
Spanish cavalry, in lliotie days, were as remark- 
able for their skilltul management, as for the 
ostentatious caparison of their horses. Among 
r flie troops hronght out from Spiun by Ovando, 
B horseman had disciplined his horse to prance 
'n time to the musio of a viol.' The 
a appointed to take place of a Sunday 
the public square, before the 
! where Ovando was quartered. Tlie cav- 
[ijdiy and foot-soldiers had their secret instruc' 
tioos. The former were to parade, not merely 
with reeds or blunted tilting lunceg, but with 
ireapons of a more deadly character. The foot- 
_ aoldiera were to come apparently ati mere specta- 
Ltftre, but likewise armed and ready for action ut 
Bk concerted signal. 

f At the appointed time the square was crowded 
with the Indiana, waiting to see this military 
Bpeclacle. The cadques wer« assembled in this 
hi>nBe of Ovando, which looked upon the square. 
Kone were armed : an unreserved confidence 
prevaUed among them, totally incompatible with 
the dark treachery of which they were accused. 
1 Lu Cuu, aUt ln<L, lib. H. OIL B. 



preserving them for after-* 
ftre WHS set Ui the house, aiid nil \hv caoiques 
yenshed misentbly in the flameB. 

■' these barharitieH were practiced upon 
the chieftains, a horrible massacre took place 
among iJie populace. At the signal of Ovsndo, 
the hi>r9e]iieu rushed iiilo the miilst of the nuked 
and defenseless throng, trampling tliem under the 
hoofs of their steeds, cuttbg them down with 
their swords, and transfixing them with iJieir 
tfitais. Ho mercy was shown W age or sex ; 
it wa« a savage and indiscriminaK butchery. 
Now and then a Spanish bonentan. eilher 
tlirongh an emotjon of pity, or an impulse of 
avarice, canght op a child, ta bear it off in 
saiety : bat it was barbaronsly pierced by the 
lances of his companions. Himuuiity turns with 
horrar from sitch atrocilie«. and would bin dis- 
credit them; hut ihey are dreumstantially and 
k31 more minotely recMtled by the venerable 
Kibt^ Lu Cum. who was rendeot in the ialaitd 
at the dme, and converHuit with the principail 
acSora in tfau tngedy. He may have adored 
the [Botnre atron^y, in hia oaaal '~''g'"t'"" 
when the wracgB of (he lodkna are in queMtkin ; 
yot. from all ooocurring acooiinU, aud fixm many 
imobe ftBU wfatrii epeak far themaelves, the 
Boeoe BBiat hare been most saogointtJT and atfo^ 
oooa. Oyieda, iriw U load in estoll^ the job- 
tioe. and devotioD. and diarily. and meeJutew of 
Oraodo, and hk kind treatment of tbe Indkns, 
and who visited the provinoe of Xanana a few 
year* afierwaids. records aeveral of the prewd> 


lag drciunstanceB, — esjiedaU; tlie cold-blooded 
gainc of ijuoits p!»ye<l by iW governor un lite 
verge of suob b liorribk- soeno, »jid itie burning 
of the otciques, lo the number, be says, nf more 
tbon forty. Diego Alendez, who yinn at Xaia- 
gua at tlie time, iuid doiibtlesi present on each 
an important occasion, says inddcnUliy in his 
last nill and testament, that there were eighty- 
four caciques either burnt or hanged.' I^ 
Caiiaa says, that there were eighty who entered 
tlie liDuee with Anacaona- The slaughter of ihe 
multitude muat buve been great ; and tliis was 
inflicted on an unarmed and unresisting throng. 
SevtTal who escaped from the massaure fled in 
llieir canoes to on isbmd about eight leagues dis- 
tant, called Guwiabo. They were pursued and 
token, and condemned to slavery. 

As to the princess Anacaoua, she was carried 
in chams to San Domingo. The mockery of a 
trial was given her, iu wbicb she was found gnUty 
on the confessions wrung by tortures &om her 
subjects, and on the testimony of their butchers ; 
and she woa ignominiuusly hanged in the presence 
of the people whom she bad so long and so ^- 
ually befriended.' Oviedo has sought to throw a 
stigma on the character of thi.s unfortunate prin- 
cess. aocuBUig her of great liceniiousness ; but he 
was prone lo criminate the diaracter of the native 
princes, who fell victims to the ingratitude and 

1 RoUciDii hcchs por Don Diego Mend?!. Navorreie. Col.. 
* Ovifdo. CronEcii <]r lis India", lib. iil. cap, 12. Lu Cuu. 


, injnstjce of his countrymen. Contemporary writers 
of greater authority have concurred in representr 
ing Anttcaona as remarkable for her native pro- 
priety and dignity. She was adored by her Biib- 
jects, so OS to hold a kind of dominion orer them 
even during the lifetime of lier brother : she is 
a have been skilled in composing tlie areytos, 
or legendary l>a]lads of her nation, and may have 
conduced much towards producing that eoperior 
degree of refinement remarked among her people. 
Her grace and beauty had made her renowned 
throughout tlio island, and ha<i eicited the ad- 
hoth of tlie savage and the Spaniard. 
Her magnanimous spirit was evinced in her aml- 
cahte treatment of the white men, although her 
' husband, the brave Caonabo, had perished a pris- 
; oner in their hands ; and defenseless parties of 
' tiiem had been repeatedly iu her power, and lived 
I At large in her dominions. Alter having, for 
[ Kverol years, neglected all safe opportunities of 
'"a victim to the absurd charge 
I of having conspired against air armed body of 
I nearly four hundred men, seventy of them horse- 
1 force sufficient to have subjugated large 
armies of naked Indians. 

Afler the massacre of Xaragna, the destruction 
if ita inhabitants still continued. The favorite 
nephew of Anacaona, the cacique Guaora, who 
had fled to the mountains, was hunted like a wild 
beast, until he was taken, and likewise hanged. 
For ux months the Spaniards continued ravaging 
the country with horse and foot, under pretext of 
qoelling insurrections ; for, wherever the afirighted 


natireg took refuge in their despair, herdiDg in 
tfisnwl cavenjs and in llie &stnessee of Hu: mouD- 
toine, ^cy were represented as aaseoibtiiig in ant^ 
U) make a head of rebellioo. Having at length 
huut«d Uieiii out of their retreats, destroyfd many, 
and reduced the Hurvivors to the mo»t deplorable 
misery aiid ahject sabmission, the whole of iliat 
part of the island was considered as restored in 
good order ; and in commemoratioD of iMs great 
triumph, 0%'atido fotuiiled a towu near to the lake, 
whidi he called Santa Marin de la Verdodera Pax 
(St. Mary of the True Pwm«).' 

Such is (he tragical history of the deli^itAil 
region of Xamgaa, and of its anuable and hos- 
pitable people. A place where the Europeans, 
by their own account, found a peHbct paradise, 
but which, by their vile passions, they tilled with 
horror and desolation. 

1 Ovieda, CroDica da !iu iodiu, lib. ill. up. 13. 


HE Kubjugnlion of four of ihe Indian sov- 
ereignties of HiepanioU, and the dis- 
astrous &te of their oiciriuts, hare beeu 
already related. Under the admiiiistralion of 
Orondo was also SM.'ompU.shed the downfall of 
ffiguej, the last of those independent districts ; a 
fertile province which comprised the eastern ex- 
tremitf of the island. 

The people of Higuey were of a more warlike 
■pint than those of the other provinces, having 
learned llie effectual use of their weapons, from 
frequent contests with Uieir Curib invatlers. Thc^ 
were governed by h cadque named CotaUuiumu- 
JjiB Cases describes this chieftain from ui.tual ob- 
servation, and draws the picture of a native hero. 
He was, he says, the strongest of his tribe, and 
more perfectly formed than one man in a thousauil 
of any nation whatever. Ue was uller in stature 
than tlie tallest of his couotrymen, a yard in 
breadth from shoulder to shoulder, and the rest 
of his Itody in admu-able proportion. His aspect 



was not handsome, but grave and ooorageous. llta 
bow was not easily beut by a commoD man ; )ii# 
arrows were three pronged, tipped with the bones 
of fishes, aud bis weapoDS appeared to be inteudetl 
for a giaat. In a word, he was so nobly pro- 
portioned, as to be the admiration even of tho 

While Columbus was engaged in his fburtb 
voyage, and shortly aHa the accession of Ovando 
to office, there was an insurrection of tJiis cociqne 
and bis people. A shallop, with eight Spaniards, 
was Burprised at the small island of Saona. ad- 
jacent to Uigney, and all the crew Blaughl«red* 
This was in revenge for the deuth of a ntciquo, 
torn to pieces by a dog wantonly set upon bim 
by a SiHioinrd, and for which the naCiYes bad in 
vain sued for redress. 

Ovando immediately dispatched Juan de &- 
([uibel, a coiir.igeous officer, at the head of four 
hundred men, to quell the insurrection, and pun- 
ish the muAsacre. Cotabanama aMsembled his 
warriors, and prepared for vigorous resislanoe. 
Distrustful of the merc^ of the S|)aniards, the 
chieHain reject^ all overtures of peace, and the 
war was prosecuted with some advantage to tite 
natives. Tlie Indians had now overcome their 
superstitious awe of the white men as eupemal- 
ural beings, and though they could ill withstand 
the superiority of European arms', they manifested 
a courage and dexterity that rendered them ene- 
mies not to be despised. Las Casas and other 
historians relate a bold and romantic encounter 
between a single Lidian and two moniitud cava* 


Ijere, named Vdllenebro aud Portevedra, in which 
the Indian, though pierced through the body hy 
the lances and swords of both his asaailanls. re- 
tain^ his fiercenesB, and continued the combat, 
until he feli dead in the possession of all their 
weapons.' This gallant action, says Los Casas, 
was public and Rotorious. 

The ludiana were soon defeated and driven 
to their monntaiu retreats. The Spaniards pur- 
tued them into their recesses, discovered their 
wives and children, wreaked on them the most in* 
discrinunate slaughter, and committed their chief- 
tains to the flames. An aj^ed female cadque of 
great distinction, named Uigiianama, being taken 
prisoner, was hanged. 

A detachment was sent in a caravel to the isl- 
and of Saona, to take particular vengeance for 
die destruction of the shallop and lis crew. The 
natives made a desperate defense and fled. ITie 
island was mountainous, and tiiU of caverns, in 
whjcli the Indians vainly sought for refuge. Six 
or seven hundred were imprisoned in a dwelling, 
and all put to the sword or poniarded. Those 
of the inhabitants who wore spared were carried 
off OS slaves ; and the island was left desolate and 

The natives of Iliguey were driven lo despair, 
seeing that there was no escape for them even in 
the bowels of the earth ; '' they sued for peace, 
which was granted them, and protection promised 
on condition of their cultivatiug a large tract of 

3 Ltu Cnsu. u1 

Ind., lib. ii. c»p. 8, 

tm .MD roTjea t 

h*>l. iHri chn Ajiimub >nnmHBilw Cm 
PUfjnihnl rhmi hnllt • « 

■tfin vlUiifp new ^ho iMh and Ut in it nine 
I, «rtih t 

tnif homo, irlth liw pmpmtion of ilwiw 


The p iwW n gl t d ii ma aac of Inof ■ 

Mrf a fMaCim rf As a rmy imAt by 

Mitf^ «iff raiMHi ifcuiifaj dhat tfc* 

difl ifMy. hot ttmrmf it to fki 

(f^lwl t))f:m wiA Uif! pMleM tKwtnt j am 

rfiinutl Uti lyyimivMl ■!« ■( Uh li e eirtkw 

<1»rf iif hi* m-n U^«ank the ] 

HjntFtiHr'l* nf)j<ii Ukinf; from 

•loiifthMr* »r.'l •taUini, nntl rrwi thnr wiT«i.» 

'Hi" Inttlun*, rrniitMl M Iwri In rnrjr, riMe on tbcir 

f^rniitJi, iilituj(l>U'rtil llirm. ami Inirul their woodea 

■ 1.M CrUM, dM Mp. 




fiirtress to the ground, Onlj one of the Spaa- 
ianls (wcaped, And bore the tjdings of thia cutas- 
trophe to the dty of San Domingo. 

Ovando gave immedial* orders to carry fire 
and Bword into the provinue of Higuey. The 
Spanish troops rauBtered from Tariuus quarters 
on the confines of that province, when Juan de 
Eequtbel took the command, and liad a great 
number of Indiana with him as allies. The 
towns of Higiiey were generally built among the 
tnountaiug. Those moimtaing rose in terraces, 
from ten to fifteen leagues in length and breadth; 
rsugh and rocky, interspersed with glens of a red 
soil, remarkably fertile, where they raised tlieir 
cassava bread. The ascent from terrace to ter- 
race wae about fitly feet ; steep and precipitous, 
ibrmed of the living rock, and resembling a wall 
wrought with tools into rough diamond points. 
Each village hail four wide streets, a stone's 
throw in length, forming a cross, the trees being 
cleared away from them, and from a public square 
in the centre. 

When the Spanish troops arrived on the fron- 
tiers, alarm-fires along the mountains and eolumus 
of smoke spread the intelligence hy nifrht and 
day. The old men, the women, and children, 
were sent ofl' to the forests and caverns, and the 
warriors prepared for battle. The Caslilians 
paused in one of the plains dear of forests, 
where their horses could be of use. They made 

prisoners c 

reral of the natives, and tried hi 

leom from iJiem the plans ami forces of the e 
emy. They applied tortures for the purpose, but 


in rain, so devoted wns the loyftltj of these peo- 
ple to their caciques. The Spaniards peoetnited 
iato the interior. They found the wnrnora uf 
aeTend towus assembled in one, and drawn »[> in 
Uie Btrects with their bowa and arrows, but per- 
fectly naked, and without defensive armor. They 
uttered tremendoua' yells, and tlisvhargcd a shower 
of arruw^i ; but from such a distjuice, thnt they 
fell aliurt of their foe. The .Spnniards rejilieil 
with their cross-bows, and with two or three of 
tLuir arquebuses, for at this time (hey luid liut 
few fire-amu. When the Indians saw several of 
their comrades Ml dead, they took to flight, 
rarely waiting for the attack with swords : some 
of the wounded, in wliuse bodies the arrows from 
the crosi^bowa had penetrated to the Tery feather, 
drew them out with their hands, broke tlicm with 
their teeth, and hurling them at the Spaniards 
with unpotent fury, fell dead upon the spot. 

The whole force of the Indians was routed and 
dispersed ; each tamily, or baud of neighbors, fled 
in its own directtou, and concealed itself in the Ikst- 
nessefl of the mountains. The Spaniards pursued 
them, but found the chase difficult amidst the close 
forests, and the broken and stony heights. They 
took several prisoners as guides, uid inflicted in- 
credible torments on them, to compel them to 
betray their countrymen. They drove them before 
them, secured by cords listened round th^ necks ; 
and some of them, as they |>assed along the brinks 
of precipices, suddenly threw themselves headlong 
down in hopes of dragging after them the Span- 
iards. When at leng;tb the pursuers came upon the 


unhappy Indkns in their concealments, they spared 
neither age nor sox ; even pregnaut women, and 
mothers with infanta m their arms, fell beneath 
their merciless swords. The cold-blooded actg of 
cruelty which followed this first slaughter, would 
be shocking to relate. 

IleDce Esqujbel marched to attack the towD 
where Cotiibfinama resided, and where that cacique 
had collected a great force to resist him. He pro- 
□eeded direct for the place along the sea-coast, and 
came to where two roads led up the mountain to 
the town. One of the roads was open and in- 
Titjng ; the branches of the trees being lopped, and 
all the underwood cleared away, llere the In- 
dians hod stationed an ambuscade to take the 
Spaniards in the rear. The other rood was al- 
most closed up by trees and bushes eut down and 
thrown across each other. Ksquibel was wary and 
distrustful 1 he suspected the stratagem, and chose 
the incumbered road. The town was about a 
league and a hnlf from the sea. The Spitnioi'ds 
mode their way with great difficulty for the first 
half league. The rest of the road was free from 
all embai'rassment, which confirmed their suspicion 
of a stratagem. They now advanced with great 
rapidity, and, having arrived near the village, sud- 
denly turned into the other rood, took the party 
in ambosh by surprise, and made great havoc 
among them with their cross-bows. 

The wai-riora now sallied from their conceal- 
ment, others rushed out of the houses into the 
Bti«et8, and discharged Sights of arrows, but from 
such a distance as generally to &11 harmless. They 

laCMrtMl ywiw^aa rf Jm t^^t. 






IN the morning after the battle, not an 
Iiuliiui was to be seen. Finding that 

even their great chief, C'otabanama, was 

incajinble of vying witli the prowess of the white 
men, ibey hail given up the contest in despair, and 
fied to the ununtains. The Spaniarils, separating , 
ioto soiall piarUes, hunted them with the utmost 
diligence ; their object waa to seize the caciques, 
and, above all, Cotabaaama. They explored all 
the glena and concealed patha leading into the wild 
recesses where the fugitives had taken refuge. 
Hie Indians were cautious and stealthy in their 
mode of retreating, treading in each other's fool^ 
prints, BO tJiat twenty would make no more track 
than one, and stepping so lightly aa scarce to dis- 
turb the herbage ; yet there were Spaniards go 
■killed iu hunting Indiang, diat they could trace 
them even by the turn of a withered lea£ and 
among the contused trncka of a thousand aniniiil.^. 
They could scent a&r off, also, the smoke of 

no ure AXD rorAecM of 

Wni, ^>i Ikw tfaer TMiU oMBP «pc« ^CK a 
CfobMw day ^wJi 





These are Iiomble details, yet a veil is drawn 
over others still more detestable. They ure relnted 
circumstantially by Las Casaa, wliu vioi, ua eye- 
witness. He was young at the dme, but records 
tliem in his advanced years. ^ All tbeae things," 
said the venei-able Bishnp, " and others revolting 
to haman nature, did my own eyes behold ; and 
now I almost fear to repeat them, scarce believing 
myself, or whether I have Dot dreamt them." 

These details would have been withheld from 
the present work as disgracelul to human nature, 
and fi-om an unwillingness to advance anything 
which might couvey a stigma upon a brave and 
generous nallon. But it woidd be a departure 
from historical veracity, having the documents 
before my eyes, to pass silently over transactionB 
u> atrocious, and vouched tor by witnesses beyond 
all suspicion of ialsehoo<l. Such occurrences 
show the extremity to whicli human cruelty may 
extend, when stimulated by avidity of gain j by a 
thirst of vengeance ; or even by a perverted seal 
in the holy cause of religion. Eveiy nation has 
in turn furnished proo& of this disgracefiil truth. 
As in the present instance, they are commonly 
the crimes of individuals rather than of the 
nation. Yet it behooves governments to keep 
a vi^ant eye upon those to whom they dele- 
gate power in remote and helpless colonies. It 
IB the imperious duty of the historian to place 
these mailers upon record, that they may serve 
u warning beacons te future generations. 

Juan de Esquibel found that, with all his se- 
verities, it would be impossible to subjugate the 


A eaiawl, Kcntttj' wtti«i1 from Ae atv nt 
Sma Dntnfa^o witb (applMa far tbft ramp, w» 
CBplojvd I7 Esqmtid to Rtlrap liie <aaqae. He 
knew llm the Utter kept » ni^Iuit kxikoiitt 
sIMiaBing kxmu npoo tbe ^*Aj mcb of lu i4- 
and la wntch tfae moTcnKots of tbe cantcL 
Eaqnilwl Jcparted br night, therefbtv, m the Te*- 
we\, mth fiAj frrllowcrs. mm) kee{Mng rnkder the 
riM-p iihaitoiT« CA^I br the latx], arrir«d at Saoitt 
BR|i«-rr«iv0l, at tlie <Iawii of monuug. Here lie 
awhored cln<w in with (he shore, hij bj it» cUfli 
and fbresU. nod landed forty men, belnre tlie 
spies of C'otabaoanui hnid taken their station. 
Two of thti^e were surprised and brought to Eo- 
quibel, who, having leantt from them that lh« 
ciirtqne WRti at hand, poniarded one of the itpieA, 
snil boniid the other, mokmg him serve as guide. 

A iiiimber of Simniards ran in advanir, eadi 
anxious to signalize himself by the capture of the 
cacique. They came to two roads, and the wtiole 
pnrty puraued that to die right, excepting one 
Jiiun Lo|)CK, a powerful man, skillful in Indian 
warfare. He proceeded in a foot-path to tlie left. 
winding unuing little hills, so ihiekly wooded, lliat 
it wan imjioMible to »ee any one at the disiauce 
of h^f a bow^shot. Suddenly, in a narrow pass, 



overshadowed by rocks and trees, he encountereS 
twelve IniliiiD ivarriora, armed with bows and 
arrows, aud following each other in single file, 
■ocording to their custom. The Indiuns were 
confounded at the sight uf Lopez, imagining that 
tltere must be a party of soldiers behind him. 
They might readily have trouafiied him with 
their arrows, but thej had lost all presence of 
mind. He demunded their chieftain. They re- 
plied that he was behind, and, opening ti) let him 
pass, Lopez beheld the cacique in the rear. At 
aight of the Spaniard, Cotabanama bent his gigan- 
tic bow, and was on the point of launching one 
of his three-pronged arrows, but Lopez rushed 
tqton him and wounded tijni with his sword. The 
other Indians, struck vrith panic, had already fled. 
Cotftbanama, dismayed at the keenness of the 
sword, cried out that he was Juan do Esquibel, 
clidniing respect as having exchanged names with 
the Spanish commander. Lopez seized liim with 
one hand by the hair, and with the other aimed 
a thrust ut his body ; but the cadque struck 
down the sword with his Itand, and, grappling 
with hia antagonist, threw turn with hia back upon 
the rocks. As they were both men of great 
power, the struggle was long and violent. The 
swoid was beneath them, but Cotabanama, seiz- 
ing the Spaniard by the throat with his mighty 
hand, attempted to strangle him. The sound of 
the oonteet brought the other Spanianla to the 
Bpoti They found their companion writhing and 
gasping and almost dead, in the gripe of the gi- 
gantic Indian. They seized the cacique, bound 


UFF. AXD vOTAsem or 

him. and nrrinl him aqXtre \a » 
vilin^ in [lu! viHiuiT. Tbejr f 
hii MCKt «ri>, hm III* wife MM 
mxrred noii(» rjf hi* cspuim tiy Ae fiigiBt? I»- 
diaoi, hwl takrn rvfiige in M w d ier part of tfaa 
mIbiiiI. Ill thf! isTim WM fbund Ae dun widl 
whii'Ii a riiinilH-T uf IndiMi aptivM iMd !»« 
ImiiuiiI. urliM liuil rum upon and tjain three SpaUK 
iaril* wfio \\m\ them in dtarge, ooil Iwi (nade tlcir 
t'jirafH: u> thU wltuid. Th«n were alio the ■ wnri» 
of lh« URin HpatiinnLt, which the; hwl 
off an Iniplufi bi tlicir i:«ui|ue- The d 
uow <riii|il<)_v»l tij ouuiucU CotAbkaama. 

'Diti SpuuiunU iircpared U excirtiie the diicf- 
tttin Mil tiio HfMit, in the centre of the diesened 
villa;;!-, for thia purpose a pjne was bu3t rf 
lop (if woixl laid (tronswnyii, in form of a friiHran, 
<f(i wliiL'li lui vat, U\ bt! slowly hrmlpil to death. 
On fiirthiT foiimiluition, howeTer. they wtre io- 
diiMxl lo furc^u tbu pleuiure of this horrible sac- 
rifli:<'. I'orhapii they thought the cacii|ue too im- 
portAiit a prrmonogc to bo i^xeculcd tlius obworely. 
Uritiitiiii; him, llinrcfori', n transient rejirievu, they 
coiiviTyod him to the* oaravcl, and sent him bound 
wiUi heavy ehiunH. tu 8iin Domingo. Ovaudo 
anw him Jii hit jMwor, and incapable of doing 
fiirtlior harm ; but ho had not the magnanimity to 
fi>r([ivii II fiill(!n pnumy, whose only crime was the 
tli^li'imn of lii* native aoil and lawliil territory. 
I III (irdun.-d lum to be jmblidy lianged like » 
ooiiiiiKin culprit.' lu this ignuminious mauner 
Wu« tlu' cnciquo Cotabanama executed, the Ual 
I 1.U Cuu, ItUL Ind.. lib. il Bf. 18. 

msrsTOPBEs coLuvam. 515 

of the tjvo aovereign princes of Ilayti. Ilia 
death was followed by the complete subjugation of 
his people, and seuled ihe last struggle of the na- 
tives ngainst their 6|)pre88or8. The island was ' 
almost unpeopled of its original inhnbitants, and 
meek and mournful submission and mute despair 
settled npoa the scanty remnant that survived. 

Sacli viae the ruthless system which had been 
purauod, during the absence of the admiral, by 
the commauder Ovando; this man of boaated 
pnidence and moderation, who was sent to reform 
the abuses of the island, and above all, lo redresH 
the wrongs of the natives. The system of Colum- 
bus may have borne hard upon the Indians, bom 
and brought up in untasked freedom, but it was 
never cruel nor sanguinary, lie inflicted no wan- 
ton massacres nor vindicUvc punishments ; his de- 
are was lo cherish and civilize the Indians, and to 
render them useful subjects ; not lo oppress, and 
persecute, and destroy them. When he beheld 
the desolation thut lud swept them from the land 
dnriug his suspension from authority, he could 
not restrain the strong expression of his ieelings. 
In a letter writleu to the king after his return to 
Spain, he thus expresses himseti' on the subject : 
"The Indians of Hispaniola were and are the 
> liches of the island ; for it is they who cultivate 
[ . tnd make the bread and the provisions for the 
Christians ; who dig the gold from the mines, and 
perform all the offices and labors both of men 
and beasts. I am informed that, since I left this 
island, sii parts out of seven of the natives are 
dead ; all tlii'uugh ill-tn.-almeut and inhumanity ; 


^>: \jL 



^B ^^ 


^r. ^ 


■9B|HE arrival at Jamaica of the two vessels ^^^H 
K^ undor Ihe command of Salcedo, hud ^^^1 
|g£9 caused a juyful reverse in the situatJOD ^^H 

in which he had bceo ho long immure^i, aud ^^M 
hoisting his flag on board of one of the ships, ' 
felt as if the career of i-nterprise and glory were 
once more open to him. The late partisans of 
Porratf, when Uiey heard of the arrival of the 
ships, came wistfii] and abject to the harbor, 
doubting how fer they might trust to the mag- 
nanimity of a mail whom they had so greatly 
injured, and who liad now an opportunity rf 
vengeance. The generous mind, however, never 
harbors revenge in the hour of returning pros- 
perity ; but feels noble saCis&ction in sharing its 
happiness even witli its enemies. Columbus for- 
got in his present felicity aU that he had suffered 
from these men ; he ceased to consider them 
enemies, now that they had lost the power to 

(t>, thm VIA at J 
«Mi>l> hwl Ffvivt Oil«nlM» llwwigfciM 

»< lt*l»IA, 'If) t)W> tMMl of f 

lti)« )il«Ti iiwl Han Dnmin)^ Uk < 

iraldiiK for MiMeot wiwl to < 
■lom fh« tnmm, Hrw* Cohinibw i 



\ ft letter liy land to Ovando. to inform him of his 
Approach, KoA to remove certain uliaiird suspi' 
dona of his views, which he had leanit from Sal- 
cedo were stil) entertairjeil hj the governor; who 
feared liis arrival in the island might prodiice 
&cUoDs and disturbances. In this letter he ex- 
presses, with his usual warmth and simplicitj, 
the joy he felt at his deliverance, which was so 
great, he »iys, that, since the arrival of Diego 
de Salcedo with succor he had scarcely been able 
to sleep. The letter had barely time to precede 
the writer, for a iavorable wind springing up, 
the vessels again made sail, and, on the 13th 
of August, anchored in the harbor of San Do- 

If it is the lot of prosperity to awaken envy 
and excite detraction, it is certainly the lot of 
misfoTtuiie Ui atone for a multitude of fiiults. 
San Domingo had been the very hot-bed of se- 
dition against Colnmbua in the day of Ida power i 
he had been hurried from it in igiiominioua 
chwns, amidst the shouts and taunts of the tri- 
nmphant rabble ; he had been excluded from its 
harbor when, as commander of a squadron, he 
orave<l shelter from an impending lempest ; but 
now that he arrived in iu waters, a broken down 
and shipwrecked mim, all past hostility was over- 
powered by the popular sense of his late disas- 
ters. There was a momentary burst of enthusi- 
asm in his &vor ; what had been denied to his 
merits was gained by his misfortunes ; and even 
the envious, appeased by his present revetses, 
seemed to forgive him tor having once been so 

F triumphant. 

H Is hfi U»M, and te -" -- J - ' - 
1mA USM *«*enl oT the MiiMm. Una w^ 

liiHitn)* I tiui, in fact, tkqr nmi out of k queMio* 
iif jnrUiliaiou Iwtweca him sad At pi*timui: 
TtH.'lr [wwi'ra wto to iuidi>diied a* to rliJi wilk 
'wdi othf r, Mid tii<,-jr went both diqiawd to b« 
MRtninM-ly {luiiciiliou*. Orondu "—""*"' a nglit 
bi Ulu! no);riixuu» uf >II traaiactima at Juiuuia, 
lu lupponlnic Hilhiii the limit* cf lii« govpmineni. 
wbiiJi iiidiulMl all the ialaiidfi and Terra Pinna. 
Colli III)" in, mi the tiHu:T band, asierlad Ute ab- 
NrliiUi Miiiinuiiid, and the Jurudictjou. butli aril 
and rj^riiiiud, kIvcii lo him b; Uie sovereigna, 
ftvar all pertons whu mulrd in hi« eipedition, 

'OPHER C0Ln\fBV8. 


e of departure until their 
To prove tlii*, he produced his letter of 

I'Wtnicdons. The governor heard him with 
__ eat courtesy and a. smiling counteDiun^ ; but 

' Observed, that the letter of iustructi 
no autliority within the boimds of his govern- 
ment.' He relinquished the idea, however, of 
investignting the conduct of the followers of Co- 
Inmbus, and seTit Porras to Spain, to be examined 
by the board which had charge of the affaira of 
the Indies. 

The BOjoum of Columbus at San Domingo 
was but littJe calculated to yield him satisfocdon. 
He was grieved at the desolation of the island 
by the oppremive treatment of the natives, and 
the horrible massacre wliich had been peqietrated 
byOvando and hLs agents. He had fondly hoped, 
at one time, to render the oativea civilized, in- 
dustrious, and tribulary subjects to the crown, 
and to derive from their well-regulated labor a 
great and Btea<ly revenue. How difl'erent had 
been the event ! The five great tribes which 
peopled the mountains and the valleys at the 
(jme of the discovery, and rendered, by their 
mingted towns and villages and tracts of culti- 
vation, the rich levels of the Vega so many 
"painted gardens," had almost all passed away, 
and the native princes had perished, chiefly by vio- 
lent or ignominious deaths. Columbus regarded 
the aflairs of the island with a different eye from 
Orantlo. He had a paternal feeling for its pros- 

un *sa n»r« 


• I" 'i«y rf ^ •^ 

iai«t (1m Mmity o/ At iriiad a «dMHai< nfc 

~ - Wlibfc* mm^ 

) OK U> pR «a» in (»- 

H^ t>qii>l bi* own naadfatk «iBaHi» it pMK 
fvmAwin*. tfm iKitb «i4 diHa ««« odHT 1*- 

MWl a fWn BqnktMimi of ik^ Whalnv fc* 
(•noM riAhrt htm apprspriueil to Ike SOing <■* 

ft< fKo ri-MwU ffhirrh « 

•itt«>->^iwrit Irfj'mi, if iMvttig M gh ew J, if wtt 

mMHivtI, hi* rntRTPMbt dnrja^ bn loi^ olHOHav 

imhI rif hnvintc iim ' ' ' 

ffrHiitM) In aUMifl M hi* coDenM. Ttat W I 

wnNM grrniTi'U Inr ihnm c 

fr'im (wn Irit/Tn •lil) Asunt,* writCm ligr i, 

ImttiKlln If) f^n^(J(^ nn the 27th of Norrnititf, 

t Ali;), In irlt1''h •\m InlimiM him of the complaint 

of Alrinxfi HwiHiirx iln Oirr^ial, thiit he w«s 

iHijifltvl In u>ll(wl)ii{{ the renca of the admlnJ : 

I t miiir nf CnlnmhtM in hit mo nrso, iUIaI Svrilla. Ow. 
I, IM>I Kattrnt*, lom. I p. Ul. 
■ Mavamt*. Cnhie,, ion. U. dMttd. Ul, isa. 


and expressly commands Ovando to observe the 
capitnlatioDB granted lo Columbus ; to respect 
his ageats, and to fiicUitate, instead of obstructing 
bia concerns. These lettars, while they unply 
nngenerous conduct on the piul of the governor 
towftrds his illustrious predecessor, evince likewise 
the personul interest taken by Isabella iu the 
~ ' I of Columbus during his absence. She 
had, in fact, signified her displeasure at his being 
excluded from the port of San Domingo, when 
he applied there tor succor for his squadron, and 
for shelter from a storm ; and had censured 
Ovando tbr not taking his advice and detaining 
the fleet of Bobitdilla, by which it wotild have 
escaped its disastrous &te.' And here it may be 
observed, that the sanguinary acts of Ovando 
towards the natives, in particular the massacre at 
Xarsgua, and the execution of the unfortunate 
Anacaoua, awakened equal horror and indigna- 
tion io Isabella ; she was languishing on her 
death-bed when she received the intelligence, and 
with her dying breath she exacted a promise 
from King Ferdinand that Ovando should inune- 
diately be recalled from his government. The 
promise was tardily and reluctantly fulfilled, after 
an interval of about fonr years, and not until 
induced by other circumstances ; for Ovando con- 
trived to propiliate the monarch, by forcing a 
revenue from the island. 

The continual misunderstandings between the 
^ Bdmiral and the governor, though always quali- 
i!i tJic part of the latter with great complai- 

>■ Bemrk Hnl. Ind., decul. i. lib. v. cap. 13. 


I atooe, \mlmaA Cotnabu lo hMfas m bh^ m 

I' PmAIc Im depwute friMB the Uand. TW d^ 

I li wUdi k« hxl f«tiini«d from Thmjii was i*- 

I |Ur«d and llUed oal, ■sal pM nadcr ike mwaj 

[ tf Che Aik-bBUdo : uetfanr nnd «m fr ^ h hJ , 

""t wtridi ColnmlmA cmbsffced willi has sob ia4 

t ilmneaiifK. Tbe grcmter |wrt of Ui lue cnm 

I lemainedot San Doomi^; «■ ibeir were in gnat 

poreiiy. he rvlkrred ihrir neeeaiDea from ho* own 

parw, ami adTancttl ihe (aBnia seceanfr lor tiba 

Toj'agc booM of ibiNe who flxMe to rebBB. 

Hanj dnu nliend by his generoiBtj had boOB 

among the mott riolcDt of the rebek. 

On tbe 12th of September he mi eail ; bat 
hod KMTwIf kft the harbor when, m a niddeti 
■^uutl, iht! mut <if hs ship was Arrkd awa;-. 
He imtneafialL'ly wi-nt with his &iii3y on board uf 
Ibc tsmkI connnanded bv tbe Adelantada, and, 
MDcHng back the datoa^ed ship to port, conlitiiMd 
on bi« connc. Throo^ont the voyage he ex- 
perienced tbe most tempestnoni weatber. In one 
■tonn the mainmast was Bprang in fbor pbtcM^ 
lie WM confined to his bed at the time by the 
gont : by hit adrice, however, and the activitr of 
the Adclantado, tbe damage was skiDfiilly r»- 
painxl i the miwt was ahortcned ; tbe weak parts 
were fortified by wood token from the castles or 
cabins, which the vessels in those days carried on 
tlie prow and slern ; and the wliole was well 
Mtcarod by oonU. They were still more dam- 
Bgcsl in a succeeding tempest ; in which the *hip 
■pmng her foremaitt In this cri|>p1ed state they 
had to traverve seven hundred leagues of u stormy 




ocean. Fortune continued to persecute Colnm- 
btu to the end of this, his lost aud most duos- 
trons expedition. For several weeks he was 
tempest-Uttaed — Buffering at the eamo time the 
most excrudatlug p^ng &oin his taaJady — until, 
on the seventh day of November, bla crazy and 
shattered bark anchored in the harbor of San 
Liicar. Hence he had himself convoyed to Se- 
ville, where ht! hopc<l to enjoy r^Kwe of mind and 
body, and to recruit his health after auch a long 
series of tatigues, anxieties, and hardships.' 

> Hist d«l Almimile, tap. I0& Casu, U'uL lad., lib. 



I r 

^^H IBs "^ ^ rMNt espalUoB, CU^rti» Hd 

^^^ IfHAtfl fonrvnl lo HniOe m lo > hina of rMl, 

^^^A wbiim b» oaiKht rwpffw «wt& ftoM Ui trodbleK. 

^^^1 CWn ukI anmnr, bnwrircr, IbBowtd Iwn by n* 

^^H Mul hwt [n vuying ihe Meoe lie bnt mied 

^^^ tlin iiHlam of Mi diMmwL '•WesHwaw iajk 

^^^1 oii'I nljftiU " irrrrc s|ipoinitid u> him fur die Pt- 

^^H irMiii'lar of hii lifi^ : atwl Hw wry margin of hu 

^^H unru wiui 'jMtliiml bi In? ktrtwrd with ihonu. 

^^H (fa (urivlfiK at Seville, he fouod aU hie mffiun 

^^^1 In vtintiui\nn. Kvi-r iiinon he hnH licw sent hume 

^^^1 in ithaliia rmm Knji Domingo, whoi lii* hoiue and 

^^^1 vftvi-U \ia>\ In^d taken |K>M6aiilnn of \>y Bob»- 

^^^B illllu, liii ruiiU Mill diiH bttd never beeu prop- 

^^^1 nrly ciilli<i'li-<li aiul tmcli an haA been gatluit«il 

^^^ft IumI U'imi rctuiiii^l iii Uic XittatU of the goremor 


Orando. " I have much vexation from the gov- 
ernor," saya he, in a letter to his son Diego.' 
" All tell me tliat I huve there eleven or twelve 
thousaud casEcUaiios ; and 1 have not received a 
qnarto. ... I know well, that, since my de- 
parture, he must have received upwards of five 
tlionaand castellaiios." He entreated that a let- 
ter might be written by tlie king commanding tlie 
payment of ttiese aireara without deluy ; ti>r his 
agents would not venture even to speak to 
Ovaodo on the subject, unless empowered by a 
letter from the sovereign. 

Columbus was not of a mercenary spirit; but 
his rank and situation required large expenditure. 
The world thought him in die possession of 
sources of inexhaustible wealth; but, as yet, 
tkose sources had furnished him but precarious 
and scanty streams. His lust voyago had ex- 
hausted his linances, and involved him in x>ei^ 
plesities. All that he had been able to collect 
of the money due to him in Hispaniola, to the 
amount of twelve hundred castcllanos, had beeu 
expended in bringing home many of his late 
crew, who were in disti'ess ; and for the greater 
part of the sum the crown remained his debtor. 
Wliile struggling to obtain liis mere pecuniary 
dues, he was absolutely snffering a degree of 
penury. He repeiiti?dly urges the necessity of 
economy to bis son Diego, until he can obtain a 
restitution of his property, and the payment of 
Ids arresirs, "I receive nothing of the revenue 
due to me," says he, in one letter; "1 live by 
1 Let. SuTiUe, Dec 13, 15(M. Mavanu, v. I. p. M3, 

I gcMd: 
TIm mbm ieal,aha,loe tka ia t u t MU of kv 

He MpminiUd m hk letter lo tbe kn^ A* 
n^WBWl of the royal n 
lit0 ^ I B j n HI ti li a na of ^tawlok 

of ore 1«7 n^rotccud m •Q^dy kab 
Iwawi, «nl liahte U depiwifatiofi*, It 
• penon of fignr, and one wbo hid mi ■ 


I to 1 


its aSUirB ^^ 

rerenat^s which it was cupable of yielding ; and 
Columbus plainly intimated that he was the 
proper person. 

In &ct, as to himself, it was not so much pe- 
couiary indemnilicaUDD that he nought, as the 
restoration of his offices and dignities. He re- 
garded them 119 the trophies of his tUustiioiia 
achievements ; ho had received the royal pronuse 
that he should be reinstated in them ; and he 
felt that as long as they were withheld, a tncit 
cengure rested upon his name. Hud he not 
been proadly impatient on the subject he would 
h>v« belied the loftiest part of his cliaracter ; for 
be who can be indifierent to the wreath of tri- 
umph, is deficient in the noble ambitioQ which 
indtes to glorious deeds. 

The unsatisfactory replies received to his let- 
ters disquieted his mind. He knew that he had 
at court ' ready to turn all things 
to his disadvantage, and felt the Importance of 

Ing there lu person to defeat their macbina- 
B : but his infinnltieB detained him at Seville, 
made an attempt to set forth on the journey, 

t the severity of the winter and the virulence 
of his malady ohUged him to relinquish It in 
despair. All that he could do was to reiterate 
his letters to the sovereigns, and to entreat the 
intervention of his few but Mthfiil friends. He 
feared Uie disastrous occurrences of the last voy- 
age might be reprcsenleil to his prejudice. The 
I jireat object of the expedition, the discovery of a 



Btrnit opening from the Caribbean lo the sontk- 
eru sea, had fiiiltd. The secondary object, ihe 
acquisition of gold, had not been completed. 

He hod discovered the gold mines of Veragnn. 
it m true; but he hnd brought home uo treasure; 
because, as he siud, in one of his letters. ~ I 
would not rob nor outrage the country j since 
reason requires that it should be settled, muI 
then the gold may be procured without tio- 

He was especially apprehensive that tlie vio- 
lent scenes in the island of Jamtiicu might, br 
the perversity of his enemies, and tlie eflroniery 
of the delinquents, be wrested into matters of 
accusation againet him, as ha<t been the case with 
Che rebellion of Roldon. Forras, the ringleader 
of the late faction, had been sent home by 
Ovando, to appear before the board of ibii 
iDdies 1 but without any written process setting 
forth the offenses charged against him. Whila 
at Jamaica, Columbus had ordered an inquest of 
the afiiur to be taken ; but the notary of tfas 
squadron who took It, and the papers which he 
(Uew up, were on board of the ship in whi>^ ihe 
admiral had sailed from Jlispaniola. but wiuii 
hafl put back dismasted. No cognizance rf tb 
case, therefore, was taken by the council of tllB 
Indies ; and Forros went at large, armed witb 
the power and disposition to do miachiefl Being 
related to Morales, the royal treasurer, h* had 
access to people in place, and an opportunity of 
enlisting their opinions and prejudices on Ini 
ude. Columbus wrote to MoraJea, enclosing * 



oopy of lie petition which the relwls had sent 
to him when in Jamaiai, in whifb they iitknowl- 
\ edged their culpability, and implored his foi^ye- 
Sess ; and he ontrented the treasurer not to be 
iwayed by the representations of his relative*, 
nor to pronounce an opinion unfiiTorable to him, 
until he liad an opportimily of being heard. 

The Ciithful and indefittigable Diego Mendez 
waa at this lime at the court, as well as Alonzo 
Sanchez de Carvajal, and im active friend of Co- 
lumbus named Geronimo. They could bear the 
most important testimony as to hia condnct, and 
he wrote to hia son Diego to call upon them ibr 
their good officea, ^ I triiat," aaid he, " that the 
truth and diligence of Diego Klaudez will be of 
as much avail as the lies of Porras." Nothing can 
Borpaaa the ailecting eamestneas and simplicity 
' of the general declaration of loyalty, contained 
! uf hia letters. " I have aerved their 
majesties." says he, " with as much zeal and dili- 
? as if it hod been to gmn Paradise ; and 
if I have foiled in anything, it has been because 
my knowledge and powers went no further." 
While reading these touching appeals, we can 
' MMTcely realise the iact, that the dejected individ- 
I ml thus wearily and vainly applying for unques- 
' tjonuble rights, and pleading almost like a culprit. 
in canes wherein he had been flagrantly injured, 
was the aame who hut a few years previously 
had been received at tliis very court with almost 
regal honors, and idolized aa a national benefoc- 
tor ; that this, in a word, was Columboa, the dis- 
coverer of the New World ; broken in health, 


ft* iirigi II iiiip I »d 

I » 1^ to oawX hnvB* svvrj ibr mamt ■ 

or leCBo^niitas k'P" » ^ b«i 

Mb. Tht tiAtip fean Ac «DWt woe ewr 

iMri(M at hs enMiM « 

[ % iwgwmrfj at Ott her fmabm wui m^ 
nM^ l» •« rdM far ife faB RWoiM 
of Ui righn, oad ll» w i fcHM . al tM tm pwv- 
M. " Mivf it ptauB lb Bofy Trni^." ^jt 

fcr bj Im* will OT wy i hag be n^iHted wttdl to 
BOW in emfiMioa.' Aka! wUe wrilaig Ai< 
iMIer. hii noUe htinfauiuw «■• m eor^e ! 

TlM iMlUi at iMbeH* iMd bng ben aadoi^ 
MOMrf hf Hm ikotk» of nftaUA ilowwtic olMa- 
tim> Thh 4ntb ot ber onlji mo. Ae Pnan Jan ; 
of hef bdtnvd <iitglMw Mil bowwi fiiend. dw 
*" - - ~ g^ ^ ^^ gowiiKM Mid 



[ prospective lieir, the Prince Migiiel. hitd beoo 
. three cruel wounds to a. heart full of the tenderest 
aensibility. To tbeae was added Uie constant 
grief caused liy tbo evident iuflrmity of intellect 
of her daughter Juuna, and the domestic uul).ip- 
pinesa of that jiricicefw with her hiDibtiud, llie 
Archduke Philip. The desolntion which walks 
through palaces admits not the iamiliar i^ympa- 
thies and sweet consoluUona which alleviate the 
I aorrowe of common life. Isabella pined in ntate. 
' Amidat the obHequious homngeB of a. court. Hur- 
ronnded by the trophies of a glorious aod suc- 
cessful reign, and pLiced at the summit of earthlj' 
gnuideur- A deep aud incurable melancholy 
settled upon her, whicli uadermined iter coiistjta- 
ticHi. and gave a fiiul aculeiices to her bodily 
I luahtdies. After four mootlui of illne^, she rlied 
' on the 26lh of November, 1304, at Medhia del 
Campo, in the fifty-fourth year of her age : but 
\aag before her eyes closed upon the worbl, lier 
heart bad closed on all its pomps aud vanjiie«. 
" Let my body," uiirl she in her will, - be interred 
in the monastery of San Fnuuaeco, which is in 
the Alhambra of the dty of Gramtda. in a low 
sepulchre, without any monumeuL except a plain 
Mone. with the inscription i 

dasire and 

id, that if the king, 

r lord. 

should (iioose a sepuldire in any church o 
■Mery in any other fiort ur place of these my king- 
dotna, my body be transported thither, and barind 
beside the body of his highness ; so thai the 
anion we have enjoyed while li^THg. and which, 
ough the mercy of God. we ho[ie our souls 




catholic and ho]y, and prompt to nil tilings in his 
holy service : for this reason we may rest assured 
that she is received into liia glory, and beyond the 
care of this rough and weary world. The next 
thing is to wutcli and labor in all matters for the 
service of our sovereign the king, and to endeavor 
to alleviate liia grief. His majesty is the head of 
Christendom. Bemember the proverb which says, 
when the head suffers, all the members suffer. 
Therefore all good Christians should pray for his 
health and long life ; and we, who are in his em- 
ploy, ought more than others to do thid with all 
study and dUigeuee." ' 

It is impossible to read this mournful letter 
vithout being moved by the simply eloquent yet 
artless language, in which Columbus expresses his 
tenderness for the memory of his bene&ctress, his 
weariness under the gathering cares and ills of 
life, and his persevering and enduring loyalty to- 
wards the sovereign who was so ungratefiilly 
neglecting him. It is in these unstudied and con- 
fidential letters that we read the heart of Colnm- 

t Letter to his aoo Dii^go, Dec. 3, IMl. 


Bdeuhof li 
I Ae tbramei at CofaaabtH. Wlufe «hB 
_| IweA be I 

ni^^tppAi of bjB chaneMr. With br SIiueib, ha m - 
crec, hk ialerest had laacnUwd, and whea tim 
AnL be wu h^ » the jnodoc ant gmenm^ rf 

Daring ihe renuRBder <tf dw wnUr lad ■ pmt 
of die spring, he CDnQDani at SerSIe^ (ieaniMl fey 
puoiitl iUoeao, aad eniuenaBg ta otein vabtm 
from the gmenunent by iaeSectBil IbOmb. Bfe 
~ r tbe Addanadot. wbo H^poflHd bin wtt 

enl ateitt wenueo. Thsli 

Ae aAaiBoaK falfaer mpj i mllj 
ibMch bat a 


the GtroQgcst fraternal attach mciit, alluding to hie 
I brethren with one of those simply eloijiieat 
ADcl afTecting exprei»ionB which Btaoip his heart 
npon his lettere. " To thy brother conduct thyself 
as the elder brother should unto tlie younger. Tliou 
fiast no other, and I praise God that this is such 
s one M tliou dost need. Ten brothers would not 
be too many for thee. Never have I found a 
better friend to right or Icfl, thaji my brotliers." 

Among the persons whom Columbus employed 
at this lime in his missiona to the court, was 
Amerigo Vespucci. He describes him us a wor- 
thy but unfortunate man, who had not jiroflted 
as much as he deserved hy his undertakings, and 
who had always been disposed to render liim ser- 
vice. His object in employing him ajipears Xo 
have been to prove the value of his last rojage, 
and that he hail been in the most opulent parts 
of the New World — Vespucci having since 
touched upon the same coast, in a voyage with 
Alonao de Ojeda, 

One circumstance occurred at tiiis time which 
shed a gleam of hope and consolation over hii 
gloomy prospects. Diego de Deza, who had 
been for some time bishop of Falenda, was ex- 
pected Ht court. This vtm the same worthy friar 
who had aided him to advocate liis theory* before 
the board of Icameil men at Salamanca, and had 
aaaisted him with his purse when making his pro- 
posals to tlie Spanish court, lie hiwl Just been 
promoted and madi; ai-chhishop of Seville, but 
hail not yet beeu installed in odice. Columbus 
directs his son Diego to intrust his interests to 


this worthy prelate. " Two tilings." saira be, 
" require particular attention. Ascertain whether 
the queen, who is now trith God, has Baid anf- 
thing concerning me in her tegtameut, and etimn- 
late the bishop of Pnlenda, he who waa the 
cause that their highnesses obtained possession of 
the Iudie«, who induced me to remain in CutOt 
when I was on the road to leave it." ^ In an- 
other letter he Bays, " If the bishop of Palenoa 
has arrived, or should arrive, tell him how mncJi 
I have been gratified by his prosperity, and that 
if I come, I shall lodge with his grace, even 
though he should not invite me, for we must re- 
turn to our andent fraternal affection." 

The incessant applications of Columbus, both 
by letter and by the intervention of friends. ^ 
pear to have been listened to with cool indtSer- 
ence. No compliance was vielded to his request, 
and no deference was p^d to his opinions on n- 
rious points concerning which he interested hist- 
self New instructions were sent out to Omuido> 
but not a word of their purport was mentiooBd 
to the admiral. It nas proposed to send out 
three bishops, and he entreated in vain to b« 
heard previous to their election. In short, he 
was not in any way oousnlt^ in the affiurs of 
the New World. He felt deeply this negled. 
and became every day more impatient of his tib- 
sence from court. To enable hbnself to perform 
the journey with more ease, he applied for per- 
mission to use a mule, a royal ortlinance having 
prohibited the employment of those animals uo- 

1 LetMr of Dec. £1, 1504, N'lranta, ton. L p. 3U. 




der the saddle, in consequence of their uoiverHtil 
Tise having occasioned a decline in ihe breed of 
horses. A royal perrhission was accordingly 
granted to Columbus, in consideration that his 
age and infirniittes incapadUtted him from riding 
on horseback; but it was a considerable time be- 
fore the state of his health would permit him to 
avail himself of that privilege. * 

-The foregoing particulars, gleaned from letters 
of Columbus recently discovered, show the real 
itate of his affairs, and the mental and bodily 
affliction soatained by him during hia winter's 
residence at Seville, on his return from hia last 
disastrous voyage. He has generally been rep- 
resented as reposing there from his toils and 
troubles. Never was honorable repose more 
merited, more desired, and less enjoyed. 

It was not until the month of May that he 
was able, in company with his brother the Ade- 
lantado, to accomplish his journey to court, at 
that time held at Segovia. He, who but a lew 
years ago before had entered the city of Barce- 
lona b) triumph, attended by the nobility and 
diivalry of 8pmn, and hailed with rapture by 
the multitude, now arrived within the gales of 
Segovia, a vayKom, melancholy, and neglected 
man ; oppressed more by sorrow than even by 
hie years and infirmities. When he presented 
himself at court, he met with none of that dis- 
tinguished attention, that cordial kindness, that 
dierisliing sympathy, which his unparalleled ser- 
Yices and his recent sufferings had merited.' 

i. cap. 37. Hemra, BiaL Ind., 



hod been so frequently eolidted, might be nwardetl 
to him ; offering in return to serve his niujesty 
devoledly for the short time he had yet to live ; 
and trusting, frum what he felt within him. and 
from what he thought he knew with certjuiity, to 
render serriceA which should surpass all tliat lie 
had yet performed a hundred-fold. The king, in 
reply, acknowledged the greatness of his merits. 
and the importance of his services, hut observed 
that, fur the more satieiiictory adjustment of tiis 
claimH, it would be advisable to refer all points 
in dispute to the decision of some discreet and 
able person. The admiral immediately proposed 
as arbiter his friend the archbishop of Seville, 
Don Diego de Deza, one of the most able and 
upright men about the court, devoutly loyal, high 
in the confidence of the king, and one who had 
always taken great interest in the affairs of the 
New World. The king consented lo the arbitra- 
tion, but artfully extended it to questions which 
he knew would never be put at issue by Colum- 
bus ; among these was his claim to the restora- 
tion of his oSice of viceroy. To this Columbus 
objected with becoming spirit, as compromising 
a right which wus too clearly defined and sol- 
emnly estahlished to be put for a moment in 
dispute. It was the question of rents and reve- 
nues alone, he observed, whieh lie was willing to 
submit to the decision of a learned man, not tliat 
of the government of the Indies. As tlie raonarch 
persisted, however, in embracing both qucstionH 
in the arbitration, the proposed i 
never carried into effect. 



It was, in feet, on the subject of hia dignitiM 
alone that Columbus was teniidoiLg ; uU other 
matters Le considered of minor importanue. In 
n coaveriiation with tlie kiiig, he alisolutely dis- 
avowed nil wish of entering into any siut or 
pleading as lo his pecuniary dues ; on the con- 
trary, he offered to put all his privileges aud 
writings into the hands of hie sovereign, mid to 
receive out of the dues arising Irom them, what- 
ever his majesty might think proper to award. 
All that he claimed without qualification or n- 
serve, were his official dignities, assured to turn 
under the royal seal, and with all the solemnity 
of a treaty. He entreated, at all events, that 
these matters might speedily be decided, so that 
he might be released from a stale of miserable 
suspense, and enabled to retire to some quiet 
comer, in search of that tranquilUty and repo»a 
necessary lo his fatigues and his infirnuties. 

To this frank appeal to his justice and gener- 
osity, Ferdinand replied with many courteous 
expressions, and with those general evasive prom- 
ises, which beguile the ear of the court ap|>Ii<ant, 
but convey uo comfort to his heart. " As Ikr aa 
actions went," observed Las Casas, ■' the king 
not merely ahowed him no ^gns of lavor, but* 
on the contrary, diacount^nanced him as mu(^ ai 
possible; yet he was never wanting in comj^ 
mentary expressions." 

Many months were passed by Columbus in uit- 
availing solicitation, during wliidi he continued h> 
receive outward demonstrations of respect from 
the king, and due attention from Cardinal Xime- 



nes, arcbbUbop of Toledo, and other prindpal 
peraon^N ; bat be had teomt to apprmaie and 
distnut the boUow drilities of a court- His 
were referred to a tribtma], railed " The 
Goandl of the discfaaiges of the oonsdence of the 
decea^ qne«n, and of the king." This is a 
kind of tribunal, commonly known by the name 
of the Junta de Descargoa, oomposed of persons 
nominated by the soTemgu, to supcrintenit the 
accomplishment of the bat will of his predecessor, 
and the discharge of his debts. Two consulta- 
tions were held by this body, but notliiug was 
delermined. The wishes of the king were too 
well known to be thwarted. " It waa believed," 
gays Las Casas, " that if the lung could have 
done so with a safe conscience, and without 
deti-iment to his fame, he would have respected 
few or none of the privileges which he and the 
queen hod conceded to the admiral, and which 
had been bo justly merited," ' 

Colimibus still flattered himself that, his claims 
being of such importance, and touching a question 
of sovereignty, the adjustment of them might be 
only postponed by the king until he could consult 
with his daughter Juana, who had succeedt'd to 
her mother sa queen of Castile, and who was 
daily expected from Flanders, with her husband. 
King Philip. He endeavored, therefore, to bear 
delays with patience ; but he had no longer the 
physical strength and glorious anlicipalions which 
once sustained him through his long applications 
at this court Life itself was drawing to a close. 
. ) \.tt C«Ml, HiaL ItiiL, lib. ii- cap. ST. 

_r-T .^yD "^r^Ci 


T».. - -!-i'i' i-rr.- TL"" -■■ri«"'T .« ■■• -J "i-- ~*"-=>". io 



?;.• . 

' - -f.r— * .r Ti*- -iid- ::r.- *■ _l- -"TI 

• •' • ..4 . ,._■ .17..L1. • I-."" ....■-. 1. ^ .^Jf^ 

Pa a • - ■ 

■r -. — '.' ' 

r\\ ■■-• .V \'.".r .i' 

T*'"'* tr.'.;!'-:!!:' '.- ¥t-r:- iLwit- *!' ii::;.* 'ii-^-r^'^-:* 
r^j.- • i-M-. *-ri»- Ti'.<r«^ 'avi-.ruMv il-i \^ ^-'••~\ 
.a: '::: i»- i»-i.i----L .Loping w •-;-. ri-'^r.^ -nrir 

Tie *.rifi V tn r.'»!;;nan'in. l- tiktili.:'-! *** -run- 
r>rrj!iu-r ■iwjir Ttitrs ^tiicn T^-rrr :hi? 'Xf.Riiitss «>i 



hifi adueremenU. He saw, however, that all 
furlier hope of redresB from FLTdiiiiiiid was vain. 
From the bed to which he was confioed, he ad- 
dressed a letter to hia constatit friend Diego de 
DeKit, expressive of his despair. " It appears 
that his majesty doe« not think fit to fiilliU that 
which he, with the queen, who b now in glory, 
' promised me by word and aeaX. For me to con- 
tend for the raintrory, would be to contend with 
the wind. I have done all tlmt 1 could do. I 
leave the rest to God, whom I have ever found 
propitious 1o me in my neuessities." ' 

The cold and calculating Ferdinand beheld 
this illaelrious man sinking under infirmity of 
body, heightened by that deferred hope which 
"maketh the heart sick." A little more delay, a 
little more disappointment, and a little longer in- 
taction of ingratitude, and this loyal and generous 
heart would cease to beat: he should then be 
delivered from the just claims of a well-trie<I 
servant, who, in ceasing to he useful, was con- 
sidered by him to have become importunate. 


IJ^'f^N ilic midst or illDCBi iitid despoiideucv, 
ON Ent wlien bolli life Hnd hope veere cx|iiring 
^SlS3 in the bo»nm of Columbus, a uew gleam 
was awnkened, and blazed Dp Cut a moment with 
characleristic fervor. He beard with joy of the 
landing of King FliJIJp and Qaeen Juana, who 
had just arrived IVom Flauders to luku poKc^ion 
of fhcir ibrone of Casiile. In tbe daugbter of 
Isabella he trusted once more to find a palrouets 
and a fiiend. King Ferdiuand and nil the couri 
repaired to I^aredo to receive ibc jouibful sover- 
eigns. ColumbuH would gladly have done ibi- 
same, but he was confined to his bed by a seTerc 
return of his malady ; neither in his puiuliil and 
helpless situation could he dispense with ibe aid 
and ministry of his son Diego. Hfa broilier, lb* 
Adelantitdo, therefore, liis main dependence in nU 
emergenciea, was sent to represent him, and to 
present his homage and congratulalioiis. Cofuin- 
iius wrote by him to the oen- king and queen, 
expressiug his grief at being prevented by illness 
from coming in person lo manifest his devotion, 
but begging lo be considered among (be mon 



fftithful of their subjects. He espi'dixed a hope 
that he should rcc^eive at their liniids ()>e restitu- 
tion of his lionora and estates, atid nitsiireil them 
that, though cruelly tortured at present bj dtseiise, 
he would yet be able to render them services, the 
like of wliich hiid never been witnessed. 

Such waH the last sally of his sanguine and 
tinconquemble spirit; which, disregardiug age 
and itjtirmjties, and all past sorrows and disnp- 
poiulmeuls, spoke from his dyiug bed with all 
the coufideiice of youthful hope ; and talked of 
still greater enterpnses, as if he had a long and 
vigorouB life before him. The Adelantado took 
leave of his brotlier, whom he was never to 
behold again, and set out ou his mission to the 
new sovereigns. He experienced the most 
gracious reception. The claims of the admiral 
were treated with great attention by the young 
king and queen, and flattering hopes were given 
of a speedy and prosperous terininalion to hie 

In the mean time the cares and troubles of Co- 
lumbus were drawing to a close. The momen- 
tary lire which had reniiimAied him was soon 
quenched by accumulating infirmities. Immt'- 
diately after the departure of the Adulanlndo, his 
illness increased in violence. Ills last voyage 
had shattered beyond repair a frame already 
worn and wasted by a life of hardship ; and con- 
tinual anxieties robbed him of that sweet rejiose 
so necessary to recruit the weariness and debility 
of age. The cold ingratitude of his sovereign 
chilled Ilia heart. The continued suspensiun of 



n expe- 

trengtb and io- 
1 order for tlie 

bii bonore, and the enmii; and defknutioi 
rienced at eveiy tnm. <««med to tiirov a sltaUow 
over that glory which had been ihe great object 
of bis ambition. Thia shadow, it \a true, could 
be but of IruiLiieiit dnration ; but it ia difficult 
for tilt! tnosi illusirioiiB nicui to look bejood the 
preaent cload which may obscore bis fame, and 
anticipiile its pennaneDt lustre in the adoiiratioB 
of posterity. 

Bting admonished by fiuliiig 9 
creasing aafferiiigs that his end wi 
be pi'epBreil to leave his afikir» ii 
benefit of hb successors. 

It is »dd that on the 4lh of May, be wrote on 
iuformAl teBtameritary codicil on the blank page 
of a lillle breviary, given him by Pupe Alex- 
ander VI. Id this he bequeathed that book to 
the republic of Genoa, which he aira appointed 
eiiccessor to his privileges and dignities, on Ihe ex- 
tinction of hia male line. He direcTeil, likewbe, 
the erection of an hospital in that city with the 
produce of his possessions in Italy. The authen- 
ticity of this documeut is questioned, and has 
become a point of warm contest among comroen- 
tstors. It is not, however, of much iuiporlance. 
Tlie paper is such as might readily have been 
written by a person like Columbus in the par- 
oxysm of diaenee, when he imagined liia end 
euddouly approaching, and shows the afiection 
with which his thoughts were bent on bis native 
dty. It is termed among commentators a 
military codicil. Iiecause testamentary di^posiliotis 
of this kind are executed by the soldier at the 






point of death, without the uiiiial rormalities 
required by the civil law. About two weeks 
aAerwarda, on the eve of his dealh, iits execuled 
a final and regularly authenticated codicil, in 
which ho bequeathed bia dignities and estates 
with better juilgtnenL 

In these last and awfu! moments, when llie 
soul has but a brief space in whiclt to make up 
its account between heaven and earth, all dis- 
Bimulalton is at an end, and we rend unequivocal 
evidences of character. The last codicil of Co- 
lumbus, made at the very verge of the grave, is 
stamped with his rilling passion and his benig- 
nant virtues. He repeals and enforces several 
clauses of his original testament, constituting liia 
son Diego his unirersal heir. The entailed in- 
heritance of mayonizgo, in case he died without 
male issue, was to go to his brother Don Fer- 
nando, and from bim, in like case, to pass to his 
uncle Don Bartholomew, descending always to 
the nearest mole heir; in failure of which, it was 
to pass to the female nearest in lineage to the 
Rdmirol. He enjoined upon whoever should 
inherit his estate never to alienate or diminish it, 
but to endeavor by all means to augment its 
prosperity and importance. He likewise enjoined 
upon his heirs to be prompt and devoted at all 
limes, with person and estate, to serve their 
sovereign and promote the Christian faith. He 
ordered that Don Diego should devote one tenth 
of the revenues which might arise from his 
wiale, when it came to be productive, to the 
relief of indigent relatives and of other persons in 

Ill iirijt<hK«rfito ' ■ .fai 

fkM ,i] ii'i t«^ 


m4 Dm fAran-. i 

Ifa 1 ■ ■ - - - 




with hia own baud severnl miauCe sums, to be 
paid to persons nl different and diatatit place?, 
vitliout their being told wheoce tbey received 
them. Tbe»ie Hp|>eHr (o have beeti trivial debts 
of conscience, or rewanls for petty services 
received id times loug pnst. Among these is 
niie of hitlf H murk of eilvcr to a. pour Jew, who 
lived at Ibe gate of the Jewry, in the city of 
Lisbon. These miimle provisions evince the 
scrnpulous atfention to justice Ju all bis dealiiigH, 
and that love of punctuality in Che fulfillment of 
duties for which he whs remiirkud. In the enme 
spirit, he gave much advice to his son Diego, as 
to the conduct of Ids affairs, eiijoiuing upon bim 
to take every mouth an account with his own 
hand of the expciiBes of hia household, and to 
sign it with his name ; for a want in regularity 
in tbia, he observed, lost both property and 
servHUls, and turned the lost into enemies.^ His 
dying bequests were made in presence of a few 
fiiithful followers and servants, and among them 
we tiad the name of Bariholomeo Fiesco, who 
had accompanied Diego Mendez in the perilous 
voyage in a canoe from Jamaica to Hispaniola. 

Haviug thus scrupulously attended to all the 
claims of affection, loyalty, and justice upon 
enrtb, Colurabua turned his thoughts to heaven ; 
and having received the holy sacrament, and 
performed all the pious offices of a devout Chris- 
tian, ho expired with great resignation, ou tlie 
day of Ascension, I" 

about I 

iiity years 

of B 

B.^ His last words 

' Memorial ajtutado, % Ht. 



upon it, it remains engraved in 
mankind, more indelibly ihiin in brass or miir- 
ble ; a record of the great debt of gratitude due 
to the discoverer, wliich tbe monarch bad ao 
faithla<iBly neglected to discharge. 

Attempis have been made in recent days, by 
loyal Spanish writers, to vindicate the conduct 
of Ferdinand towards Coluaibus. They were 
doDbtless well intended, but they have been 
futile, nor is tbeii' failure to bo regretted. To 
screen such injustice in so eminent a character 
from the reprobation of Tnankind, ia to deprive 
history of one of lis most important uses. Let 
the ingratitude of Ferdinand stand remrded in its 
full extent, and eudure throughout all time. 
The dark shadow which it casts upon bis bril- 
liant renown, will be a lesson to all rulers, teach- 
ing them what is important to tlieir own fame in 
ibcir treatmeut of illustrious men. 




K<*iflN DfUTBting the story of Columbus, it 
QC |Di iins been the eudeavor of the author to 
■S£l pixce him in a clear und familiar point 
of view; for this purpose he bea rtjecied no cir- 
Ciiinslauce, however trivial, which appeared to 
evolve some point of character ; and he hoa 
sought all kinds of collateral facia which might 
Uirow light upon his views and motives. With 
this view aleo he lias delaijed maiiy facts liith- 
erio passed over in silence, or viij^'iiely nuticv<l 
by hiflloriniia, probably because they might be 
deemed instances of error or misconduct on the 
pan of Columbus ; but he who paints a great 
man merely in great and heroic trails, though 
he may produce a liue picture, will never present 
ft faithful portrait. Great men are componuils 
of great and liule qualities. Indeed, much of 
their greatness arises from their ma«lery over 
the imperfections of their nature, and their 
noblest actions are sometimes struck forth by 
t1i(i collision of their merits and their defucis. 

Ill Columbus were singularly combined the 
praciiuij and the poetical. Hb mind had grasped 


all )daia of knowledge, whuther promired by 
study or observation, which bore ripoii his the- 
ories; itnpftlient of [he scanty nliment of the 
day, " \»a irapetuoiia ardor," as lias well been 
observed, " threw him into the Htudy of the 
fiithera of ihe church; Ihe Arabian Jews, and 
the ancieiil geogmphers ;" while his daring but 
irregiilnr genius, bursting from the limits of 
tmperieut Mcience, bore him to (.■onclusions far 
beyond ilie intellectual visions of his cODlempo- 
rnries. If some of his coodusioiia were errone- 
ous, they were at least ingenious aiid splendid; 
and their error resulted from the clouds which 
still hung over his peculiar path of enterprise. 
His own discoveries enlightened the ignorance 
of the age ; guided conjecture to certaiuty, and 
dispelled that very darkness with which he had 
been obliged to struggle. 

Id the progress of his discoveries, he has been 
remarked for the extreme sagacity and the ad- 
mirable justness with which he seized u[>oii the 
phenomena of Ihe exterior worlil. The varia- 
tions, for instance, of terreairial magDetism, llie 
direction of currents, the groupings of marine 
plant'*, fixing one of the grand climacteric divis- 
ions of the ocean, the temperatures changing not 
solely with the distance of the equator, but also 
with tlie diJTerence of meridians ; these and sim- 
ilar phenomena, as they broke upon him, were 
disceracd with wonderful quickness of perc^t- 
tion, and made to ooDtribute important priudpfes 
to the slo<^ of general knowledge. This luddiiy 
of spirit, this quick ooDVertibiliiy of lacts to prin- 


1—1 1^ immtdmrn^^t 

wmU ModMe as OH^ If to vMaH«d ia4 

e «r the K^aa* he had ■(- 

i acCf^iaieB la |pHii eoftn oa aach «•- 

' Ba(ba«d HOC tU MBMlr* kMflf 

4s4iMMnaiiMM of ■ 

i* OMdiMlofi, aeUwU J defrsjvd one dghili of 

1 D. BBmUAA. Exnca QnBifm. 

CBRiaioi'aEH coLUMBua. 



It wu. in fact, this rare union alrendf noticed, 
of the practical man of buaiiiesa with the poet- 
ical projector, which ennbleti him to carry bis 
grand enterprises into eSect through so many 
ditlicLiUies ; but the pecuniary calculations and 
cares, which gave fcBsibility to hia Bcbemes, were 
never sulfered to chill ihe glowing aspirations 
of his soul. The gains that promised to arise 
from his discoveries, he inlenJed to appropriate 
in the same princely and pious spirit in which 
they were demanded. He contemplated works 
end achievemenlB of benevolence and religion ; 
vast contributions for the relief of the poor of his 
native city ; the foundation of churches, where 
masses should be said for the souk of the de- 
parted ; and armies for the recovery of the holy 
sepulchre in Palestine. Thus his ambition was 
tmly noble and lotly ; instinct with high thought 
and prone to generous deed. 

In the dischai^ of his office he maintained 
the state and ceremonial of a viceroy, and was 
tenacious of his rank and privileges ; not from a 
mere vulgar love of titles, but because he prized 
them as teslimoniala and trophies of his achieve- 
ments : these he jealously cherished as his great 
rewanls. In his repeated applications to the king, 
he insisted merely on the restitution of bis digni- 
ties. As to his pecuniary dues, and all questions 
relative to more revenue, he offered to leave them 
to arbitration, or even to the absolute disposition 
of the monarch ; but not so his official dignities ; 
" these things," said he nobly, " affect my honor." 
In his lestami'ul, he enjoined on hia son Diego, 



and whoever after him should inherit his estates, 
whaiercr liignities aad titles might nfterwnrds be 
grouted by the king, always lo sign himself 
simply " the admiml," by way of perpetualiug 
in the family its real source of greatucss. 

Hia cotiiliiet was uharacterked by ihe grandear 
of hia views, and the magnanimity of liis spirit. 
Instead of scouring the newly found countries, 
like a grasping adventurer eager only for iinmedi- 
ale gain, as was too generally the a\ie with con- 
temporary diHcoyerera, he sought to ascertain lliejr 
soil and productions, their rivers and harbors : he 
was desirous of colonizing and cultivating ihem ; 
of conciliating and civilieing the natives ; of 
bnilding cities; introducing the useful arts; sub- 
jecting everything to llic control of law, order, 
and religion ; and tlins of founding regular and 
prosperous empires. In this glorious plan he 
was constantly defeated by the dissolute rabble 
which it was his misforluue to commmid : with 
whom all law was tyranny, and all i>nler re- 
straint. They interrupted all useliil works by 
tlieir seditions: provoked the peaceful Indians to 
hostility ; and after Ihey had thus drawn down 
misery and warfare upon their own heads, and 
overwhelmed Columbus with the ruins of the 
edifice he was building, they charged him with 
being the cause of the confiision. 

Well would it have been for Spain, had those 

D followed ii 

I sound policy and liberal < 

The Nev 

World, in such autcs, would have been settled 
pacific colonists, and civilized by enlightened 




iaialors ; instead of being oi'errun by desperate 
adventurers, nod desulateil hy nvni'idons con- 

Coliimlius was a man of quick ^etisibility, 
liable lo great excitenieiil, to sudilen and string 
impressions, and powerful impulses. He whs 
naturally irritable and impetuous, and keenly- 
seiiaible to injury ajid injustiee ; yet the quick- 
ness of ilia temper was eoiiiilemcted by the be- 
nevolence and jrenerosity of his heart. The 
magnnniniity of bis nature sbone forlh through 
all (he troubles of his stormy career. Though 
continually outraged in bis dignities, and braved 
iti the exercise of his coinniAnd ; though foiled in 
his plans, and endangered in his person by the se- 
ditious of turbulent and worthlbss men, and tlitit, 
too, at limes when suffering under anxiety of 
mind and anguish of body siitBeient to exasperate 
the nuMtt patient, yet he restrained bis valiant and 
iudignant spint by the strong powura of hia 
mind, and brought himself to forbear, and reason, 
and even to supplicate : nor should we fail to 
notice how free he was from all feelings of re- 
venge ; how really to forgive nnJ forget, on the 
least sign of repeniance and atonement. He has 
been extolled for hia skill in controlling olhei's, but 
far greater praise is due lo him for his tirmnesa 
in governing himself. 

Uis natural benignity made him accessible to 
all kinds of pleasurable sensations from external 
objects. In bis letters and journals, iiatead of 
detailing circumstances with the tecbuical precis- 
ion of a mere navigator, he notices the beauties of 



*4f tew■-MI^•fa-^■ 

mUfimmUiag Mrpa«M An 

I*|mIi«m4 kr ifa funfimh «ri i 


I of Im 

1h fwantad in rfw w w i W 8p«in, ad an« iMa 
r dm fiMMMa «f iMbrlU. j I mJ of aBM JBw ng 
[ Ifw htlf prM« with wUdi h* had iNthertv «»- 

taimi Ma injoriw, Ih «m laadMd with pitt 

Wtd iMdcTMM M har aTnpWbj, and bunt fimfc 

Uta aohi mmI Uww. 

Ha mt davootl^ pioiM, icligioa nrin^sd wtik 


ibe whole ooaise of liis ilioughtg iiiid nctious, 
Rnd shone forth in his most privnle mid unstud- 
ied writings. Whenever he mnde any great dis- 
coverj, he celebrated it by solemn thanks to 
God. The voice of prnyer nnd melody of praise 
rtwe from his ships when they firel beheld the 
New Woi'ld, ond his first action on landing was 
to prostrate himself upon the earth, and return 
ihankagivingB. Every evening the Salve Retina, 
and other vesper hymns, were chanted by the 
crew, and masses were performed in the beauti- 
ful groves bordering the wild shores of Uiis hen- 
then land. All his great enterprises were under- 
taken in the name of the Holy Trinity, atid lie 
partook of the commuiiion previoua to embarkar 
tion. He wna a firm believer in the efficacy 
of vows and penances aud pilgrimages, and re- 
sorted lo them in titnes of difficulty and danger. 
The religion thus deeply seated in his soul dif- 
fused a sober dignity and benign composure over 
his whole demeanor. His language was pure 
and guarded, and free from all imprecations, oalliB, 
and other irreverent expressions. 

It cannot be denied, however, tiiat hia piety 
was miiJgled with superstition, and darkened 
by the bigotry of the age. He evidently con- 
curred ui the opinion, that all nations whiuh 
did not ackuowledge the Christian faith were 
destitute of natural rights ; that the sternest 
measurea might be used for their conversion, 
and the severest punishment inflicted upon their 
obstinacy in unbelief. In this spirit of bigotry 
he considered himself juslilied id making cap- 


his rich mid varied cliartietcr ; thnt nrdent aud ea- 
thueioBlic imngiDalion wliicli ihrew ii niHgiiifioeace 
over his whole coarse of thought. Herrera inti- 
inatea that he had a laleut for poetry, and some 
sliglit traces of it are on reconl in the book of 
prophecieH which he preseoted to the Catholic sov- 
ereigns. But bis poetical temperameat is diso^ra- 
ible through all his writiogs oud in all his ac- 
tions. It spread a golden and glorious world 
around him, aud tinged everything with its own 
gorgeous colors. It betrayed htm into vtsionnry 
Bpeculationa, which subjected him lo the sneers 
and cavilitigs of men of cooler and safer, btit 
more groveling minds. Such were the conjeo- 
tures formed on the coaf<C of Faria about the form 
of llie eai'tli, and the situation of the terreslrial 
Paradise; about the mines of Ophir in Hispoiiiola 
aud the Aurea Chersonesus in Vcragua ; aud such 
was the heroic scheme of a crusade for the recov- 
ery of the boly sepulchre. It mingled willi his 
religion, and filled his mind with solemn and vis- 
ionary meditations on mystic passages of the 
Scriptures, and the shadowy portents of the 
prophecies. It exalted his office in hia eyes, and 
made hitn conceive himself an agent sent forth 
upon a sublime and awful mission, subject to im< 
pulses and supernalural intimations from the De- 
ity, — such OS the voice which he imagined spoke 
lo him in comfort amidst the troubles of Hispani- 
ola, and in the silence of the night on the disas- 
trous eoost of Veragua. 

He WHS decidedly a visionary, but a visionary 
of HU uncommon and successful kind. The man- 



hare broken upon his mind, could he have known 
that he hail iiidend discovered a new continent, 
equal to llie whole of the Old World in magni- 
tude, and sepiirittetl by two vast oceans from all 
the earth hitherio known by civilized man ! And 
how woiilil liiA magnanimous apirit have been 
coriBoled, amidst the afflictioua of age and the 
cares of penury, the neglect of a fickle public, 
and the injuBtice of an ungrateful king, could 
he have anticipated the splendid empires which 
were to spread over the beautiful world he had 
discovered ; and the nations, and tongues, and 
languages which were to till ila lands with his 
renown, and revere and bless his name to the 
latest posterity I